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Since, the advent of the British rule and the peace and pro 
hat has followed' in its train, India has witnessed a glorious reviv 
';? het* 'ancient literature, in which is embodied some of the highe 
»iosfjphif;s.;|ind religions of the world. Among the various blessinj 
hich ouf*'l|ienign Government has conferred upon us, none can I 
'eatei in value or usefulness than this revival of Sanskrit. Our schoo 
id colleges are annually turning out hundreds, nay thousands of scholar 
tio have entered upon the study of Sanskrit literature, and have thi 
arnt to .ifipreciate the beauties of this language. Very few of then 
)wevel-, have the opportunity of studying the language, with that depth an 
Incss, as it was and is mastered by the Pandits of the old school. To pn 
:rly understand Sanskrit language, and especially that portion of it in whic 
locked ujj the highest aspirations of the ancient Aryan hearts vis., th 
■da<s, tht Brahmanas, the Upanishads &c. it is absolutely necessary to hav 
lomplete knowledge of the Grammar elaborated by Panini. The Grammar i 
ilconed as one of the VedArtgas, or the helps to the study of the Vedas ; an 
'■'■'' yti^liit-J'^n ably one of the most important of the Vedaiigas. The fou 
I'sfttd i ?fas of Panini contain within themselves almost all that a studen 
t {iiij' :.j enable him to understand the language of the Vedas. 
,T^?' ojily is this excellent treatise of Pdnini necessary for those wh^ 
'\i .;?<^>..s^f learning the ancient Sanskrit literature, but a knowledge c 
sftjfe^aj, necessary for understanding the modern Sanskrit, v.'hich i 
»deItelN|ra the rules laid down by that great Grammarian, whose aphorism: 
' b'einjf'cionstantly quoted in all Vedic commentaries, and classical author 
J law bookg. 

Fiirther, as a master-piece of close reasoning and artistic arrangement 
t'Ught to object of study with every one who wants to cultivate hi: 
c!iectu#^^ers. In fact what the Geometry" of Euclid Tias tlone toward: 
|elopment of the western intellect, the Ashtadhy&yl of PAnin 
same purpose in India. No one who has studied this boof 
|om praising it. It has evoked admiration even from the Sans 
\ the west. Professor Max Miiller thus gives his opinion abou 
Ihis excellent Sanskrit Grammar : — " The Grammatical systeir 
I native Grammarians, is in itself most perfect, and those whc 
inini's work will readily admit, that there is no Grammar in any 
I could vie with the wonderful mechanism of his eight books ol 

le of these sfitras is studiedly brief, but then this brevity is its 

lendation. That, which appears to many obscurity and ambi- 

Iras, vanishes before the clear and exhaustive explanations ol 

{ il ) 

the cc((iynentators ; aitd shows the extreme skill and wonderful ingenuity of 

the author of these aphorisms. These sutras, therefore, which though at first 

sight may appear difficult and repulsive, if once mastered, will enable a 

student to know and remember more of the Sanskrit Grammar, than he can 

ever learn through other methods, with twice that labour. Unfortunately, 

however, for our college and school students, and also for that vast majority 

of our English reading countrymen, whose number is daily on the increase, 

and who depend for their knowledge of what is contained in Sanskrit books, 

on English translation of Sanskrit authors, no translation of this important 

work exists in English. To supply this want, I have undertaken to translate 

P4nini's aphorisms, as explained by the Commentators JayAditya and Vftmana 

in their well-known book, called KasikA vritti and issue one chapter every 

month. Though, it is not a close translation of the whole of KasikA, 

it may be regarded as a free rendering of the most important portions of that 

book. I have closely followed on the foot-steps of those authors, translating their 

commentary, explaining it where necessary ; and in short, making my work 

a help to the student, desirous of studying the KAsika in the original. 

The translation of Sanskrit texts, especially those like Ka«ika, is 
always beset with great difficulties, even for the masters of Sanskrit learning. 
For a beginner, like the present translator, those difficulties were many 
and great, and I am fully conscious that here and there, I may have 
failed to grasp the full drift of the arguments of the authors of Kaiik^. But 
on the whole, I have spared no pains to render this work as free from errors 
as lay in my humble power. I shall feel much obliged to those gentlemen, who 
will be good enough to point out any errors, or suggest any improvements, so 
that I may be benefited by their advice. 

I must here acknowledge the great assistance I have derived from the 
well-known translation of Laghu Kaumudt by Dr. Ballantyne ; Mr. lengar's 
Guide to Panini ; Professor Ajjte's Sanskrit Composition as well as from Dr. 
Kielhorn's Paribliashendu^ekhara. I have freely quoted from these authors and 
absorbed their rendering into my own, without distinguishing them by marks 
of quotation. 

When I first undertook the translation of Panini, I had thought that 
the work when completed, will not occupy more than 1200 pages. But from 
the present sample it will be seen, that that estimate was far below the mark. 
The- complete translation, together with th^ Introduction, Glossary and Ihe 
Indices, which I intend to add, will take up nearly double as much space i.e., 
nearly 2000 pages or more. I have, however, kept the price of the book the 
same,' namely, Rs. 14 (payable by two instalments), for subscribers, who have 
already |ot their names registered, or who will do so within the 31st Januai 
1892, and Rs. 20 for non-subscribers. 

14M NQvember, 1891. SRIsA CHANDRA VASU 





Salutation to the Supreme Spirit 
iS'ow an explanation of words. 

rm *nT "now" in the slitra indicates a commencement, and points ' 
ertation^is to be offered on the science of words, viz. .Graipmar 
The term < u*; ! tim<t means explanation of any system. This 
Atra, and introduces the subject. 

horism or sfttra is of six kinds, ^flT or ' a definition,' iftmMT or Ae 
etation,\ Rrf^ or 'the statement of a general rule,' PtiWW, ' a 
' ^tf^iifcH or ' a head or governing rule, which exerts a direct- 
ing influence over other rules,' and ^ffil^ or 'extended 

The Pf^tyahara Sfttras. 

^ lS|j& above fourteen aphorisms contaii^'i^e arrangement of SaiMiE|{|; 
ph$|[^ TOMgrammatical purposes. The anusvJra and the visarga, thtf 
avi-iij*^^ gnd the upadh miniya are not contained in the above list 
he; ^njtll.^ir i^ the consonants f , if &c., is merely for the sake of artictilition. 
be fiSM3,SVf|), consonants in the several aphori'jms as <T, i^>„^§K., are aah' 
The smnVTT is a grammatical symbol or abbftEviation and i&> 
$g any letter which is not a non-efficient letter (^ }Qiiling it witlt>. 
^t letter that follows it This gives a name w!iich stands for the' 
'^■XK^f^HHsient letter and for all the other letters Intervening between it and 
pt letier. Thus ^ij^ means all the vowels.^f^ means all the con*' 
3S all soft unaspira^e consonants, ^ means all hard unaspiMfe' ; 
jumerous prat^jhifas could be formed, practically % 


the doubt, whether the pratyaharas Hf^ and ^ when they are employed in 
Pftnini's Grammar are formed with the ^ of the former or with the «[ of the 
latter sAtra, and one might, on that account, consider it impossible to ascertain 
what Pftnini intended to denote by VS. and f •[ when he employed these 
terms. To remove this doubt there is the following paribhish^ :— 

" The precise meaning of an ambiguous term is ascertained from in- 
terpretation, for a rule, even tliough it contain an ambiguous term, mustnever- 
the less teach something definite." 

Accordingly we learn from interpretation that the term %r\ except 
in Sutra I. i. 69, is formed by means of the <^ of the first sAtra and that 
the term f^ is formed by means of the >^ of the subsequent sfltra. 


Chapter First. 

^t%TT^ I1 1 1I rr^ II ?!%:, amvH" 

fftr: II iftum: 'l«l«5n R'^ft^ >J<^*Hl|'«tf ^'3fRt*tl*il»-5'i fl*lRlfllHI»lflll* 


1. ^rr, ^ and ^ are called vnddhi. 

This defines the word vriddhi. The letters iift, § and ^ft are vriddhi 
letters. The sAtra consists of three words vriddhi , it and aich. %m 
means the long ^, the final ^ being indicatory only, and is for the sake of 
the pratyd,lidra aich, and the pratydhdra ^ means the letters ^ 'and ^qft . 

The indicatory ?^ in «Tn^ serves the purpose of showing that the very 
form ijr having two mAtris or prosodial measure, is to be taken. This W also 
joins with the succeeding vowels ^ and ff^bythe rule of ?rrr(1. 1.70) or that 
" which precedes or succeeds ^," and indicates that these vowels must be taken 
as having twomatrSs only, though they maybe the result of the combination of 
vowels whose aggregate mfttrds may be more than two. A short vowel has one 
mltra, a long vowel has two, and a consonant has half a m&tri. Thus by a 
rule of a^^ or euphonic conjunction of letters in'+^= W. as *Tfr+^inTnir=' 
HflV^!- Here fT has two mfttrds and not four. So also in w|i^: the vowel 
i^ the resultant of VT+k has only two, not four, matrds. " , ., 

Thus the initial vowels in the following secondary derivative nouns 
arevriddhi forms of their primitive vowels. %(r^- "bodily", from «TnF; 'body' 
^f^wjr^i; Optional", fr^ rifrr'' option ';*.||sBwM^.tbe son of Upagu", from the 
*ir|^:ine»ni%" a sage called Upagu,". Simila^ in ^ireft^: "belonging to 
hr«i-iAi.riik-» |j njtJica!, and is alio called 'i^iddhi. The word vriddhi 
t^ iifflWatiMllib-. i i te B aiaw't l Mlt i i (Vrt g. l.).*'^t the final ^ of the 


*ii*«m|«i 4'iif^(iiw«if r> 

r radical or seconduy 




(nMiWMTtner > .^ 


4. GUNA Vriddhi Paribhasha [Bk. I. Ch. I. §. 3 

moves"; ^ " he comes ", ^rNn% " he goes." Here the initial vowels of the 
roots gr, f, and ^ have been respectively gunated into %i^, ij, and «ft before 
the thirdjpersonjsingular termination Pf. 

The term Guna occurs in sfttras like ^tl'^ (VII. 3. 83). " Let there 
be guna substitute for the ik of the root pt^ "to melt." ' 

Tf^: II iRl'JUJl ^^^RRT (WTT 5"^ ^) Rl^^lHIUJII^* CT Wr% ^%«^ II 

3. In the absence of any special rule, when- 
ever guna or vriddhi is enjoined about any expression by 
using the terms guna or v»iddhi, it is to be understood 
to come in the room of the ik vowels only (i, u, n, and 
li long and short,) of that expression. 

This is a paribhftshft sfttra, and is useful in determining the original 
.letters, in the place of which the substitute guna and vriddhi letters will 
come. The present rule will apply where there is the specification of no 
other particular rule. • 

ThussiitraVll. 3.84 declares: — "whenas&rvadhHtukaoranirdhadhA- 
tuka affix follows there is guna of the base." Here the sth4ni or the original 
■expression which is to be gunated, is not specified, and to complete the sense, 
the- word "ika^" must be read into the sfitra. The rule then being, 
" when a S. or an A. affix follows there is guna of the ik vowels of the base." 
The guna of f or t is?; of » or ^, is ^, of ^or^is «]r^ , ofjjis 
ip^ ; and their Vrddhi is |, ^, %(l%^ and *rr?|[ respectively. Thus sft+^rfH" 
%-fin%='rafir "he leads." 

Therefore, wherever in any rule in this Grammar, guna or vj-iddhi is 
ordained by employing the terms guna orvriddhij there the word "ika^'in 
the genitive case, meaning " in the place of ik", is to be supplied to complete 
the sense. 

The word 'ik' is thus understood in the following rules, and is there 
qualified by the term 11^ or' base' :-Pl^: (VII. 3. 82) f*ift[: (VII. a. 
ii4)j»Is«Rrf^ &c.,(Vn.3.86);5R™B[«^(yiI, 4-") 'RTlfriftrilor: (VII' 
4.16) ^^fTfT &c., (VI. 4. 156)- 

In the following sfitras, the term 'ik' is understood and qualifies the 
word.inga or base, ^ n (VII. 3, ^83), ^^vg^^fl^rmfK*: (VII. 3, ■84). 


These sAtras will be explained in their proper places. 
Theword 'ik 'has been used in the sAtra to «how that thelwigW,?!!"' 
jtbf diphthongs ist^ f?( or the consonanta; at« not io tok* guna «^dab» br^' 

Bk. I/Ch.I. §.V ] Exception TO GuNA AND Vi^iDDHi. 6, 

rule, as in the following examples JfTT^ "a carriage", 'wTRft' "he feels aversion," 
jrftemr " confined." 

Here Miflt^ is formed by adding the affix ftr, third person singular ter- 
mination, with the class aaffix?n[, to the root »^;as ^#-f-^g + fi^^=»^+^f+ 
^ At this stage, rule VII. 3. 84, would require theguna substitution of the vowel 
jf the base before the sS.rvadhatuka termination ^; the guna substitute of 
^ beings, there would be »^+iri%-»5rr?rftr. But this is wrong, the letter 
T being not included in the pratyfthAra ilc, is not affected by rule VII. 3. 84, 
ind there is no guna substitution in this case. Similarly there is no change in 
:he long faTT of ^!l^. Thus ?IT + ?w^ (HI. 3. ii5)=jir^(VII. 1. i). Here had 
:here been guna by Rule VII. 3. 84, the ^rT of '^i would havebeen changed into 
t(, and the form would have been ^PT"^ which is wrong. But it is not so, as ^ 
s not an f^ vowel. So also g*'^ + fTT =• T^'PIT. Here, there is no guna 
iubstitution in the place of the consonant >J . 

The repetition of the words guna and vriddhi in this s6tra, 
though by sff j^fr T or the supplying of a word from the previous sfitra, 
hese words followed from the two preceding sutras) is for the 
)urpose of indicatiifg that, this is a restrictive rule applicable only there, 
fhere guna or vriddhi has been ordained by the employment of the words 
'una or vriddhi. Therefore, it is not so in the following cases : — «ft: "sky", 
5ijf: " way" fi: " he," fT^ " this." «ft: is the nominative singular of the base f^. 
t is formed by rule VII. 1 . 84, which declares that " in the nominative singular 
he letter ^ takes the place of f^." Here the letter ^ is no doubt a vrid- 
hi letter but as this substitution is not enjoined by the enunciation of the 
erm vriddhi, *ft does not take the place of the vowel f of ^ , but it replaces 
he final ». thus Rr + ^+^=lfr:. 

Similarly rule VII. i. 85, declares that of the word.3f5iS[, Vt is the 
ubstitute. The ifT is a vriddhi letter no doubt, but not being enunciated by 
le term vriddhi, it takes the place of n[ of >rf^ and not of f. Thus we have 
SW:, the 7 being added by VII. i. 87. 

Similarly ?r: from fTf, which is formed by VII. 3. 102 "shorty 
i the substitute of tyad, &c.," Here ^ takes the place of f . Thus we have 
■, which is chaijged again into w by VII. 3. 106. 

«n5'«n5%, ( jnnift ) « 

4. The Guna and vriddlii .substitutions, whicli 
^*ibfip||M-yr^d, have presented;: themselves, do not 

6. Exception to Guna and Vriddhi. [Bk.° I. Ca I. § 4. 

take place, when such an Urdhadh^tuka (III. 4. 114) 
affix follows, which causes a portion of the root to b6 

This is an exception to sfltra 3. By that sfltra iks were to be 
gunated or vriddhied and by sfttra VII. 3. 84, the root is to be gunated 
before all irdhadhituka terminations. All primary affixes, that are applied 
directly to roots in Sanskrit, are divided into two broad classes, called sirva- 
dhituka and irdhadh^tuka. The affixes marked with an indicatory ^r ( called 
fir^ ), and the conjugational affixes, such as f^ , ?r: &c., ( called fit^ ) are 
sftrvadh&tuka ; all other affixes are called irdhadhituka. 

Though by the general rule, VII. 3. 84, the root is to be gunated before 
4rdhadh&tuka terminations, yet it is not to be so, before those affixes which 
cause the sfiT 'lopping off or ellipses' of a portion or a member of the original 
dh&tu Thus the termination ??nPT is a first person singular termination of 
the future tense ( sj^ ) and is an irdhadhituka termination; when this is 
added to root ^ 'to excel' the f of fir becomes gunated and we have Itv^ifir 
"I shall or will excel." But in those cases where there is a lopa of the member 
of a root form, caused by an affix, there is no gunation. Thus in sflgr: "a great 
cutter," the original root is 5J_"to cut" which forms the Intensive verb 5^OT. 
In forming the noun of agency from the verb sjtsjji, an 4rdhadh4tuka suffix 
H^ III. I. 134, is added. Thus ^t^ + «r^. At this stage, by force 
ofsAtrall. 4. 74. which declares that "before the affix ^T^ (HI. i. 134) 
the ^ of the Intensive verb must be suppressed," the ya is dropped and we 
have 5ft55.+ir. Here by the general rule VII. 3. 84, the final ^ would have 
l>een gunated. But by virtue of the present sfitra, no guna t^kes place, be- 
Muse here on account of the 4rdhadhkuka affix «r^, a portion of the root, 
namel y, ^, fcaabeen elided ;*therefore no guna takes place. Thus we have 
ti)n^ "a great cutter." 

The word »frj "root" has been used in the sfttra, in order to indicate 
that the exception does not apply where there is an elision of an anubandha 
sr of an affix. As in 5r^+|tjr=5ft+riT-5rftm. Here the indicatoiy letter 
^ has been elided, but that does not prevent gunation. Similarly in t% 
iie affix fr^ is added to the root^ "to injure." Thus ftf +ft^ (III. a. 75.) 
-ft^+^<I. 3-3. and 3.)- ftw+, (VI. i. 67.) Her« theaffix ^[ is elided, but 
levertheless, the guna substitute must teke place in ft^ . Thus we have 
»«^+ • -^ {VII. 3. 86 and 1. 1. 6a) -r^ (VIII. 3. 39). 

The word Ardhadhituka has been used to Indicate that a sArvadhi- 
ttka affix which causes the elisi6n of a portion of a root, doei^ n«t prevai* 
fi9M. or vfiddhi as id ^K<m, (Rk Voda IV. 58. 3) "he m»- meh." f **? 
*immi 1. ?^. «W*j(n-fe+ft4J«. 4. 24^. |iii»vtfc«fi^iiffift*' 


Jk. I. Ch. I. §.• 5. ] Exceptions to Guna and VridDhi 7- 

iflix (It? causes the elision of w, a portion of the root. The guna substitution 
lowever takes place, and we have Kt^t+f+fit (VII. 3. 94)- ^)t«(?I%, the 
ugment |^ being added by sAtra VII. 3. 94. 

The word "ikah" of the previous sfitra is understood in this sfitra al?o. 
The ik letters only are not gunated or vriddhied before such ftrdhadhituka 
iffixes; the other vowels may do so. Thus in ^PTrf^r the equation is as 
oUows:— fr+H'n5+Pr[=ir+>nr+T (VI. 4. 33). Here the «irdhadh<^tuka affix 
^ has caused a portion of the root >m[, to be suppressed, vie., the letter 1^ 
las been elided. But nevertheless the «r of Hi|; is vriddhied before f^ 
jecause «T is not included in the praty&hAra ik ; and the exception contained 
nthe present sMra only applies to the ik letters. So alsor»^+«r^(ni. 
3.18) «r5l+^ (VI. 4- 27.) 'Km: (VII. 2. 1 16. and VII. 3. 52). 

1^11 f|i%i^'^'TJ!rr^JiT<5n?itT»rTn: II 
5, And that, which otherwise would have caused 
guna or vriddhi, does not do so, when it has an indica- 
tory a^ »? or ^.^ 

Thus the past participle terminations fK and w^ are irdhadhft- 
tuka affixes, which would, by the general rule VII. 3. 84, have caused guna, but 
»s their indicatory letter ?ir is fw, the real terminations being, n and WflJi, they 
do not cause guna. Therefore, when these terminations are added to a root, the 
ik'of the root is not gunated. Thus with the root Pr "to collect" we have 
f^ : or Pirnn^, 1>"^° ^^^>" ^■' 'W^ ; * ; "to fear" >ft»r:, 'ft'WPt . 

Similarly the terminations f*r? ^^TT, fi^ ^TIT^ , ^FSfT, ^K^ , &c-, are 
all BffJ terminations ' the indicatory letters of all being |p,' the real affixes 
being ^, n^i^ , i^^ &c. &c. &c. Before thesp, the root js not gunated. 
Thus we have from sj "to bear" ^, from ft<[ "to pierce" RffRlT • 

The terms ftr^ &c., of this sfttra are in the locative or seventh case. 
The force of this case termination here is that of PtPm or cause, that is the 
guna or vriddhi which would otherwise have been caused, does not take place, 
>{ an affix is ^rq; , fir^, ft^ . Thus all irdhadh&tuka and s&rvadh&tuka affixes 
cause gunation of the /««/ ik oi the inflective base (VII. 3. 84.) Thus the 
SArvadhAtuka a{^x JJ^ ( «r ) in the following :— 

1 + ^ +f^ - sft+fr + ft-'Wfll' "he is." Similarly sArvadhituka 

3nd ftrdhadhituka affixes cause the guna substitution of the short penifltu 

"«^' »'* of the ioflecUve base (VII 3. 85.) Thus f^ + JtT^ + fi^: -<NRr. 

I The general force of the locative case in an aphorism is to cause the 

L&t''^*"* '^iwcted, on the expressioa imme^iafely preceding it (I. I. 

*Mi 4( a«f||BS?e ^ ihe !o^w a»e1n Hkt present JAtra were also that as 

8. . Exception to Guna.and Vriddhi. [Bk. I. Oh; I. §. 5. 

explained in I. i. 66, then the interpretation would be this :— An affix having ai 
indicatory k, g or n, would not cause the guna substitution of the vowel ik 
immediately preceding it. The case of the penultimate short ik will not b< 
covered by it. Then though the rule may apply to Pr+sRf =^5r: "collected' 
it would not apply to pjf +W; there would be nothing to bar the guna subs 
titution of the penultimate f of Plf . This however is prevented by explaining 
the locative us one of " occasion" and thus Rff + ^sr = f3W: " broken." 

Similarly from the root fir we have a word fspsj : ' victorious/ in whicf 
the affix Trg has an indicatory ^ Thus f5r + *R5 = fjf^ ; "victorious' 
(III. 2. 139), so also wrg : " durable," 

Similarly the affix, ?r3; is a fe^ affix, the real suffix being ^. 
the ^ being merely indicatory. Therefore when ^ is added to a root, there 
is no gunation or vriddhing.. Thus we have from fiff " to know', f^; 

Similarly by I. 2. 4, all s4rvadh^tuka affixes that are not marked 
by an indicatory ^, are treated asf^. Thus the second person singular termi- 
nation ?rw is fl^i , and we have f%5?r : " they two collect," similarly f^>j(p<(, 
"they collect," 1^ + SRT = ^ : "cleansed," fsf^ "they cleanse." 

The phrase "when indicated by the term ik" is understood in this sUtra. 
The prohibition, therefore, applies lo ik vowels only, and not to all vowels 
in general. Thus by III. i. 30, the root ^" to desire" takes the affix 
ffir^; of this affix the letters'^ and ? arc indicatory, the real affix is f. 
The force of "^ is to cause vriddhi (VII. 2. 116). The indicatory ^ does not 
prevent such vriddhi, as the letter ^ofsff^is not included in ik. Thus we 
have SI5TR+ 9nr = ^r^ + '!I%=5(iT'Rr^ "he desires." 

According to the wish of the author of the Mahabhdshya, the vert 
^optionally takes vriddhi, before kit or A(V affixes beginning with a vowel 
As Tft-^nr^or. l»R'*HSJf?fi " they rub." Here in this sfttra there is prohibitiot 
of the guna of the short penultimate ik also. 

The indicatory ^ of the verbal tense affixes i.e., 5T^ , fm^ > ^ t «f^ > 
is an exception to this rule of ^ . This is an inference deduced from 
HI. 4. 104 which declares "when the sense is that of benediction, then the 
augment tn^ of ^^ is as if it were distinguished by an indicatory sir." 
There would have been no necessity of making ^115^ a %^, if ^n^ were a 
ftTi, but the very fact of making if\^ a f^ indicates by implication or is 
irrr^ that the final y of ^ , 50^ &c. does not make these tense affixes 
fr^. Thus in ST^ or Imperfect tense we have 'SlpTTT'^ " he collected" ( «fff? 


Bk. I. Ch. I. § *, 7. ] Sanyoqa defined. 

6. Theguna and vriddhi substitutions, which 
would otherwise have presented themselves, do not 
however come, in the place of the vowels of didhi ' to 
shine,' and vevi ' to go,' and of the augment called ft • 

The roots ifMt and ^ never take the guna or vriddhi substitutions 
underordinary circumstances. Thus the affix cft^ generally causes vriddhi subs- 
titution when added to any root ; and so the affix pj^ causes guna. But these 
affixes when applied to the verbs dtdhi and vevi, never cause vriddhi or 
guna substitution. As ^n^tvft' + <j^ = ^S(r%^ + ^i^iVII. i. i) = 'tui41t.i|<* : 

(Vi. 1. 77). So also «rr^ + ^^ = ^rrtW + ?pt (vii. 1. 1) = ^j^ipn^. 

Similarly from ^^ we have ^rrt^^T^ and 5n%s^^: • In the Vedas, however, 
these verbs take guna. Thus ?i#^ (Rig Ved. X. 98. 7), and?r^w:(Rig 
Ved. V. 40. 5). These two verbs are confined generally to the Vedic 
literature, and the present rule therefore, seems to be an unnecessary 
prohibition ; as they take guna in spite of such prohibition. 

Of the augment j^ the real affix is f. In the general tenses, it is 
added to certain terqiinations beginning with consonants of the «r«^ class, i.e., 
all consonants except ^ (VII. 2. 35). Thus the future termination, first 
person, singular is wirf^r ; this when added to the root "^ " to move" requires 
m intermediate f, and thus we have the form "^fr^^m^ , ' I shall walk.' This f 
snever gunated or vriddhied, though according to the general rule, coming 
before an Ardhadhituka termination, it ought to have been gunated. 

The augment f^ , could under no circumstances have taken vriddhi, 
he prohibition therefore, is in the case of the guna substitute of f=[ . 

f^TXsnrTU: '^^TT: II 311 ^f^n pi:, 3»5Rn:T:, ^"^n: II 

7. Consonants imseparatod by a vowel are 
called conjunct consonants. 

This defines the word sanyoga. The sfitra consists of three words, 

*f', the plural o| the pratyAha,ra fW, denoting all the consonants, ^pTWtT: 

leans "without any separation or space" and tnitrr: which is the 

defined, and means "conjunct consonants." So that the sfltra 

ns, conjunct consonants are those consonants between which there is 

. . ^"""K^^eous separating vowel and which are pronounced jointly, such as 

I m the word fj^.-, ■■ cock." The word " sanyoga" applies to the whole of 

^njunct consonants jointly and not to them separately. The plural 

<■ shows that the conjunction may be of two or more consonants. 

10 ANUNASIKA DEFINED. [Bft. I. CH. I. §. 8. 

Why do we say " consonant "? If two vowels come together they will 
not be called " sanyoga". Thus Rl'H'lM*' " ^ ^'^^^ umbrella," the two vowels %f 
and3 have come together unseparatcd by any consonant; yet they are not 
called sanyoga, otherwise the final 7 would have been rejected by VIII. 2. 
23 " there is elision of the final of that pada which ends in a sanyoga letter ." 
Why do we say " unseparated by a vowel"? If consonants separated by a vowel 
were also called sanyoga, then in the sentence "T^(% l^WiT , the syllable ^ 
would be called sanyoga, and by VIII. 2. 29, the initial « would be 

g^RTftqsm'q^T i5«nf%^: II <■ II ^^ II pr-Hrfti^T- 
JWH:, ST^ft^: II 

ffrT: II S'lsrai?^ •llRl*! *!<?HlRl*l, ^HU ^ ■iwk^ ^: Wf •IfTrr%9fr^?fl' Vfi^ 

8. That which is proiiouaccd by the nose 
along with the mouth is called Anundsika or uasal. 

This defines the word anunAsika. The sutra consists of four words 
JW " mouth" •iii^ciir " nose" q^^: " utterance or pronunciation" and ^jHi Rltft : 
" nasals." Though the words 5% + q | Rl«fc l (II. 4. 2) wilf by the rule of com- 
position form J^tHHiftl* and not J^Rrra^f, yet the latter form might be 
held to be an irregularity ; or the phrase j< i m i » l<* H Tj;t may be regarded 
as a compound of ^<«nii^* + ^n^, the word avachana meaning "partial 
utterance." That is a letter partially uttered by the nose and partially by the 
mouth would be called anunisika. Therefore the nasals are those letters 
which are pronounced from two organs or places, i.e., the mouth and the nose. 
The pure nasal is anusv^ra, while anunasikas are different from this, in as 
much as, that in pronouncing these, the breath passes through the. nose and 
the mouth. . 

The vowels are generally so nasalised. ' If, instead of emitting the 
vowel sound freely through the mouth, we allow the velum pendulum to drop 
and the air to vibrate through the cavities which connect the nose with the 
pharynx, we hear the nasal vowels (anunSsika).' Thus ^, ^. In the Vedas,. 
the particle «rrf is anun4sika. As ^jpn ^f ^17: (Rig Veda. V. 48. i), so also 
>rW^ii^gj?^3i(RigVed. VIII. 67. II). 

The consonants y, sf, tg-, sf and if are also anundsika. Thus y is 
pronounced by the throat along with the nose, sj by the palate and nose, X3 by 
the upper palate and nose ; ;rby the teeth and nose, and 11 by the lip and nose. 

The semi-vowels ?r, H and 5r are also nasalised and are then called 
anunisika. The terra anunisika' is used in sfitra V. 1. 126 &c. 

Why have we used the word "by the mouth"? This definition «'" 
not include anusv^ra or the pure nasal, which is pronounced wholly throug'' 

Bk. I. Ch. I. § 9 ] Savarna letters. 11 

^ ^ ^ • 

the nose. Why have we used the word " by the nose "? In order to exclude 
the consonants m, % z, H, T &c. &c., which are pronounced wholly and solely 
through the mouth. 

9. Those whose place ofntter<ance and eflfort 
are equal are called savarn,a or homogeneous letters. 

This defines the word savarna or a homogeneous letter. The sUtra 
consists of four words : — gr^r " equal or similar," ?iTf^ " mouth or place of 
pronunciation, " JT^RT " effort " and ^^"(^ " words oE the same class." 

The grre?T or places or portions of the mouth by contact with which 
various sounds are formed are chiefly the following:—!. ^(T? "throat" 2.' 
Hi^ ' palate,' 3. ^t . ' head,' 4. ^^V- 'teeth,' 5. ^f^ ' lips,' 6. ^nftrw ' nose.' 

The sm^ or quality or effort is of two sorts primarily, H)|t-<»»«<: "inter- 
nal" and ^nnr: "external." The first is again sub-divided into five parts: — 

1. ?i5TT or complete contact of the organs. The twenty-five letters 
from ^ to JT belong to this class. In pronouncing these there is a complete 
contact of the root of the tongue with the various places, such as throat, 
palate, dome of the palate, teeth and lip.i<<^ 

2. fq??5ST or slight contact. The letters ?r, r, 5T, T belong to this 
class of contacts. " In pronouncing these semi-vowels the two organs, the 
active and passive, which are necessary for the production of all consonantal 
"oises, are not allowed to touch each other, but only to approach." 

3. firfar or complete opening. The vowels belong to this class. 

4. t'Tf^R'f'f or slight opening. The tetters ?T> T.*'5r,'lr belong to 
|uiis class. Some however place the vowels and ?j &c., into one group and call 
^them all vivrita. 

5. w^^or contracted. In actual use, the organ in the enunciation 
of the short «r is contracted but it is considered to be open only, as in the case 
of the other vowels, when the vowel vr is in the state of taking part in some 
operation of grammar. 

The abhyantara prayatna is the mode of articulation preparatory to 
the utterance of the sound, the bahya-prayatna is the mode of articulation 
It the close of the utterance of the sound. 

The division of letters according to flbhyantra prayatna has been 
already given. By that we get, i. the sparsa or mute letters, 2. the 
•ntastha or intermediate between sparsas and ushmans, or semi-vowel or 


Savarna letters. [Bk. I. Ch. I. § 

liquid letters, 3. the svaras or vowels or vivrita letters, 4. the ushmans c 
sibilants or flatus letters. 

The division of letters according to bahya prayatna gives us firs 
surds or aghosha letters, 3. sonants or ghosha letters. The aghosha are alsi 
called svdsa. letters, the ghoshas are called nada letters. 

The second division of letters according to bAhya prayatna is into 

I. Aspirated (mahAprdna). 2. Unaspirated (alpapr4na). 

The vowel ^ has eighteen forms. The acuie ^ (uditta), grave % 
(anudStta) and circumflexed ^ (svarita). Each one of these three maj 
be nasalised (anunisika), or not (niranunSsika). 

Then lastly everyone of these six may be short, long, or prolated 

Thus:-8T, ST, W, sf, ^ It, 9Tr, srr, ^, ^, 4, ^, st}, *r|, ^,\, ^ 

Similarly the letters f, ? and ^ have also eighteen forms. The 
letter 5T has no long form; it has therefore 12 modifications. The diphthongs 
have no short forms, they have therefore, only 12 forms. The antastha or 
semi-vowels with the exception of r have two forms each viz., nasalised and 
un-nasalised. The semi-vowels have no homogeneous letters corresponding 
to them. All letters of a varga or 'class' are homogeneous to each other. 

Thus then the homogeneous or savarna letters must satisfy two condi- 
tions before they could be called savarna. First, their place of pronunciation 
or ^rm must be the same. Secondly their q^ or quality must be 
equal. If one condition be present and the other be absent, there can be no 
savarna-hood. Thus n and ^r are both palatals, their ^m or place of pro- 
nunciation being ^ 'palate,' but still they are not savarna, because their 
!I?W IS different, the u^rt of ^ being sprishta and that of ^r being yivrita. 

Simjlarly ^ and -^ though their rf^ is the same i.e., sprishta, yet th( 
'irrw being different, one being guttural and the other palatal, are not savari 
There is exception to this rule in the case of ^f and ^, which thou 
having different snr^ are still called savarna by virtue of the vJrttika 
K4ty4yana; "the homogeneousness of ^ and 5, one with another, shoi 
be stated" Thus?rT+!5^:= ^^.. . here ^ and gr have coalesced in 
long qf by rules of sandhi, on the assumption that they are savarna letters. 
The word savarna occurs in sfitras like?r^.- ^rriS ^ • (VI. t. 10 
Why do we say "the place of pronunciation"? So that there m: 
not be homogeneous relationship between ^^ and 7 whose prayatna is i 
same but whose Asya is different. What is the harm if we make them savam 
Then m words like f^t and %.the «r would be elided, if it be held horn 
geneouswith,, by VIII. 4. 65, "there is optional elision of |rr, prece* 
by a consonant, when a homogeneous ^ follows. " 

Bk. I.Ch. I. § JO, II J • Pragrihva defined, 13 

^ > 

Why do we say " effort" ? That there may be no homogeneity between 
f and the palatals, and ^ and 3j, whose organ of pronunciation is the same, 
but whose prayatna is different. What harm if it be so ? Then in ^*j4>A{*fll- 
Ijpr, the XI would be elided before ^ by the rule already referred to, VIII. 4. 65. 

i|j/^ ^rm w^ u 10 H TR[Tf^ II H , ar^f^T, ( ^?ixim ) ii 
fi%: 'I f??rr??T snraTTfr ^rs^r*?!' Trm ^t^tSiitT i t t^^t: h 

10. There is however no homogeneity between 
vowels and consonants, thongh their place and effort be 

This siitra lays down an exception to the former sutra. There can 
be no homogeneity or savaraa relationship between vowels and consonants, 
though their srr?^ and JTRT may be the same. Thus f and 37 have the same 
^fR?r namely JTT^ 'palate,' and the same ir«Rr : namely vivrita, but still they 
are not to be called sai'arna. Thus in ^w^Sf^fT, ?l'«ro??r5f &c., the letters ?r and f 
in the first example, and f and ?j in the second not being homogeneous 
letters ; there is no combination or sandhi, which would otherwise have 
taken place. , 

Similarly if ^and f be held homogeneous, then f^TRJ + T^ (IV. 3. 
53)-ftTI^+'3r^(VI. 4. 148 jherescrwouldbeelidedbyVI. 4. 148, but it is not so 
and we have ^tlV ■ " belonging to vipAsA or born therein." So also in ^nTJf 
"px-skin," the f would have been omitted, if held homogeneous with ^. 

^^^^ , ^^W^^ II 

ff^: II t?^ g;rr ir^ ifn^H'n firr^ ^rsf^TT Jnjw ^ >T^% II 

11. A dttal case affix ending in I fivjs or ^ is 
called Pragrihya, or excepted vowels which do not ad- 
mit of sandhi or conjunction. 

As a general rule, .Sanskrit allows of no hiatus in a sentence. If a 
word ends in a vowel, and the next word begins with a vowel, the two vowels 
coalesce, according to certain rules. This is called sandhi. But pragrihyas 
are exceptions to this sandhi, "they are certain terminations, the final vowels 
of which are not liable to any sandhi rules." (VI. i. 125). This sdtra gives 
three of these terminations, viz., the duals of nouns or verbs ending in f^ 
(t'5),9» (3f^), orsr (5^). Thus:— grrr !»?)■ "these two poets," so also 
^1 fRr" two winds;" in^|T%" these two garlands." iT^^f|%"they two 
cook" ^%^fi% "you two cook." Here according to the general rule of 
«andhi, the final f of !»rift and the initial f of pft ought to have coalesced into 
t, but it is not so, because ^nit is the nominative dual of qrft-. 

PnAcmvA. [BK. I.'CH. I. $ u, rj. 


an, othe. v o'wel this rule will not apply. As ^> . ^.:^\ ^^ ^i 
trees" (VI. .. 78). Of course it follows from the definition, that t ^, or 5 
lie dual number only are pragnhya ; if these vowels terminate any other num- 
ber they will not be pragrihya but will follow the general rule of sandh., as 
anrrfr(i.s.) + ^ = fHI^."thegirIishere"(VI. I. 77)- 

VM: The prohibition of ^i^^ &c., should be stated in treating of the 
pragrihya nature of f, 3r &c. Thus .pft {two gems) + r^ = T'fr^ " like two 
gems." So also f^r^ " like a couple," im^ " like man and wife," riT^f 
" like heaven and earth." Some say that this vartika is unneccessary. Because 
the final member of the above words is notfT, but the particle ^ only ; which 
has the same meaning as iva. 

3I?[%mT^ II %^ II '(T^f^ II 3T^t, TT^. { ff ^ mWl )» 

12. (The same letters) after tdie^of the pro- 
noun 'fm, are Pragrihya. 

In the pronoun ?if^ , the dual termination in f, ^T or ?: will be pra- 
grihya by force of the last sutra, but the present sfltra makes this addition, 
that in the case of m^, all terminations ending in t, ^T or 5 and preceded by 
IT, of whatever numher they may be, will be pragrihya. As a matter of fact, 
there are only two such terminations satisfying the above conditions name- 
ly «pitand^. The rule may therefore be put in the following words of 
Dr. Max Mullen^' The terminations of^f^and^nom. plur. masc. andnom. 
dual of the pronoun ?I^^ are pragrihya." As grift T9r : " Those horses," 
and ^r^^TRl^. There is no example of the word adas ending in ^. 

Why do we say " of the word adas" ? The letters f, 3r, ^ following 
after the \ of any other word will not be pragrihya. As ?r'ft + VT *" ^F" 
"this sami tree." 

Why do we say "after the letter »r" ? Because in the example «r3^ 
+<jpr = V5# i T, "those here," the f , preceded not by >r but by the m of ^f^ 
{V. 3. 71) is not pragrihya, which it would have been by the influence oi 
sfttra II, which includes 5 as well as I" and 3r, and from which the word dual 
is not supplied here, else this rule would be useless. 

^\\%\\\ TT^ii^r , ( wj^) n 

ff%: n $ f^!^ ^<\mA H^t% 'I 

13. The affix ?r, (the Vedic substitute of the 
case-affixes), is a pragnhya. 

In the Vedic Sanskrit, the declesion of nouns sometimes differs some- 
what from the ordinary Sanskrit. One of the peculiar Vedic terminations, whicii 

Bk. I. Ch. I. § /4-J Pragrihva. , JS 

replace the ordinary declensional terminations is called ^ (VII. i. 39.) 

Thus SJ^rwrfPTift . 

Of this substitute f> the initial ?r is indicatory, the real suffix being 5. 
This final 5 is a pragrihya. 

In the sacred literature there is only one example of this pragrihya, 
IS given above ; while in imitation of this, we have in secular writing phrases 
IS, ftffflr, f^ Cf^, ^ f^ &c. 

1%m?T q^iTsrsTTi^ I1 1« It ^ifir ii i^mm , ^v(\, 

ff^: II ^^rvrw^^ ^^f>f% f^rmt v ^m^ww?^'- ^ TTurwifr h^ 11 
14. A particle I. 4. 5G consisting of a single 
iTowel, with the excejition of the particle ^srv^ is a Pra- 

This sfttra consists of three words: — f^PTT^T: " particle," ^ofrr^ "con- 
ieting of one vowel ," ^pTH^ " with the exception of ?rn^." 

All such particles technically called nipdta (I. 4. 56) which con- 
ist of a simple vowel without any consonant, are pragrihya and therefore are 
lOt liable to the rules of sandhi. As f fx- "Oh, Indra" T ^IrrS" " O arise." 

It follows from the above definition that those nipAtas which consist 
f two or more letters, vowel and consonant, are not pragrihya, e. g. 17 in ITPH^ 

V(T^ which is not a pragrihya, has four significations: — As a 
iminutive particle when joined to adjectives and nouns, as ^+ 3«i!X>r 
= SsfJ^CTT "little hot, tepid" (2) as a prefix to verbs, it expresses the senses of 
near" "nearto," and with verbs of "motion," "taking" &c., it shows the reverse 
fthe action, as »r^'togo,' ?rnPT ;tocome;'?r+fl?=^,(3)as showing the limit 
iceptive (^|%f^) "from," " ever since," as ^rnFJpr: " ever since his birth," 
as showing the limit exclusive (f^^), "till" "until" as ^H-^^rajfrw- 
mi^m^, "until the reading begins." When the particle ^tjrhas not any one of 
le above four senses and is used in expressing regret &c., it is a pragrihya, as 
rr^f^iwTRfl^ "Ah! such there once was," vrt Ki 1??!%. "Oh! do you 
link so." 

The word ^^njr in this aphorism has a peculiar meaning. It means 
consisting of one vowel and nothing else." In other words, the vowels them- 
elves when used as ^nm, e. g. SJT, ^, f &c. But the term ^jrtw has a wider 
'gnification than that given to it in this sfttra. It means "a word or a portion 
a word consisting of one vowel which can be pronounced at once" — in 
'Uier words ^^rr^ means a "syllable." In that sense the words jt, f%, rt &c., 
" ' *'*** ^« iWTf, but not so here. Therefore the rule of sandhi will apply 


PRAGRIHVA. [BK. I. CH. I. § 15 TO .8. 

-^;;,;;;;;;;j,;;7^^ Seesi^traVI. .. .where the word ^ means 

' '"""tvdo we say " a nipataP" Because if the single vowel is not a par 
tide, but something else, an affix &c., then it will not be a pragr.hya as he final 
^in wr "he did," is the affix of third person perfect tense, and is hable to 
sandhi ; as iN^KfT. 

arm II ?H II "^ " ^X' ( '"l^) " 

15. The linal ?fr of a particle is a pragrihya. 

This siltra consists of one word ^X ^^"^ fi"^' '^ '" * surplusage. T he 
words "pragrihya" and " nip4ta" are to be supplied from the preceding sfitr^ 
to complete ihe sense. The meaning is that those particles which end in ^ 
though consisting of several letters, are pragrihya. As m^ ^^ " Halloo, go 

ff%:ii?r»f^ f%ft^ ?r 'jfmvrt: ?r itrRTF^Jw^r^ i^ 'PIf ^ h^. 

16. The final €r of the vocative singular (II. 3. 
49) before the word fT% according to -Sakalya, in secular 
or non-vedic literature, is prag^-ihya. 

This stttra gives the opinion of the i?ishi 5akalya, so that it is an 
optional rule. Thus both forms ^mWt (formed according to the general 
rule of sandhi) and TpfT^?! (where ^{ is pragrihya) are correct. 

In S'lSha literature the sandhi is imperative, not optional, as ?TtT "H 

The mention of the name of any sage, such as that of iUkalya in this sfltra, serves genetallj 
one ofthe two purposes :-(i)ehher it makes the rule an optional one, vibhSshattham, or (2) the 
mention is merely for the sake of showing respect to the particular sage, the rule would have stoo 
M well without such mention j pujartham, as the word Kisyapa in sfltra I. 2. 25. 

ff^: II 73i: siwur girr i#r t^ ^ii<*i^flwm^t<i i^ n 

17. The particle tw before tit, according to 
S4l:alya is a Pragnhya. 

This sAtra consists of the single word ^ meaning » . According 
to the same/?ishi 6'4kalya,3T^ is a pragrihya, before %fit, in modern Sansknt' 
This is also an optional rule. Thus 5 ff^ or R^. 

Bk. I. Ch. I. § »8, 19. ] Pragrihya. 17 

"^ I1 16 II tj^ifif H iK , ( ani5?flrtf, ^9r: , trpjj't ) ii 

18. The particle ^ replaces ^^ in non-vedic 
iterature, and it is a pragriliya in the opinion of iSakalya. 

Before the word fi% the word Ts^ is replaced sometimes by g^ the 
Dng nasal u. Thus ^ + yrW = ^ fr% or {^. 

In some authorities the sutras 17 and 18 form but one sfitra, and then it 
s divided by the method of yoga-vibkdga, the division of a single stttra into 
wo separate sutras having two distinct rules. 

^T ^ ¥^4i(itf II %\ 11 tr^lfsT II t?-^, % ^P'ft-^T^ II 

ffrT ■• II ll'<1^*'*IAd fl*? ^ +IH*«l«j' ^^fPf H'JW*lji H^ M 

19. TJie final rand 37 of words giving the 
sense of the locative case are pi-agriliya. 

This sfttra finds its scope in the Vedic literature generally. There is a 
;fltra (VII. I. 39) winch declares that "in the Vedic Sanskrit, the case-affixes 
■,up are often replaced either by ^5(1. s.), or are altogether elided, or they are 
;hanged into a letter homogeneous with the prior letter, or ^, or ^JT^, or ^, or 
IT, or ^, or Tirr, or ?n^, or ^(7 takes their place." Let us take the example 
vhere a case-affix is changed into a letter homogeneous with the prior. 
Thus the case-affix of the seventh case is f^ (f). In forming the 7. s. of H^ 
'body," we have ?J^ -*-?■• The f will be changed into a homogeneous letter with 
liand wehave?i^+3r = ?r|,"in the body," as, ^^R^f im^fhT=J.(forJiT»I?«rt 3»^)- 
This is the Vedic form, the secular form being ^T'^. Similarly ^*y^ + f=»lVf 
'on the Gauri," as ^m ■^rt\ V(V^n: (Rig Veda IX. 12. 3.).^ Jt is in such 
:ases, therefore, that the long / and il arc used in the sense of locative, and 
ire pragrihya. 

It is only long ? and u which are pragrihya, and not any other vowel, 
hough used in the sense of locative. Thus by the same aphorism (VII. i. 
i9) # (4) may be employed to denote the seventh case-affix. Thus ^jtP^t -I- fip 
='ri»T + «T = tr«ir ' in the fire,' as, \^^•, h^ W^fr ^ST'^f TTTT^^ fJTnr ^fWrt1-f?I![n^ 
Rig Veda V. 37. 5). Here ^Sf^ni though in the locative case, its final is not 
pragrihya. Therefore ^T'RT + fl^ = ^r»#l%- 

The f and gr must be of the 7th case. Therefore hRt + ?r (3rd s.) » 
"'' + ?■ (letter homogeneous with the prior) = H^ 'with wisdom'. Here i is 
1 the sense of the instrumental case and is not pragrihya. Thus «T^ + fT% = 

18 Gnu DEFINED. [Bk. I» CH. I. § 20,21. 

The word %fy is used in the aphorism, in order to exclude the appli- 
cation of this rule to cases like the following. Thus in forming the compound 
of ^fcarn^ " in the well" and «pij " horse," the case-affix is elided, and we get 
?rrft + vr^. Here, no doubt, the word qi»ff is in the locative case, though the 
case-affix is elided ; but we cannot say that the long f of vApi has the sense 
of the locative. Here, therefore, we shall have sandhi ; as, qTtJff : " the horse 
near the well." In other words, the present aphorism is not to apply to the 
final I or 3r of words standing as the prior member of a compound terr 
(purva-pada); for words like ^pft &c., in the above example, can never, by them 
selves and alone, denote the locative case ; while words like jft^f, formed in thi 
way described already, give the sense of the locative, even alone, though the) 
be 'placed anywhere in a sentence. 

?[rin??i^i^u ^0 II TT^ifif II ^ , vnr , 5 , 3^^ ii 
fnr:ii ^wTTiVfrn ^frit ^renft '^ ift, ii^mi «iAr<)?ii y*l<i*i H^f^ii 

20. The verbs liaving the form of da 'to give' 
and dha 'to i)lace,' are called glm. 

This defines the word ghu. Four verbs have the^form of ^, or assume 
it by the application of VI. i. 45, and two, of V(\; they are called 5. The ghu 
verbs have certain peculiarities of conjugation to be described hereafter. 

The ^ verbs are the following: — fTT^ " to give," as siRjui^rRr ; ^\'\ 
" to give," as, Jfffij^rar ; %[ "to cut," as, nRjRrf^; |^ "to pity " as, jrfi!jf«r%, fTT^ 
" to place " as. nftj^iJiRr, ^ to " feed " as, sjfcvr^. 

In the above examples, because of the verbs being 5, the sf of Jn% '* 
changed into CT by Vlll. 4. 17. 

Similarly ^7 "to cut" and |<i " to clean" not being called 5, rules Vll 
4. 45 and 47 do not apply to tham. Thus ^f +Tif = ?f?f 'what is cut,' as, (ff« 
ffj:. So also^fftrnT " washed " as, mnwh v^ " a bright face." But with ?r "*' 
give," &c. ^ + tK =?^ -i-?r(VIl. 4. 46) =^: "given ;" so also we have Jl+» 
+ iff "IWI (VII. 4. 47). The word ^ occurs in sfttra VI. 4. 66, &t 
The word dip includes also daip by the paribhaslia given under 111. 4 
19,1^ changed into ^ by VI. i. 45. 

9HT?pn'^^ftR^ II R^ II x^1^^f^ ii «nf^-w?i-flR^, ij«f%5^' 

21. All operation should he performed 011 " 
single letter, as upon an initial or upon a final. 

This is an atidesa sCltra and consists of four words, unf^ " beginning 
^Tft "end," ^J^ "like," ^^rftil? "in one;" theliteral translation being "beginni" 
is end-like 'in one." The affix ?f^ has the force of the locative, and l' 

Bk. I. Ch. I. § A, 23. ] Gha defined. 19 


meaning is "on the beginning," and " on the end," i.e., let an operation be 
performed on a single letter, as upon an initial or upon a final. Thus by 
in. I. 3. an affix has uddtta or acute accent on its initial vowel. Thus the 
affix tavya has accent on the first X(, and we have S^b;^ . But when an 
affix consists of a single vowel, it is itself the beginning and the end, and, 
as such, will have the accent. As in irhfl^'^ aupagavam the last & has the 
accent, which ci represents the affix "if^ . 

Similarly, by VII. 3. 102, the final of a base ending in short nr 
is lengthened before a case-affix beginning with a consonant of TCn class. 
Thus m + >-^'T = rrTP'^TP^. This rule will apply when the word consists 
of one letter only, and that letter is a short ^. Thus ^+>-^rf= 1JT>''WT 
"by those two." Here it must not be objected that the solitary ^ is 
Initial, and cannot ha final. 

Why do we say " in one"? If a word consists of more than one 

etter, then the beginning is not like the end. Thus in the word ^P{( the 

Initial short ^ is not like tho final long ^,- otherwise H^TT would get the name 

?^(I- '• 73), and the secondary derivative from a^rtHTIT would be formed 

the affix g[ (IV. 2. ^14). But this is not so, the affix ^^is employed in- 

ad, and the form is HPIT'EWPT : . 

T^: II ?nr'^ nH\ \tn^ srfw ^ ^> HT?t: ii 

22. TJio affixes tarap and tamap ai-e called r^. 

This sfitra defines «t affixes. They are two, at and jpT, the 1^ in 
!m being \^ . The special use of these affixes will be described later on. 
lese affixes are useful in forming the comparative and the superlative 
a;rees respectively of adjectives, adverb.s, &c. The base undergoes certain 
inges belore these terminations, which will be treated of in its proper place. 

Thus the words ^>m>nrr and ^iin'r'Rr are formed by adding the 
ixes irrand nn to the word ^»irO 'a girl,' whose long f is shortened before 
ISC affixes by sfttra 43 of the third chapter of the 6th Book. 

ai5»nim«Tifgr ^>pn ii ^^ u tt^tht ii srj-iT-^jH-^f?! , 
5m II "* 

f^: II ^f »imqg«f<| f?^ tnwTOirr htP^ ii 

'm«i;ii ^ .^ 

23. The words bahu 'many,' gana 'class,' and 
e^ words ending in the affix vatu (V. 2. B9), and t/ati 
• - 41) are called numerals (sankhyai. 

20 , .Sankhya. [Bk*. 1. Ch. I. § 23. 

This sfttra defines the word sankhyS,, or numeral. 

These are certain words, besides the ordinary numerals, having somi 
peculiarity of declension. The words like ^5 'many,' andiTCT 'class', and thosi 
that have the affixes ^ and grfW after them, belong to this class. The letter 
? and « of ^ and ^% are f^ , or indicatory, the actual affixes being ^ an( 


The word sankhyA means "numferals;" and this class contains 
among others, the Sanskrit numerals. The words formed by adding fj art 
generally compound pronouns, e. f;. ?rr^ "so much," tjt^ " as much," jrsxv. 
"so much," similarly words formed by the affix ^ft', <?. *. ^rf^ " how many," ?n'? 
" so many," ink " as many." 

Thus ^'i + fRfW^ {V. 4. I7)=^fi?^.' "many times" the affix |;?^^ 
being added only to sankhya words in the sense of the repetition of the 
action. So also ^+ ^f (V. 3. 42) = ^5>ir " in many ways." Here also the affix 
^ is added by virtue of <?■? being a sankhya. Similarly mttU: (V. 1.22) 
"purchased for a big sum," ^|?r: (V. 4.43)" manifold." So also JTOTfRf :, TtD'TT, 

id^:, ifir^r: ; so also ^{v^^- , frr^r , ?Tr?^: ; ^^ffir??: , sKr^^rr , ^firaf: , 

When the words ^ and ^tIT mean "abundance" and "multi- 
tude" they are not sahkhyi. It is only when they are expressive of 
numbers, that they get the designation of safikhy4. The necessity of defining 
sankhyi arose in order to exclude such words as, wf^ " numerous,'' &c., 
which though they express numbers, are not to be treated as " numerals " 
technically so called. 

Vart: — The word ^p^ " half" when standing as a first term in a con 
pound number which takes an affix giving the sense of an ordinal, gets th 
designation, of.sankhyA, for the purposes of the application of the rules c 
samAsa and of the affix ^sr . The ordinal affixes or pHrana pratyayas ar 
like TT (V. 2.48), ^l (V. 2. 49), mi^iy. 2. 51), &c. Thus^TOT: "eleventh, 
•m; " fifth," ^rg^: " fourth," &c. Similarly we liave ^^ ' i'^H^tJi : "purchased fo 
4i baskets" (a dviguj. Here ^-i-<r^JrT (an ordinal )=fr|<r^5, a bahuvril 
compound meaning 4 J, viz., that in which half is the fifth term, ^r^'^^ 
^:^:=^r|7^^^: the taddhita affixes 325^ and ^^^ required by V. i. li 
and 26 being elided by V. i. 28. 

Here, there is compounding (dvigu) by taking ^j ' i^H' t as a sankhy^i 
and then applying sMra II. i. 51. The samisa here is^ in the sens' 
of taddhita, and this compounding is only possible by rules (II. 1.50 ^'"' 
51), vthen ^rt^^H?; gets the appellation of sankhyl Having got this namd 
it forms dvigu compound in the sense of the taddhita affixes «P5[ and »* 
(V.I. 26). The word^i* takes both these affixes in the sense of "b«''' 

Bk. I. Ch. I. § 44, 25.] Shat. ' 21 

bought with." Thus ^/^^ and ^f!f\ both mean " bought with a measure 
called sftrpa." In the above compound of ?rt>t^'»Rj^: the sense is 
that of the above-named taddhita ; but the affixes have been elided by, 
V. I. 28 after dvigu compounds. So also we have ^p^^Tifr: by applying 
the affix ^ . For these two purposes, namely samasa and the application 
of ^s^, compounds of ardha, like ardha-panchama are treated as sahkhyd. 

WT'HT ^? U :?« II Tjr^fsi II ^-nr-3?«!Tr , tRT , {^^ II 

fr%: II 'RiiTRrTr TSFncTs^iT ^ ^ ^^r ?rr '^mr T?f^ 11 

24. The SankhyAs having t or t as their final 
are called sha?. 

This sutra defines the term ^ which is a subdivision of the larger 
group sankhyA. Those sankhyA,s which end in ^ or ^ are called^. The 
word sankhya is understood in this siitra, because the word uil|r(<r is in the 
feminine gender, showing that it qualifies sankhya which is also feminine. 

The numerals that end in ^ or !T are six, namely "T^i^ ' five,' ^ ' six,' 
OT^, ' seven,' ^T?5^ ' eight,' q'T^ ' nine,' ^jj^ ' ten.' 

It is one of the peculiarities of ^r words that they lose their nomina- 
tive and accu.sativc plural terminations (VII. I. 22). Thus q^ fta i >() , 
"i'^ T^Srivfr II 

The word ^jt?t in the sfitra shows that the letters ^ and H must bo 
aiipadciika i.e., must belong to the words as originally enunciated and not 
added afterwards as affix &c. Thus in i5r?mW ' hundreds,' ^STfftr ' thousands,' 
^EKr^ 'of eights ' the T is not radical, but an augment, and therefore they are 
not V? and the nominative and accusative plural terminations are not elided ; 
as ^HI^ + f = Tjmf^ &c. 

5f?r ^ II R*\\\ ^^xfk II if?r, ^ , ( ^mr, nzj n 

fr^! II ^«f5ffr ^ ^r^irr 'Err ^#?rr ifftui *•' 

25. And the sankhyAs ending with the aflSx 
c^ati are called sha«. 

This sOtra enlarges the scope of the definition of ^ by including 
"1 it, words formed by ^^. By sfttra 22, words in ^f^ are already san- 
khyA ; by this they are also ^ . Therefore we have ^f»r "T^fSfi, ' how many are 
reading,' ^Rr rfx^^ ' see how many.' Here s|f^ has lost its plural termina- 
tion by VII. i. 22. 

tan^ f^HT II ^^ H "T^rf^ II w-w«r^ , fHHT ii 

■26. T| ifi affixes kta and ktavatu are called 





22 ' NiSHTHA. [BK. I. CH. F. § 26, 27. 

This defines the ni.htha affixes, that is to say, the affixes of 
the past participle. The actual affixes are H, r^. the ^ and jbeing indicatory. 
They being ^are liable to all the rules applicable to f^ affixes, such as rul. 
. I. 5. Thus we have, ^:, fRT?,, ^'K:, fKn?.- 

The force of the Indicatory 5 in ktavatu is, by IV. I. 6, to indicate that 
n forming the feminine of nouns ending in an affix having an indicatory 
,owelof£ikpratyahara/7,gr, m), the affix #r?. (I) must be added. Thus 
pn^ (masc), fT^rarft (fern.). The word ni.shtha occurs in sutra VII. 2. 14. 

x(^ : II vki.\^ ?m?^''sff ?tr#Trr^ ^^tf^ ^rtTpranrf^r md^ ii 

27. The words savva, 'all,' tiud the rest arc 
called sarvanAma or pronouns. 

This defines sarvanama or pronominals. To know what are the 
other words comprised in the phrase ' and the rest ' we must refer to Pinini's 
Ganapitha where a list of all groups referred to in the sdtras, is given. Thus 
we know from it, that the following are sarvanftma : — , 

^ 'all,' f%^^ 'all,' T»T 'two,' 7H^ 'both,' words formed by the affix 
HIT' such as ^^K 'which of two,' words formed by the affix ^V[^ as 5R?lf ' which 
of many,' ^fffif 'other,' ffntwc ' either,' f^ ' other,' ?^ ' other,' tt( ' other,' 
i(H • half,' ^Pf ' all,' RPT ' whole,' ?ir? ' he, she, it,' ^f^ ' he, she, it,' ^ 
' who,' ^WJ 'this,' f^ ' it,' 9rfw 'that,' ^af ' one,' ft 'two,' fsjf? 'you,' ^f^ 
'I,' 5^5 'you.' t%^ 'what.' So also "J^ 'east,' 'prior,' i^T ' subsequent,' ^RT 
'west or posterior,' f%CT ' south or right,' TtTT 'north or inferior, subsequent,' 
^HT ' Other or inferior,' ?f»Tr 'west or inferior,' are sarvanamas when they im- 
ply a relation in time or place, as shown above, and not when they are 
aames. So tfiso'w when it does not mean a ' kinsman or a treasure,' but 
tieans 'own.' Soalso?q^!ir when it means 'outer,' or 'an under or lower 
garment' is a sarvanama. 

There are certain peculiarities in the declension of sarvanama words. 
Thus ^k though ending in ?r, is not declined like stt which also ends in % 
the plural of hI being flt^, that of sf^ being ^xt- Similarly the dative singular 
TTr«r, a^; the abl. sing. qxTS, a^ir?^; the loc. sing. ^, wtft^; the 

The compounds (with certain exceptions) ending in these words are 
also -sarvanamas. The word 3T ' both ' is always used in the dual number as 
S^, 3*JMI»1,. The object of its being inserted in the list of pront)minals, 
(whilst its declension does not differ from that of srr), is its taking the augment 
«TO^^ (V. 3-70 which it could not have taken, if it were not a pronomina' 

Bk. I. ch. 1. § 26] Sarvanama. 23 

as ^W- Another object gained by its being so called, is the application of 
H. 3. 27, by which a pronominal may take the case-affix of the 3rd case or 
the 6th case in denoting cause. 

There are two ?T in ths above list, namely ?fsr and ?t, having the 
same meaning, and both ending in ^. But the final ^ of one is udtltta, 
and of the other anuditta. Some give one ?TJ only and not the other, 
and say that both have anudatta accent. The word ^f is a sarvan4ma, when 
it is synonymous with the word ^|- 'all,' and not when it means 'equality.' 
When it has the latter sense of 'equality,' it is declined like TT t- e. like 
ordinary words ending in HJ, as PAnini himself indicates in I. 3. 10, where he 
uses the regular genitive plural ^"nsn^, meaning ' among or of equals.' As 
a pronominal the genitive plural would have been w»I^r«|;^ . 

The above words sarva &c. are not to be treated as pronouns when 
they are used as appellatives. For example, if H^ be the name of a person 
then it will be declined like ordinary nouns, as Q^i^ Ir*^ 'give to Sarva (a 
])erson '). Here the dative singular is regularly formed. Similarly when these 
words are so compounded with others as 10 lose their original independent 
character, namely when they are ^q'g'^T, they are not treated as sarvan4ma, 
but follow the regular declension, as ^frTH^'T'T ^^ ' give to (him who is) above 
all.' Here in the compound 'irfif^l' ' Above-all ' or ' Supreme Being,' the word 
^ loses its independent character and defines and determines the sense of 
another word. Fuller explanation of the word upasarjana will be given later 
on in I. 2. 43. This term mk^iVf is an ^?^^^|rr that is a term the appli- 
cation of which accords with its meaning. 

fkvrm f^^^'n% ^j^fx ii ^c n v^^j^ u fiiw*n, 

ff^: II ^f ^nrr^f f^iTq T W> f^^f^ ^nrw ^sft^ ^W mitf^ «rt^ 


28. The above woi-ds are optionally sarva- 
ii^ma when they occur in a bahnvrihi compound signi- 
fying direction (II. 2. 2G.) 

This is an exception to sMra 29 which follows. As a general rule 

see sutra 29), in bahuvrihi compounds, these words sarva &c. are declined 

e ordinary nouns. The present sutra declares an option to this, in special 

s relatmg to compounds signifying direction. Thus the bahuvrihi compound 

irection ?>(|<i{^r ' north-east ' may form its dative case as a pronominal, 

r^ffZl^^ or it may form its dative like ordinary words ending in ^it. i- «■ 

"^m. So,%liriMtor,f^Ti!T#*. 

24 Sarvanama. [Bk» I. Ch. I. § 29. 

Why do we say "when signifying a direction" ? The next sutra will 
enjoin that in bahuvrihi compounds, these words are not treated as pronomi- 
nals. Therefore, if in the present sfitra, we had not used the word f|9f , it 
would have been impossible to know where there was option and where 
prohibition. By employing the word "direction," it is thus determined, that 
in a samslsa, relating to direction (II. 2. 26), there is allowed option, while 
there is prohibition in all other kinds of bahuvrihi compounds. 

Why do we say " in compound"? So that the option may be in that 
bahuvrihi which is purely samasa, and in no other bahuvrihi. There is no 
option allowed in that bahuvrihi where there is a semblance of bahuvrihi 
but not exact bahuvrihi. 

The quasi-bahuvrihi, or analogical bahuvrihi compounds, or to use the 
Sanskrit phrase, bahuvrihi-vadbhava, is taught in sutra VIII. I. 9. where words 
in repetition are treated like bahuvrihi. Thus ^ + ?t^ - 5%^5. ' one and 
one, each one.' Bahuvrihi compounds are possessive compounds, but in the 
above example, no idea of possession enters. However the compound here 
is treated like a bahuvrihi, for the purposes of the elision of the case-affix of 
the first member, and the whole compound gets the desig;nation of pratipadika. 
In compounds like this, therefore, which are bahuvrihi-vat, but not exactly 
bahuvrihi, the present rule and the succeeding sdtra do not apply. Thus 
^k^^ ?f^ ' give to each one,' Tl^CTfrW?^ tit M 

Why do we say " in the bahuvrihi "? So that there may be no option 
in the dvandva compound. Thus ^ Wti J Mi ' i ^rorr?, ' of the south, north and 
east.' The prohibition in the case of dvandva by rule 31 is absolute and 

?T 9|^|t II :^^ II TT^f^ II H, 555\|t, ( ^^"^fn, m- 
iTHim, Hm% ) II 

ffrf: II mt(^ ^ir^ mrit^ tmR^RT T HT^ II 

29. The words sarva &c., are not sarva- 
nama when occurring in a bahnvrihi compound. 

As a general rule (see sfitra 72), when any definition, rule, operation 
&c. is made applicable to a particular word, the same would also apply to any 
other word which ends in that word. Thus the plural of man being 'men' 
in English, the plural of blackman will be blackmen. So the definition of sarva- 
nlma given to sarva &c,, separately, will also apply to the words endinf 
in sarva &c. 

This sfttra introduces thus an exception to sfttra 27. In bahuvril" 
or possessive compounds, the nature of which compounds will be describcii 

Bk. ICh. I. §*3o. ] Sarvanama. 25 

* • 

later on, the above mentioned words are not pronominals, and must follow 
the ordinary rule of declension. Thus the compound ft«rft^ meaning 
' beloved of all ' is a bahuvrihi compound of Pt^ ' beloved,' and ftx'T ' *'!>' 
which is a sarvan4ma). The declension of this compound will follow the 
reneral rule. Thus, in the dative singular, we have fSt^ftTC^fT, though the 
dative singular of finCT by itself is f%T^^, like other pronominals. So also 
f^^PnTW " to him who is beloved of both." So also f qyq i q , ^^fs^rra' &c. 

Similarly in bahuvrihi compounds, these words not being treated as 
pronominals, they do not take also the special affix ?fcir'^ , but the general 
affix ^. As, ?<«<«f<^<€*r, f!*f<><i^r (V. 3. 70). 

Though the word bahuvrihi was present in this sfttra by anuvritti 
from the last aphorism, the object of using the word bahuvrihi again in this 
sfttra, is this : — that the prohibition may apply to those expressions also 
which are no longer bahuvrihi, but whose original components were once 
bahuvrthi. Thus the words ^^oTFJitr and qtTTT'rrrr are bahuvrihi compounds ; 
but when these two words are further compounded into a dvandva compound, 
the present rule still applies. As, ^^sd^tiiN'EWHtr: II 

^inmifsr, T, ) II 

30. In Instrumental Determinative Com- 
pounds the words sarva &c. are not sarvanAma. 

This is another exception to the definition of sarvanama. There is 
a class of compounds in Sanskrit called tatpurusha compounds, in which the 
last word governs the preceding one. The word governed may be in any one 
of the six cases : when it is in the third or instrumental case, the com- 
pound is called tritivA, tatpurusha. When, therefore, there is such a samfi,sa, 
the words mentioned in sutra 26 are not to be declined like pronominals. 
Thus the word 'ITH'J^' is a compound of mm and ^t = Jir%^iJ^ meaning ' prior by 
a month,' where the word masa is in the instrumental case. This compound 
will be declined like ordinary words, e.g. its dative will be Hr&'^r^, though the 
dative of <^, when standing by itself, is ^^ ; so also *i<i|<+H,'j|ir«r I' 

The tritiya-samasa of the present sutra has reference to the special 
tntiya-saraasa oi:dained by the particular sutra II. i. 31. namely, " that which 
ends with the 3rd case affix, is compounded with the words pfirva, sadri^a, 
«ama, &c." and has not reference to the tritiya-samasa in general, such as one 
ordained by II. i. 32, " that which ends with the 3rd case-affix when it denotes 
"•e agent or the compounded diversely with what ends in a 


26 Sarvanama. [ Bk. 'I. ch. I. § 31, 32. 

kfit affix." Therefore, in piirases f^n^ fft 'done by thee,' »prw ^ ' done by 
me,' these words are treated as pronominals, though in the instrumental case 
followed by a word ending in a krit-affix. In other words, reading this sfitra 
with II. I. 31, we find that pArva is the only sarvan&ma which is so com- 
pounded, and to which only the present sfttra would seem to apply. 

The word ?miH may appear to have been mentioned redundantly, as 
it has already been mentioned in the previous sAtra, the primary object of the 
sOtra authors being to shorten the rules by the keeping out of every un- 
necessary word. But here, the word ^^\w has been repeated, to show that 
even in phrases like >ir&T ^.tnr, though not a compound, but used in construc- 
tion with an instrumental case, the word "^t is not a sarvanftma, that is to say, the 
prohibition extends even to phrases, which bear the sense of the instrumental 
compound, though not exhibited in the form of the instrumental compound. 

5^ ^ II |i II w^f^ II 555, \ (frarr^i^, OT*ii*nfii, 

fftr: II T^t ^ mr^ wgftf^ ^TR^f^rrf^ TH^Pw 11 

31. And in Collective Compound, II. 2. 26 the 
words sarva &c., are not sarvanAma. 

This sUtra mentions another exception. In collective compounds tht 
above words are not sarvandma. Dvandva is a compound in which two words 
are simply joined together, the compound taking the terminations of the dual 
or plural according to the number of compounded words, or the terminations 
of the singular, being treated as a collective term. Thus, the compound 
«n!frM%?rr means, ^' the castes,' ^fpiiiT 'the orders' and y?Tr 'the others'. The 
word fnr in this compound is not to be treated as a sarvanama, but an 
ordinary wor^.^. Therefore, in the genitive plural we have :— TOXf^r^n^ICTO 
and not "ffn^rrg:. So also "j^TrrCTrg^ ' of the priors and the posteriors.' 

The word'q' 'and' in the sCirta indicates that it closes the list of 
exceptions or prohibitions that began with sutra. 29. 

fiiw'TT ^ II ^:? ti Tj^Tfvi II Tn^tm, «ft, ( w^f«i. 
Hi''{ \ M , 5^ ^'nt, 5f ) II 

ff%: II ys| wTr% 3rflr ft->rm w^H^ ^ kniHti^ i f k h *wf*n 11 

32. (Their dvandva compounds) are option 
ally sarvantoia when the nominative plural termina 
tionj as follows. 

This is a proviso to sAtra 31, and declares that before the termini 
tion 5IW (which is the termination of the nominative plural, as we shall ii»' 
later on, and which in the pronominals is replaced by ^ft), the dvand^ 

BK. I. Ch. I. § 33,34.] Sarvanama, 27 

, I 

compounds may be treated either as sarvanamas or as ordinary words. Thus 
the plural of «rdp<WIT may be either ^i&rM%?W: or o^i^, that is, the word may 
take either sf^ or tft- 

This sfttra governs the four succeeding sUtras. The option allowed 
in the case of the application of the affix »r^ ist pi. to the dvandVa compounds 
of pronominals, does not extend to the dvandva compounds of pronominals 
which take the affix HfrhV (V. 3. 71). There the sutra 31 is absolute. 
Thus, ^!ir:+ sir?H^: = *d<<*<iH*|: in the plural. This affix "Jj^ (91*^) 
comes before tlie last vowel, with what follows it, of the pronominals and 


33. And also the words prathama 'first'; 

charama 'last,' words ending with the affix taya (V. 2. 

42); alpa ' few' ardha 'half ' katipaya ' some,' and nema 

' half' are optionally sarvanama, before the nom. pi. 


Thus we have irsi% or JftfTr: , "^^ or ^rTT: , 5p^ or f(^m: , vif or 
ff^: , ^rffPT^ or ^{^THr: , q-^ or ^m-. , ft'rft or fCfrTT: II *^ 

The words " optionally when the affix tT^ follows " are understood 
n this sfltra. The governing force of the word " dvandva " does not extend 
othis, and stops at this. By the word Wflf in the aphorism, is meant words 
mding in the affix rf^. The rest are pratipadikas or crude bases. The 
vord ^»r has already been enumerated among the pronominals, therefore, 
he option in its case, is what is called prapta-vibbasd, the Yesult of which 
vill be that though in the nom. pi. it may be declined like ^, the rest of its 
leclension is like sarva, while in the case of prathama &c. the nom. pi. may 
)e like sarva, but the rest of their declension must be like that of nara. The 
vord ubhaya, has been formed by tlie addition of the affix ?nr, and it is 
uready enumerated in the list of pronominals, therefore, by the present 
"itra its nom. pi. admits of two forms. 

The application of the affix kan or akach must depend upon the 
lature of these words, if pronominals, then akach, otherwise kan. 

2"^ Sarvanama. [ Blft I. Ch; I. 4 35. 


34. The words pftrva ' prior,' para ' after,' 
avara ' posteiior,' dakshiwa ' south,' uttara ' north.' apara 
'other,' and adhara ' mferior,' when they discriminate 
relative position, not when they are appellatives, are 
optionally sarvanama before the affix jas. 

These seven words have already been mentioned in the list of sarvana- 
mas. They arc always sarvanamas, when they have the meaning given to 
them in the list, /. e., when they imply a rehation in time and space, but when 
used in any other sense than the one which has been determined or fixed for 
them, they are not sarvan'inias, nor are they so when they are used as appel- 
latives (H^rri- Thus, when the word ?|%T!T means ' clever,' it is not a sarvana- 
litia, as, ^^rerr fT ITT^r: 'these clever minstrels,' similarly in ^Tfrr: ^rr; 
'the northern Kurus,' the word TtlT is not a pronominal, for though it 
declares a direction, it is a proper noun. 

When these seven words are sarvandma, they are declined like sarva, 
except in the nominative plural, when they may be declined either as sarva- 
ndmas, or as ordinary nouns. The option allowed in the case of these words 
is a praptavibhisa. 

That there is a 'specification' (niyama), or tacit implication, of a 
determinate point (avadhi), with reference to which something is to be describ- 
ed by the word itself, is what we mean when we say "that a relation in time 
or place (avasthS) is implied." For example, if we wish to describe Benares 
as being southern (dakshina), to do this, we may specify some point, say 
one of the peaks of the Jlimillaya with reference to which Benares may be des- 
cribed as a "place to the southward." Again we in the north may thus speak 
of the people to the south of the Vindhyi mountains, as being southern, not 
with reference ^0 the inhabitants of Ceylon, but with reference (as every one 
here understands by tacit implication) to us ourselves, who live to the north 
the Vindhya range. Thus, ( >^ or jRfV, ?;r^ or «r^rr:, "it or "irr: ) ?lfrd <" 
?f^T«!Tr: ; 7tI^ or SRirr: ; ?PIT or iqnnT: ; ^Sf^ or ^Mtt:. 

wwtn«r^, ( fiiwm, 'srf^, ^■^i^^ ^hvm^ ) ii 

*iiin*>>itu T^ ii 

35. The word sva ' own,' when it docs no 
paean a kinsman or property is optionally sarvan^nii 
hefore the affix jas. 

The word ^ when it does not mean a ^rrf% ' k'insmaii ' or ^ 'p(ropert) 
or ' wealth ' is always a sarvanama, in every number and' Case; t& it has bee: 

jK. I. Ch. 1. § 36, 37. ] AvyAya defined. 

numerated among the pronominals, except in the nominative plural where it is 
ptionally so. Thus if% J^iT: or ?^r: JfT: ' one's own sons/ ^ Jm- or ^WX »TW: 
one's own cows'. 

But when it means 'kinsmen 'or ' articles of property' ^flT: alone is 
he nom. pi. As, ^^t JcTTinfr ' these kinsmen' iT'^frr: ^^t: 'much riches'. 

fTjniR II 

^^rT II *?r'{fil% '^ 'sr'frsar^* n 

^r^RW II *ft>irsrr sf ^rirr ^fharw ^ f^ ^Wr»rH^^wi52n-^* 11 

30. The word atitara beinjj^ always a sarvanA- 
na, whcm meaning "outer" or "a lower garment," is 
ptionally so before the allix jas. 

The word '^T'Tt when it mc.ins <Tff^Ti viz., ' outer' is always sarvanA- 
a, so also, when it me ms^'T^u^TPT or 'a lower garment' Thus, "sp^ mr; 
■ ■*r'?HT ^f r: ' outer Jioiises, the residence of Chandal, and other low castes.' 
^ir or ^;rrrr: 3Tr?'K'r: 'the inner garments, such as petticoats worn 
iider the upper garments." The word ?y.-r« when used in the above sense 
always sarvanima, but in the nominative plural, it is optionally so. But, 
lien it is not used in the above senses, it is never a sarvanama, e. g., ^JTffit^ 
Bra ' he lives between the two villages,' where the regular locative is ^IJ^rrt'. 
/ith this siitra ends the section on sarvanfimas, which began with sfttra 26. 

Vart : — The word ^w-rii when qualifying the word jf^ ' a city,' is not to 
i: treated as a sarvanama, and is, therefore, declined like ordinary nouns. 
s. ^'^irnrr Jft" ^^ ' he lives out of the city.' 

Vart : — The words formed by the affix ^ such .-is, ff <?tT and ij?ftw, 
re optionally declined as sarvanama before the case-affixes having an indi- 
^'''fy 3^ (^^), which are the singular terminations of dative, ablative, geni- 
ve and locative, as, fi^pj^ or frrff^rnr, <r?ft?rnr or ijifNl?^. 

'e^fif fntnc^TSEpm II ^is II xT^f^ II ^T-3nf^, f«nn?T^, 
«»8nim 11 

37. The words avar 'heaven,'' &c., and the partif 
les (I. 4. 56) are called indeclinables. 

This defines avyaya or indeclinables. The words ^^ &c. must be 
'uiwi out from the Gattapitha ; they are the following:— 

^ ' heaven,' ^fwr^ •■ midst,' Jim!;,' in the morning ,' tp^ • again,' «f?T^ 
'" "^""cealment,' 3^ < high, aloft ' ifl^g; ' low, down,' ^rt|^ ' slowly,' w^^ 

AVYAYA [B«. I- Ch. I. § 38. 

:ightly. separately, aside, singly, particularly, ^^fy'^'^^^'''^ 
4r 'It the same time, at once,' .rmH 'near, far f-™' ^^f ^^ J^ ^P " 
Zl apart,' ^^ ' yesterday,' xn ' to-orrow,' i^ ' by day,' n^ ^ by n.g t 
r in the night,' m^' at eve,' f^ ' long, long since, a long .me, H^. 
ttle,' ^rgr ' slightly, a little,' ^r^^ ' ever,' W^^ ' gladly,' J^r?: silently, i% 
outside,''^.!rf^ ' below, without, outside, m^ ' near,' PrW ' near, hard, close 
y,' ^vi ' of one's self,' fiTT' in vain,' ;i^, ' at night, by night,' ^ ' negative 
article, not,' ^<fy 'for this reason, by reason of,' rff 'truly, really' f? 
exclamation,' ^?rar 'evidently, truly,' mf-H 'half,' ^ Tff ' enclitic like, as 
kahmanavat, priestly,' «^5; wm?r ' perpetually,' TW ' division,' ^^ 'crooked- 
y, awry, over,' ^p^m, 'ST'?!^ ' except, without' 5%^, ^^ ' long,' ^^ ' expletive 
)article,' m. ' ease,' HJTT ' perpetually,' HfHf ' suddenly, hastily,' fvfl ' with- 
iut,'!TRr 'variously,' W?<T 'greeting, peace,' t^>Tr' exclamation, oblation to 
»Ianes,'^5r5_' enough,' TT?, ' exclamation,' 'If'T?, ^^"?^ (interjection) ' oblation 
of butter,' ^jtI,' again, moreover, otherwise.' gj-ftrT ' being present,' 3^5 'in 
L low voice, secretly, privately,' ^HT ' patience, pardon,' r>?r?r€r ' aloft in the 
lir,' ^ ' at night or in the evening,' f % f^'-'IT ' falsely,' g^TT 'in vain,' jn 
formerly,' ft^Tf or ftqfH' mutually, together,' Jir^g^ 'frequently, almost,' ^ji 
again, repeatedly' ^5rf^*[ or T^ntaSf 'at the same time,' ^JT^i; 
violently ' ^>ftw^ ' repeatedly,' wrar"T or wr^^ ' with' jr?, ' reverence,' 
f^ 'without,' f^^i; 'fie!' ^!I 'thus,' Ji^rrq^ ' with fatigue,' Ji;[rrg^ ' alike,' 
WR[ ' widely,' >ir , >ir? ' do not.' oiC ,^ 1 4 

So, also the words formed by the affixes ktv4 tosun, kasun, by the krit 
affixes ending in "^ or it, ^, ^r or ^ , and the avyayibhava compounds, are 
indeclinables. So, also the words formed by the affixes beginning with 5T1%5T 
(V. 3. ^J and ending with TFJJ'^ (.V 3. 47), by the affixes beginning with ^r^ (V. 
4. 42) and ending with ?mreffr: (V. 4. 68), by the affixes ir??'§=^> f^ , ^ 
and »irw by tKe'affixes having the sense of the affix f%f , or by the affixes HP[ 
or W17, 'fft' or ^ , ^ or^sj are also indeclinables. 

The words called nipata will be given under sfltras, I. 4, 56 to 6i- 
Thus a word which changes not ( ^ s%j%), remaining alike in the three genders 
md in all cases, and in all numbers, is what is termed an l|i»<(1 or indeclin- 

( «»awR ) 

«[f%: II ?lf^Ri: ^iH^!r>Tf^Trrs?raraifT >I^ II 

38. And the words ending in taddhita or se' 
condary afllxes (IV. 1. 76.) which are not declined in al^ 
the cases are also indeclinables. 

3K. I. Ch. I. § 39. 40.] AVYAYA 3I 

This expands the definition of avyaya. There are three words in the 
ifltra taddhitah, cha and asarva-vibhaktih. Taddhitas or secondary affixes 
ire certain affixes, by which nouns are derived from other nouns, such as, 
rom H^ we have »inT?r: , sarva-vibhaktis are those words which take all 
:ase-terminations, asarva-vibhaktis are those which do not take all vibhaktis 
,ut some only. Thus the adverb ■ff^: is declined in the singular ablative 
jnly, and does not take the dual and plural terminations. 

Those derivative words which do not take all the case-terminations, 
3ut only some of them and which are formed by the addition of Taddhita 
affixes are indeclinables. As ?m: 'thence,' ?nr 'there.' Both these words 
ire formed by taddhita affixes from the pronoun ?rf ' that,' the one is used 
in the ablative case only and the other in the locative. So also vm: , 'TT, ?WT, 
m, ^Vff, H?r &c. 

^%irt: II \% II '^^TTH II ^%, ^-^m-^s{^i ( airsqti^i^) 

7^^: 11 fnrt isfrnr?^ ^tt^jtv r\^ :!j^^<m^-i(tt ^r^fw 11 

39. The words formed by those knt or pri- 
mary affixes, (III. 1. 93) which end with g, or in 5, 'sfr, ^ and 
^ are also indeclinables. 

All affixes for the formation of nouns are of two kinds: — i. Those 
by which nouns are derived directly from roots : Primary affixes. 2. Those by 
which nouns are derived from other nouns : Secondary affixes. The former 
are called krit, the latter, taddhita. 

Words formed by krit affixes vifhich end in »r or ^, ^f, ^, or ^ (connot- 
ed by the pratyahara ^^ ) are avyayas. Thus the affix 55 (technically J35) and 
Jl^ (technically dJSf, HI. 3- 10) are affixes which end in »T. The words formed 
oy the addition of these affixes will be indeclinables. Thus ffH'T ' to give/ and 
f!1K% ' remembering' are avyayas. So also words like sfKflT ' tt> Jive,' fq^^ ' to 
drink,' are also avyayas as they end in 5, &c. 

Thus, in the following examples, the words within quotation are avya- 
yas ' ^irrpfrrt,' ' » i mH<«i rf,' 'STTCrarrt,' ?^#, 'he eats first having made 
it relishing' (III. 4. 26). "^" rPT: (t^ + % III. 4. 9 = w); m '^^,' 

nwrj^fl; TTKgf^^^rf (f + %=^. Rig Veda V. 66. 3). ^^ sjft ?irrfr '5fh%' 
^ V"E^ ffrrsenC^T ir ftrPnr (Rig Veda III. 36. 10). ^ITT: 5>lft^ ^^^ ^^ w?% 
"Wl 5%^^ ^E^ '|^_' (Rig Veda I. 25. 21, f^ + %!! III. 4. II ftl). 

The word vj^ is used in this sdtra for the same purpose, as it was 
employed in s{ltra 24, showing that these terminations must be ' aupade^ika,' 
and not derivative. Therefore the following words are not avyayas : — «rPT% 
(<*■ s), <n^ : (g. 3.) Pr^ftt^ I pi^ff<if: ' lH^nt»-«r: l T»r^^lT^?r : II 

«n^T3«i5i«i: ii)ioii xi^^u SFT, %Tg^-^i?!:, (gT»rn'!;)ii 



40. The words ending- with ktva, tosun (IJ 
4 IGiaudkasunareindeclinables. _ 

As fffr ' having done ' ^^ ' Laving risen, f^: ' havmg sprea, 
Thus in the follow'ing examples the words within quotation are .ndecl, 

(Rig Ved. Villa. I. 12). 

41. (The comiiound called) Avjayih]i;lva (II. 
1 5) is also iudecliu.'ihle. 

The Avyayibhava or adverbial or iiidccliiiabic compounds are formed 
'bv loininij nn indeclinable particle with anolher word. The resulting compound, 
in which the indeclinable particle forms £;rncrally (he first element, is again 
-indeclinable, and generally ends, like a<lvcrl)s., in the ordinary terminations of 
the nominative or accusative neuter. Thus ^f^fK ' upon Hari,' ^5^ 'after 
the form /., e., accordingly.' 

The word ^ in the sfltra shows that here ends the definition of 
avyaya. The avyayas, therefore, are all those words which are comprised 
in the above five sfltras. 

What is the object gained by making the avyayibhava compounds avy; 
yas? Three objects are gained, by making these compounds, indeclinable 
wV., we can apply to them (i) the rule relating to the elision (wT^r;) of the cast 
affixes and feminine affixes, i.e., sutra If. 4. 82 thus, in the following example, tli 
words upagniand pratyagni though qualifying the word salavah, do not take tin 
gender and number of the latter, ^rf^T JT^rf^T :(T5rr>Tr: "T?rr% (2) the rule relalini 
to accent wheft'an avyaya is compounded with the word mukha, (\^ ^X), '■'■■ 
sfltras VI. 2. 167 & 168. Thus, T3rr»^ ^■. , here, sutra VI. 2. I67, required iIk 
final vowel to take the udatta accent, but the preceding word being an avyaya, 
satra VI. 2. 168, intervened, and the first word retains its natural accent; (3) 
the rule relating to the change of visarga : into ^, this change being technical- 
ly called TT^rr: thus 7irT«r;^rr: , gr77^:^rT: , as compared with ?nfa^ 
Here, the compound rrnr; being treated as avyaya sdtra VIII. 3. 46, appli« 
and prevents the change of : into ^. 

The four sOtras 38,39,40, and 41 have all been enunciated under the svar- 
adigana. see sfttra 37. These sdtras properly, therefore, belong to the ga?a- 
p^; their repetition here in the AshtadhyAyl indicates that these rule.'- ai* 
%t^m or not of universal application, i-!«., all rules relating to avyayas in gene- 
ral, do not apply to them. Thus II. 3. 69. declaring that the genitive case « 
not used along with an avyaya is nota rule of universal application, forwe see 



Qg, I. Ch. I. § 42, 43. ] Sarvanamasthasa. 33^ 

ideclinabJes Jike ar^'rl'.' governed by the genitive case as, ^4t4)|«l: ; or ^J^fsr 

42. The affix m (VII. I. 20) is called sarva- 

This defines the word sarvanamasthAna. The affix fir is the 
nominative and accusative plural termination of neuter nouns. It replaces 
the ordinary nominative and accusative plural affixes W^ and ^r^ used 
in every other gender. The 5 of Rr is servile, and the actual termination 
is f ; the peculiarity of the affix f^ is that it lengthens the penultimate 
rowel (VI. 4. 8) and adds a qr (VII. i. 72). Thus the plural of T5T ' fruit' is 
fBlft ' fruits.' So also afc^rR ffre#<T , and ^TgTr% ^n. l-iere, there is no 
iifference of form in the nominative and the accusative cases. So also 
MR , T"fftT , ^^Pr. The word sarvanamasthana occurs in sfitra VI. 4. 8. 

ffTt; 1/ arTsfff 1^ T^^T st^TPRinTH^rrR >mw ^3*i*i<i'ii-H ii 

43. 'The first five case affixes comprised in the 
pratyahara sut. (i. e., the three case-terminations of the 
nominative, and the singular and dual of the accitsative) 
ire called also sarvan4masthina; except tlie case -affixes 
)f the neuter gender. 

This defines further the word sarvanamasthana 
onsin Sanskrit are 21 as arranged below : — 


sr ( ^r ) 


The above are the 21 vibhaktis, the 3^ of 3T5, the ^ of ?J5, the ? of ^ 

*c. are mdicatory. All these vibhaktis are included in the pratydhSra ^ formed 

^y taking the first vibhakti and the last letter of the last vibhakti. Similarly 

e first five terminations (5, ^, sr^, sq^ and ^ ) are represented by ^ 

are called sarvanamasthana in the masculine and feminine genders. In 

eclension of nouris, it will be seen, that some nouns have two bases, one 

I """^ ""'se sarvan4masthftna and the other before the rest 

















The case-termina- 














34 Samprasarana. [Bk. I. Ch. I. § 44, 45 

Thus the word n^ 'king' has the base rnfRt, before the 5^ vibhaktis 
while in the remaining cases, the base is rr^and rPT as ;— 

Sing. Dual. Plural. 

Nominative Ktm trsiT'fl' rrsTTT: 

Accusative rrsTPT^ Tnrnft rrir: 

Instrumental rRTf rfsp-^f n^Tpf: 

But in the neuter nouns there is no such difference. 

?! ^ f^Wm II 88 II tR[Tf5I II T, ?rT, ?ft, ftflW II 

44. "May or may not " is called vibhAsh4 or 

This sfttra defines the word f^sTRT- We had already had occasion to 
use this word in sfttras 28 and 32. Where there is a prohibition as well as 
an alternative course left open, it is called option or vibhashS. The commen- 
tators mention three kinds of vibhasha: — prapta-vibhusha., aprapta-vibhSshi 
and pr^ptAprapta-vibhasha. The first occurs where there is a general rule 
already given, and then follows the optional rule ; the second belongs to that 
class where there is no such general rule, but there is an optional rule, the 
third is intermediate between the two. 

Thus the rootf^ ' to swell,' by virtue of the rule fipTTTT V! (V. i. 30), 
forms its perfect tense, either by samprasarana, or in the ordinary way. 
Thus the third person singular is either ^JJJJ or RTTWPr. 

TTf(^'' ^K^[xm^\\ 8<< II q^Tfnii ?^, vw., ^mv^j 

^- II ^Tfr im: PTPT sj5fr Hrff tt mt( ^wnmrft^w e?rr 'nfw 11 
4,'5. The ik vowels winch replace the semi- 
vowels ya« are called samprasara??a. 

Thissiflines the word samprasarana. It is the name given to At 
change of semi-vowels into vowels. The pratyah^ra ik includes the four simple 
vowels ?, T , gj and ^ , and their corresponding semi-vowels areW,5,T, 
and 55^ included in the pratyahara yan. The word sampras&rana is properly 
the name of the vowel which has replaced the semi-vowel. Thus the past 
participle of r^i^' to sleep,' is formed by adding the nishtha affix ^ (see 
sfttra 26). So that we have ^vi + ST. But there is a rule (VI. i. 15) by which 
there is samprasarana of the 7 of ?^7 before the t%fr affixes, and we have the 
form ^: ' slept.' Similarly from ?5;3t1rr:, ^,-^1 , *!t^-f^: , TSr^M- "?■' 
SSr?[,. The term samprasarana is also employed to designate the whole pro- 
cess of the change of the semi-vowels into vowels as in VI. i. 13 ; VI. 4- '3'- 

f^: II WTf?fFnr?f 9rwr; f^^sr^t q-^ r^ftsrw 11 


IK. I; Ch. I. § 46, 47; ] Augments f^, pR-j, and ^ . 38 

^^_ > 

46. Of whatsoever the augments enunciated 
ire distinguished by an indicatory r or ^ , they precede 
31- follow it accordingly. 

This slitra explains the special use of two of the indicatory letters 
■ and a^. Where the indicatory letter of an augment is ^ that augment is to 
le placed before the word in the genitive case with regard to which it is en- 
oiued ; while a fi(i^ augment is to be added after the word exhibited in the 
ith case with regard to which it is enjoined. Thus, there is a sdtra (VII. 2. 
5) which says " Ardhadhiituka affixes beginning with a consonant exceptor, 
ave X^". The question may arise where is this ^r to be added, in the beginning 
r the end or the middle of the drdhadhfituka affix ? This sutra answers the 
uestion. The indicatory ? shows, that it is to be placed before the fi,rdha- 
hatuka afifix. Thus the future termination ??rf?r, is an (irdhadh&tuka affix : 
'hen this is added to the root, it takes the augment fz. Thus w + f^ + ^?rf^ = 
f^lffft, 'he will be.' Similarly STf^^fr ' he will cut'. 

Similarly by sdtra VII. 3. 40. the root Hf takes the augment jy in 
)rming the causative. This having an indicatory sr^ is to be added after 
le word hF, as, jft -l'w^ + fcrr^ + ?r= sft'T^ ' he frightens.' 

f^T'^^TJS^m^TIT: II 8l9 II ti^Tfvr II (%! , 'SV^i, ^SfixVW^, "ffKi H 

^Trf: II ^^r grvrr^iffHHW^ITf'W: Tfr fttr^rT II 

47. The augment that has an indicatory i, 
omos after the last among the vowels, and becomes the 
iial postion of that which it augments. 

This sAtra explains the use of the indicatory ^. The augments hav- 
gan indicatory ^^, technically called f^ augments, are placed immediately 
ter the final vowel of a word. Thus there is an augment called sm, in which 5 
id \ are f^, and the actual augment is ^. When, therefore, it is'said "let ^ be 
Idedtothe word," the letter ^ is added after the last vowel. Thus the plural of 
T^ 'milk' is formed in the following way : — TTH + fi![+T (VII. i. 72) = n<) r f?tl 
'• 4' 8)- Here ^ is added between ^ and ?r t. e. after the ^ of ^ , which is 
e final vowel of the word: and before this 5 the preceding short vowel is 
ngthened. Similarly yg; + :cr + f^ (HI- i. 7?) = JW + J^ + V + Rt (VI. 
59) =■ 5^1% I Similarly w ^ au^ . 

The word ^q^: is in the genitive case, having the force of nirdhira- 

' *"' specification ; it has the force of the plural, though exhibited in the 

S" ar, being taken as representing the class. The meaning is 'among 

vowels.' This sfltra is an exception to steas I. 1.49 and III. i. 2, by 

®" *ffix is added at the end of the word exhibited in the 6th case. 

fnere is, however, an exception, in the case of the root »f?iT, in 

,e 'the short of diphthongs. [Bk. I. CH. 1. § 48, 49. 

— ''~~~~ ; , . , „„r,ffpr the last vowel *r of iT, but between 

FT ana ^. j .i,„ - k elided Thus i??^ + ?ir = 1?W + 55. + 

;fltra VIII. 2. 20. applies, and the f is eiKieo. ^ - -^ 

tr (VII. 1. 60) - HW!K + ?rr = Ts^ + ^ ^^"- ^^ 

merse". So also h«T: ' immersed,' >l»;m5, T????:. 

48, Of-T^ vowels, T^Js tlie substitute, when 
short is to be substituted. 

This sfttra points out the jf^ substitutes of ^. We know there are 
ihort and long vowels in Sanskrit, but properly speaking the 5^ vowels have 
10 corresponding short vowels. Therefore, when, in any rule, ^ vowels are 
told to be shortened, this sfltra declares that the short vowels of ^ and ^, ^ 
and ^l for the purposes of the rule, will be f and e respectively. Thus, I. 2. 
47 declares:— "the short vowel is the substitute in "the neuter of a crude form 
provided it end in a vowel." Therefore in compounding ^rTrT + T , the ^ 
nust be shortened. Properly speaking jr has no short vowel corresponding 
to it, but by virtue of this sfltra, f supplies the place of such a short vowel, 
and we. have ^F?rfr 'extravagant' so !^, ^mj 'disembarked or landed,' 
rfr , 3<T!I ' ^^^^ ^ '^°^'' ^^^ avyayibhAva compounds are neuter (II. 4. 18). 

Why do we say ' of 57Br '? Because the short of other vowels will not 
je f% Thus the short of ^ is ^. As, ^r% + '^r = tlT^m^- , ^Pw + ItSTf - 

Why do we say ' when short is to be substituted ? ' Because when 
Rrl or prolatcd vowels, are to be substituted for ^ , the ^ will not be the 
substitute. As ^^^ Devadatta I ^^ff ! 

"wt ^m^ift'n II 8^ II ^^f^ II v;^ , ^i^-^t ii 

ff%: II f? ^rrir ^r t^ «JTfH?nmnir v^tw m wi*i4i5it i^ ^n^vn 
?in%%Tf'if'rTrwt #% ^ stftm-rtoiii ii 

49. The force of the genitive case in a sMra 
is that of the phrase '' in the place of" when no special 
rules qualify the sense of the genitive. 

This sfttra explains the mode of interpreting words used in the posses- 
sive case (sixth case) in the sfttras of P&nini. The genitive case or shasnt 
denotes many sorts of relations in Sanskrit, such as causation, possession, re 
tion in place, comparison, nearness, proximity, change, collection, compoi' 
member, &c. So that when a word is in the genitive case in a stltra genera ji 
the doubt may arise in what sense that genitive is to be used. This apho" 

Bk. I. Ch. I. § 50. ] The liIcest is the substitute. 87 

^ '. t 

lays down the restrictive rule for the interpretation of such words. It says 
that the force of such genitive is to convey the meaning of ' in the place of.' 

Thus in the sfitra 3, the word f^ is in the genitive case ; the literal 
translation being : — " of ik there is guna and vriddhi." But " of" here means 
by virtue of the present rule of interpretation " in the place of." So that the 
sutra means ' in the place of f ?r. ' Similarly in the sfttra immediately preceding 
this, vis. 48, we have the word ^ in the genitive case and the sdtra means 'of 
ir«r .' Here also " of " means " in the place of." 

Thus in s.utra f^^ (VI. 4. 36) ' of hanti, there is sr' the word ^^, is the 
genitive of ff??r ; this genitive is used generally and its force is that of " in the 
place of." Therefore, sr displaces the verb ^^ in sff? or imperative mood, and 
we have »T^ ' kill thou.' 

This siitra is also thus translated by Dr. Kielhorn : — Only that which 
is enunciated in a rule, i. e. that which is read in a rule or rather that which 
in the real language is like that which is read in a rule in a genitive case, 
or that which forms part of that which is enunciated in a genitive case, 
assumes the peculiar relation denoted by the word ^Vfpj ' place ' i. e, is that in 
the place of which ssme thing else is substituted, but some thing suggested 
by the former does not assume that relation. 

The word ?«nT here is synonymous with SRI^ or 'occasion.' Thus 
in the sentence ?%iirf ^TT^ ?T^: fwft^is^, the word sth4ne, means 'prasange' 
i. e. wherever there is occasion to spread darbha grass, spread there the ^ara 
instead. Similarly in sUtras ?r?^: (II. 4.52), or f^ ^Pqr: (II. 4. 53), the 
words 'asti,' and 'brd' are in the genitive case, and mean, ' wherever there 
arises occasion to use the verbs ^qr^ or a; use there the verbs ^ or ^^ instead 
respectively.' Thus >n%WT , Hi%f^, Hm^^, are the future, gerund, and pas- 
sive participle respectively of ^5; so also, ^rirr, ^^^and ^^irnw are the 
same torms of \. 

The word (evt^T^^ is a bahuvrlhi compound of two words, not in 
apposition, (vyadhikarana bahuvrlhi, see II. 2. 248 35), and it qualifies the 
word shashthl. The compound means WR" '^nftj^'fr, ' that which assumes 
the peculiar relation denoted by the word sth4na.' Consequently the seventh 
case-aflRx is not elided in this compound ; on the analogy of compounds like 
^T'^rar: &c. 

'Wr^J'flt^TT: H \9 II tl^rf^ II 5Wl%-3l'?M:'R'r: II 
^: II ?«TT% ui':«l*imJHN«-«<.*('H «nwt T^ «p[nTT: II 

50. "tVhen a common term is obtained as a 
substitute, the likest of itssignificates to that in the place 
of which it comes, is the actual substitute. 

I „-,„i».iTv r Bk. I. ch. I. § so. 


— ' ~ Z ITntlipr rule of paribhasha. To explain this 

This siitra also lays down ano rt- le p ^^^ .^ ^^ ^_ ^ 

we must take an example ^he g ? o T >^ ^^ ^.^^^ j^ ^ 

There is nothing to ^P^;^^ ^ ^ j f ; LfinitiL as lai down up to so 
be said that <r is the guna of f ^^''""'l' ^f go that when in a 

far do not say anywhere that STT is not the guna ot f . 

'rdiekw'e are told- let there be the guna ofr'we do no know what 
pecific guna letter is to be substituted, whether it -s^-^or^ To clear 
up this doubt, this sfltra declares that the likest of .ts is to be subs- 
tituted Now the nearest in place to f is ^, both having their place of pro- 
nunciation, the palate. Similarly ?fr is the guna of ?, because both are labials, 
There are four sorts of proximity or nearness :— (i) nearness in 
place or m^ (/. e. palate, throat &c.); (2) nearness in meaning or ^ipi- ( such as, 
singularterminations to be used after words used in the sense of singular); (3) 
nearness in quantity or Vfm (such as a short vowel to replace a short vowel, 
a long vowel, a long one); (4) nearness in quality or iTHT (such as aspirates to re- 
place aspirates, and sonants to replace sonants). Of all these approximates 
the first vis., the nearness in the organ of utterance has preference, in the 
selection of proper substitute. 

(i). Thus in applying rule VI. i, loi, " when a homogeneous vowel 
follows ak, the corresponding long vowel is the substitute for both," we 
must have recourse to the present sdtra for finding the proper vowel. Thus— 
^aj + ^jpj = ftrj-pT ; here the substitution of the long ^, tor the two short 
m's, is an example of substitution by nearness of place, for both ^ and ^ 
are gutturals. 

(2). A good example of substitution by the sense of the word is 
afforded by VI. i. 63 :— " The words If , ?g^ , fH &c., are the substitutes when 
the case-affixes ^rf, (acc.-pl.) &c., follow." Here, we know the substitutes, 
but we do not"JAow of what they are the substitutes. We apply the maxim 
of'JT'Jfr: "that only can become a substitute which has the power to express 
the meaning of the original, ;. e., a substitute takes the place of that the meaning 
of which it is able to express," Thus we find that <r5_ is the substitute of 
TIT) ?5 of ?^,15 of sTTRrarr, &c., which convey the same meaning and con- 
tain almost the same letters. Another example of this is afforded by VI.3-34i 
by which feminine words in a compound are changed into masculine. Thus 
^rrWKfem) + irifH = THT^iig^:. 

(3). An example of prosodial substitution (smnSTW:) is afforded by 
rule VIII. 2. 80, "^ is the substitute of what comes after the |^of W^"**' 
ending in f^and in the room of ^ there is »T ." Thus ^pr ■(• ^ = W^ ■*" 

f{^ = «rT»lr ; w!+ »«n?L = 'nir+>-?ni,(Vii. 3. io2)=»(in[.+3!*?rr^ •= ^r"^' 

Here, short 5 replaces the short ^, and the long ^ replaces the long W- 


Bk. 1. Ch. I. § 51.] The «t5 substitutes of ^. 39 

(4). An illustration of qualitative substitution is afforded by VII. 
r 52, " a letter of the guttural class is substituted for "5^ and ^ when an affix 
having an indicatory % follows." Applying the rule of irCTfr: we find that 
af which is an alpaprina and aghosha letter replaces '^ having the same 
quality; while ^ which is ghosha, and alpaprina is replaced by the letter »r 
possessing similar quality. Thus <r^+ w^ {III. 3. i8) = 'TRr:; «rf + q^= 

Though the anuvritti of the word was understood in this s<itra 
from the last, the repetition of this word indicates the existence of the follow- 
ing paribhAshi : — 

Wherever there exist several kinds of proximity between that for 
which something else shall be substituted, and its possible substitutes, there 
the proximity as to the organ of speech is weightier than the rest, t. e., there 
that only is substituted which is nearest as regards the organs of speech 
with which both are uttered. 

Thus in finding the guna substitutes of f and 7 out of the three guna 
letters >i(, ^ and ?jt, we find that ^ is a proximate substitute having regard 
to prosodial measure; i. e., ^ and if and gr have all one matr4 ; while having 
regard to the proximity of the organ of utterance, we get 5; and sjjt; the 
latter however prevails to the exclusion of the first; as, %?n', ^ffrfTT- 

Why do we use the word " likest " in the superlative degree ? Where 
there are many sort of proximities, the likest must be taken. Thus qr^ + 
f^%=^n^reft. Here, by VIII. 4. 62, " after a letter of ^;?[ class, 5^ is changed 
into a letter homogeneous with the preceding," 5^ must be changed into a 
letter of the class 55^. Out of the five letters of this class, ^ and r are both 
ispirates, but cr is hard, and f^ is soft ; so ^ and f are both soft, but »r is ' 
unaspirate, and f^ is aspirate, therefore these must be rejected ;'Nshe only letter 
which has the nearest approach to 5^, is ^, which is both soft and aspirate. 
Similarly in Pr«ff?Rifw, the ? has been changed into H- 

gt^n^J II \^ II ^l^rfil II ^: , sn^^, K-^i II 

51. When a letter of ^1 praty4liara comes as a 
substitute for ^ it is always followed by a r. 

This sfltra consists of three words vt's., ?: which is the genitive singular 
[•'^and means literally 'of^' or ' in the place of^'; the second word 
'^T%a praty6,hdra denoting «r, f and ^ long and short; the third word 
" ^: which qualifies ^"^ and means ' having a r after.' 

This sfltra is useful in fixing the proper substitutes of ^. Thus, there 

40 Substitute replaces the final. [Bk. I. Ch, I. § 52, 53 

» ] 

are only three guna vowels «r . ? and ^. Of these what is the proper guna fo: 
^ ? By the application of the rule of ' nearness of place ' we see that ^ U 
the nearest substitute. So that «ff is the guna of ^T; and further by this 
rule, this ^ must have a ?:^ after it. Thus though technically speaking ^ is 
the guna of gj , the actual substitute is %(r. Thus fr+fir-^r^; similarly f^^ 

So also when ^ is replaced by f as by sfltra VII. i. 100, this subs- 
titute f must be followed by a r. As ^ + '!rr%='f* + J^+irfir=ftftfir 'he 
scatters;' similarly PlTr% 'he swallows.' 

So also when gj is replaced by 5 , as by sutra IV. I. 115 this ^ must 
be followed by a 15;^. As ft + HV^ + ^t't =■ prrgt: 'son of two mothers' 

This ^ is to be added only when gf is replaced by ^,f or j 
( VH ) vowels , and not when it is replaced by any other letter. 

Thus by IV. i . 97, " the gj- of the word gt^r^ is replaced by ?f^ (tech- 
nically ^pr? ) when the affix |^ is added." Thus, g\jr!r + ^-^^ „ =^ ^ 
■V^ + ? = ^nTr%: , ' a descendant of Sudh^tri ' Here the substitute of 
^, that is to say, the syllable ^cj;^ is not followed by r. 

The r in the text has been taken by some to be a pratyShSra formed 
by the letter r and •jf of sr-T ; and thus it includes the letters t and fj. In 
that case the sfltra would mean that ^5 substitutes of gj- and 5| are always 
followed by 5^ and ^ respectively. Thus guna of ri=ar, of !i=al. 

52. The substitute takes tlie place of only the 
jlnal letter (of that which is denoted by a term exhibited in , 
the genitiveor sixth case). 

The rule of substitution by nearness of place applies to the last 
letter of the word which is exhibited in the genitive case and not to all its 
letters. Thus by sfltra VII. 2. 102, it is declared «jfr#Tm: "in the place of «? 
&c., there is ^." It does not mean that the whole word r^, is replaced by 
V ; though at first sight it may appear to mean so ; but it means, by virtue ol 
the present explanatory sMra, that the last letter of Rrf, namely ? is to be 
replaced by sj. 

So also in sfltra I. 2. 50 f^-rvif. the short f replaces only the final letter 
°^y ^"<^ "°' the whole word, as T*Rt%: ' purchased for five gonis' 


Bk. I. Ch. I. § 53, 54. ] fi^ Substitutes.. 41 

53. And the substitute which has an indica- 
tory" ^ (even though it consists of more than one letter) 
takes the place of the final letter only of the original 

This sdtra is an exception by anticipation to sfltra 55. By that all 
substitutes, consisting of more than one letter, replace the whole word. 

Thus in forming the dvandva compound of »ira' and f<r^ there is a 
rule (VI. 3. 25) by which it is declared: — ' In the place of words ending in 
^ there is the substitution of mn^^in forming dvandvas.' Now the substitute 
^ITii^is a fl^ substitute, and therefore it applies to the /as( letter of the word 
and not to the whole word, viz, the ^ of ^J^ is only changed into ^fr and not 
the whole word ; and we have the compound »TT?rrfi"«T^, so also fWrfnTn^. 

There is an exception, however, in the case of the substitute W^rS' (VII. 
I. 35) which, though it has an indicatory 5;, yet replaces the whole expressions 
5 and ff and not only their finals. As sfhTTT^ ' may he live, or may you live'; 
instead of sft^ 'may he live,' or iftq' ' live thou.' 

WT^: HT^ n H» " ^^ u «n|:, rn:m, ( oro: ) n 

54. That which is enjoined to come in the 
room of what follows is to he understood as coming in 
the room only of the first letter thereof 

When any operation is to be made in a. word /o//owtfi^ another, such 
operation is to be made in the initial letter of such subsequent word. 
To give an illustration: — there is a rule (VI. 3. 97) by which it is declared : 
" In the place of ^<^ used after the words ft- and ^g^^ and the particles called 
97^ there is \." This rule may be stated in other words as>T»' In the place 
of V^ there is f- when (jfT follows f^ or ?ptir' Now it is clear that |- is not to 
replace all the letters of ^<^ but only one. By sfltra 52 that letter would 
We been the last letter of ^>^, but this sfltra makes an exception, 
namely, where an operation is directed to be made in a word, simply by reason 
oi its being placed after another word ; such change is to be made in the 
beginning of such second word. Therefore, the f replaces the Sf of ^rj and 
we have fir + ^r^r, =^ (the final ^ is added by V. 4. 74) ' an island,' vp^^i^ 
'promontory." So also in the sfitraf^: (VII. 2. 83) ' long f is the substi- 
«te of ^pf ^jjgn tjjg i^jjg^ comes after the root ^jtt^.' Thus ^n^ + VT = 
^ + t^ = imfhr: . Here also the f replaces the initial %r of ipr. 

How can we find when an operation is to be performed on a subse- 
word ? When the previous word is exhibited in the 5th or ablative case 
'«e sfitra 67. 


^ SUBSTITVTES. [ Bk. I. CH, I. § 55, jft ^ 

( 3?Tt«r: ) M ^ _^ _^ 

55. i. substitute consisting of more than one 
letter, and a substitute having an indicatory ?r take the 
place of the whole of the original expression exhibited in 
the sixth case. 

This sAtra is an exception to sfltra 53 by which it was declared that 
an ftdeiSa or substitute replaces only the last letter. This sfltra on the contrary 
enjoins that an adesa consisting of more than one letter replaces the whole ex. 
pression in the genitive case, and not only its last letter. Even where an 
ftdesa consists of a single letter, but if it has a 5 as its indicatory letter, it re- 
places the whole word. 

Thus, there is a sfltra f^^: (II. 4. 53) which means 'in the place 
of f let there be vs.' Here the adesa ^ consists of three letters (more than 
one), and therefore, it replaces the whole word 5 and* not only the last letter 
ar. That is to say in forming certain tenses the rerb H is replaced 
by T^. Thus the future tense of Jf is TTfT ' he will speak.' 

So also there is a sfltra (V. 3, 3.) by which it is declared; — "In the 
place of XV[ there is fsr." Here the Adesa f is an Adesa having the W for iti 
indicatory letter, and though it consists of only one letter, it replaces the 
whole word f^, and not only its last letter >^. 

Of course, it must be understood that the phrase ' consisting of more 
;han one letter' applies to the actual substitute, and not to the substitute with 
its indicatory Tetters, the latter being for the purposes of counting regarded as 
nere surplusage and not to be taken into account. To see whether an affix is 
lJ*i*lbrl_or not, the indicatory letters must not be counted ; and the affix must 
)e stripped of all its ?f letters. 

irra^RiT ^n^f'i'^r ii 

56. A substitute (adesa) is like the former 
)ccupant (sth4ni) but not in the case of a rule the occa- 
lion for the operation of which is furnished by the letters 
)f the original term. 

This is an explanatory sfltra, or this may be considered also as an 
tideia sfltra, in as much as it declares that the operations to be performei 

gK. J. Ch. I. } 56.] Substitute is like the priscipal. 

on or by the original, may be similarly performed on or by the substitut 
but with certain restrictions. The words of this sfltra require some detaile 
exposition. SthAni is the word or the portion of a word which is replacec 
^desa is the expression which replaces something. Al-vidhi is a compoum 
of 'ai' meaning alphabet, or letters in general, and ' vidhi ' rule i. e. ani 
rule applicable to letters. 

There is an exception, however, to this rule in the case of rules, th< 
occasion for the operation of which, is furnished by the letters of the origina 
term. That is to say for the purposes of orthographic rules, an Mesa is no( 
like the stha,ni. A rule which is applicable to the letters of the sthdni, need not 
be applicable to the letters of the Adcsa. 

Thus the gerund of verbs is generally formed by adding the affix 
FffT e. g. »r? + ?^r. Now VII. 2. 35. prescribes the insertion of an intermedi- 
ite ir; before ardhadh&tuka affixes beginning with any consonant exceptor- 
This rule is clearly an al-vidhi, because the occasion for its application is con- 
lilional on the letters of the affix. The affix ?iit begins with ?^ and is an ardha- 
IhAtuka affix and fulfils'all the conditions of the rule. Therefore, we have 

ji;+f + ?Tr = ir^f??jr(Vi. 1. 16; vii. 2. 37). 

Now in compound verbs the affix ?7r is replaced by ?r (tech. ^5^). 
Thus ^ijf + If, This (Idesa ^ which takes the place of ?Tr has all the func- 
tions of ?^ viz. it has the power of making gerunds; it makes the word an- 
indeclinable (see rule 41 ante), as the affix iqx does. But the affix ?^ takes 
an intermediate f ; should, therefore, the adesa ^ take also the \ or not ? 
Now the augment f which ?^ takes is by virtue of VII. 2. 35, because it be- 
gins with a consonant of ^ pratyahara ; while ?r is the only consonant which 
is not included in this pratyfl,h4ra. Therefore, for the purposes of taking \ by 
rule VII. 2. 35. the idesa 7f is not like f^r; since that rule is^^one which has 
Its scope when there are certain initial letters ; or an al-vidhi. T'herefore, we 
have ^ijfr. 

Substitutes replace either a ^TJ ' root,' or an ?j^ ' base,' or a krit 
affix 'primary affix,' or a taddhita affix ' secondary affix,' or an avyaya ' inde- 
clmable,' or a ^7 affix 'case affix,' or a f%^ affix 'conjugational affix,' or lastly 
the full word or pad a. 

The substitute of a dhfi.tu becomes like a dh4tu. Thus siitras II. 4. 
52 and 53 declare : — 'w is the substitute of the root wh, and ^u of the root 
» When an ardhadh&tuka affix follows.' Here the substitutes ^ and tw are 
treated as dhitu, and as such get the affixes fTWT &c. by III. i. 96, &c. Thus 

The substitute of an anga becomes like an anga. Thus VII. 2. 
edares: — ' tup is the substitute of the base f^^ when -a case-affix follows.'' 


Here, ((r gets the designation ' base ' and so rules applicable to base, are 
applied to * also. Thus in WH , ^SP^^ , 4>: &c., we have fsT, the lengthening 
of the vowel, and ^ substituted by VII. I. 12, and VII. 3. 103, and VII. i. 9. 
The substitute of a krit affix becomes like a kfit affix. Thus VII. i. 
37 declares : — ' wj^ is the substitute of the krit affix tRT when the verb is a com- 
pound, the first member of which is an indeclinable, but not fn ' Here, v^ 
is also called a krit affix, and as such, siitra VI. i. 71 applies, and ^ is added. 
As Jry+wrj = 11^ + ?!^ + ^= H^(H ; similarly If^Rf &c. 

The substitute of a taddhita affix is like a taddhita. Thus VII. 3. 50 
declares :— ' f^ is the substitute of the affix jr ' as ?f^ + 5!|[ (IV. 2. 18) 
" ?nf^^ , here, f^ being treated as a taddhita, sutra I. 2. 56 applies and the 
word formed by it, gets the name of prfttipadika, and is so declined. 

The substitute of an avyaya is like an avyaya. As, JRjw ; JTWr. 
The affix tRT makes avyayas (I. i. 40), its substitute P^ will also make the 
word an avyaya, and as such sfttra II. 4. 82 applies, and the case-affixes are 
elided after these words. 

The substitute of sup-affixes becomes like sup. Thus VII. i. 13 de. 
dares.— '«r is the substitute of the sup-affix # after an ipflective base ending 
in short vr- Here, j( is treated as a sup-affix, and therefore sfitra VII. 3. 102 
applies, and there is lengthening of the vowel, as, firnr; IRTR. 

The substitute of tiii becomes like tiii. Thus III. 4. loi declares :- 
' W»t, Wf:, n and %rx are substituted for «^ , ^ , ^, and i^ when tense-affixes 
havng indicatory ^follow.' Here the substitutes ?rPf &c., also make the 
>vords ending in them pada by rule I. 4. ,4 as, iffF^, ^^^ &c. 

The substitute of a pada is like a pada. Thus VIII. ,. 21 declares :- 
'T»^.s the substitute ofj^, ^vi,^^^m^, and^of^^, ww?^ 
and,mr^.'^ere,iTfTand;r5 are treated as pada, and the final 5 is 
changed into visarga, as T: , sf: . 

Why have we used the word ^ in the siitra ? Without it the aphorism 
would have been ^^n^ms^tr^, and this being a chapter treating of defi- 
nitions the meaning would have been, 'an Sdesa is called sthftni.' This 
certainly is not intended, for had it been so, then all operations would be per- 
formed by or on the substitute, but none by the original. But this is not so. 

thesub?ttu''f ' Tu''^ "°* '^ P^^"'^^^ "^y ^ - ^t-nepadi.' « 
hesubstituteoff^w.llbeatmanepadt,as,n^;tutt^aIso will be so i» 
Its proper sphere, as, ^nw. ?-^ <..!.o w m uc 

even to p^rtXubt W '' "''' ''" ''' ^''" '° '"'""'^' ^"at the rule appli« 
Z^lT^t^^^^^^^^ into. (1,1.4.86) in the 

The word al-vidhi is used ia orfer to indicate that the substitutes WW 


BK. !• Ch. I. § 57.] Substitute is like the principal. 45 

,^ , nff &c., such as the change of ^ into <f^ (VII. i. 84 ), 5^ into «rr (VII. i, 
85), ?into tf (VII. 2. 102 ', are not to be treated like the original : as vh:, <r«ir:, 
^: Had these substitutes been treated like the original, rule VI. i. 68 would 
apply, and the case-affix ^ would have been elided. 

ft^, ( ^T^ra^ ^V: ) H 

57. A substitute in the room of a vowel 
caused by something that follows, should be regarded 
as that whose place it takes when a rule would else take 
effect on what stands anterior to the original vowel. 

This stttra consists of three words: — «r^: genitive of the pratyfihira 
11^ meaning 'of a vowel,' and means an Adeja which takes the place of a 
vowel. The words dde^a and sth&nivat are understood and are to be supplied 
from the preceding sfltra. The second word is 'parasmin' loc. sing, of 'para' 
meaning 'in the subsequent.' The locative has the force of ' on account of or 
by reason of.' The tiiird word is pflrva-vidhau loc. sing, of purva-vidhi mean- 
ing 'a rule applicable to a preceding thing.' The whole sfltra thus comes to 
mean that an &de^a which replaces a vowel, becomes sthAnivat (like vowel), pro- 
vided that the substitution has been occasioned on account of something fol- 
lowing and when a rule is to be applied to anything preceding such an Ade^a. 

Thus there is an affix called rCTS. the actual affix being f; the other 
letters <^ and "^ being pt. The peculiarity of every affix having an indicatory 
1. is to cause the vfiddhi of the penultimate Hr ', (s<ltra VII. 2. 116) as 
"+T'=Trf^. Now in forming the denominative verb from the word 75, we have 
to add the affix ftr?^. Thus <T5 + T; but before nich, the 7 ofx<K is substituted 
hy a 'lopa' or blank, and this blank takes the place of the vowel ?■ of S^ and 
becomes sthinivat by force of the present sfltra. The result of becoming 
sthinivat is that though the V of ^ is really a penultimate and ought to be 
vriddhied before 'nich' it is not so, the lopa-substitute not allowing the %r tobe 
regarded as penultimate, and thus we have the form <j^ the present tense 
third person singular of which is "TTstRt. The equation being <r^ + • + f, the zero 
Pfeventing the %f oi'jf^ from becoming penultimate. So also in the word Hfir^t 
tl>eaorist(5^)of^t, Thus^T + Tf + fw-W+TSl+' + t?' Here, the ir oif 
'^ "s elided by VI. 4. 48. (when an ftrdhadh4tuka affix follows there is elision 
of the short «r of that which ends in short Sf ;) this elision is thus caused by 
something which follows (parasmin.) Nowthere is a rule (VII. 2. 7.) which de- 
clares 'vriddhi is optionally the substitute of a laghu %f preceded by a consonant 
;*l>enf||^(aori8t) follows.' However in the present case the zero is consi- 


thelong^of^by*VlI.4..5;becauseof the subsequent (parasmu,) affix 
W. However the word ^| will not be considered as a word m a 
.hort vowel, for the purposes of the application of rule VI. . ^T4, the ud&tta 
ccent falls on the last vowel but one of a word that ends .n a short vowel 
andisthelastmemberofabahOvrihi compound followed by the affix kap). 
On the contrary the shorty is regarded as stlmnivat to long ^. Thus 

"* * U is needless to sav that this rule applies only to vowel Adesa, there- 
fore where an ddesa replac'es a consonant, the previous sfltra 56 has ,ts scope 
and prevents its being slhanivat. Thus there is a krit affix called ^7- the rea 
suffix being .r, the ^ and ^ being diacritical letters. Before th.s ^ the verb 
^nRt (to come) loses it ^ , and lopa or blank takes the place of n. Here 
then lopa or blank is an adesa and 1 a consonant is sthani. 

Now there is a rule which says (VI. i. 71), that before knt affixes 
having an indicatory g^ , the letter W is added after velbs ending in hght 
vowels. Now in ■^mr'j , when ?r is omitted, the '?T of n becomes final ; and 
therefore a ^ is required before 7f (which is a ftH affix). Thus we have ?rni^. 
But had lopa,pr blank become sthlnivat to ^ then the ^Sf of n would 
have remained penultimate as it was when it was^rnt'^; and no ff would have 
been required. But it is not so. 

Similarly in forming the word W-- Thus Ji^W + si^ (HI. 3-9°) 
,^ + ;T^ (VI. 4. 19). Here, ?T is substituted for ^; this will not be stlianivat 
to 5^; though this substitute is caused by something that follows (parasmin . 
Were it to be^tiftnivat, there would come the augment §3^ (?) by 'VI. i- 73' 
Similarly iJI?I?ICT?r, the aorist of f ^ . Thus ^ + fw + i%'^+nT5. ='"''■ 
^w + » + m«r;(VIII. 2. 26). Here the H is elided on account of what follows, 
but still the lopa substitute here is not sthdnivat for the purposes of VIII. 2.4'' 
Had it been sthanivat, «r of frq[^ would be changed into aff . 

Moreover this rule applies where a vowel is changed on account cj 
something which follows (parasmin). Therefore, where the change has no 
been occasioned by anything subsequent, the adesa (though of a vowel) ' 
not sthSnivat. Thus the words g^iHR: and ijyfl*ilflt .' 

The word g^sn^ is a bahuvrlhi compound of g^Rf and snW, ™** 
ing ' he who has a young wife.' In forming this compound, the w of W" 
placed by Pr C tech. ^^ ) by sttra V. 4. 134. This pr will not be sth^niva^ 
to <n> as it is not caused by anything which follows. Had it been regaf 
assthftnivat, the 5 could not be elided by VI. 1.66 ('there is elision 


Bk. ICh. I. § 57.] Substitute IS LrKE THE PRINCIPAL. 47 

md ^rwhen any consonant except f or 5 follows'). Thus, J^nnfr+f'r=«5T- 

iir^ + o + Rr(V. 4. 134) = jr^^rri^: (VI. i. 66). 

Similarly the word ^j| | t)HH ! , ' a descendant of sTrnm^ ' also illus- 
rates this rule, sjn^qr?. is a bahuvrihi compound of nrrsT and fpf, meaning 
whose foot is like that of a tiger.' Now the final %{ of ' pada ' is elided in 
;uch compounds by V. 4. 138. This lopa substitution is not caused by anything 
hat follows, therefore, this lop&desa will not be sthanivat for the purposes 
)f the application of sfltra VI. 4. i3o('<T5,is the substitute of the word <n^ 
vhen part of an inflective base ending in the word 1T^ and entitled to the 
lame of Blia. I. 4. i8'J. Therefore, < >< ||g i iy +n^ rIV. i. io5)=|^rwr«r:. Had 
he lopa been like the original, there could not have been the substitution of 
'pad ' for 'pad.' 

Similarly the word ^^'if, ist per. sing. atm. present tense of the root 
t>ft 'to shine.' Thus ^jT^vff + ?T=?ITtr>ft + tr (HI- 4- 79)- This change off 
nto 5 is not caused by anything that follows, hence ?[ is not sthAnivat to Xi 
or the purposes of the application of rule VII. 4. 53 (' the finals of didhi and 
evi are elided when an affix beginning with ?f or f follows'^. Had ?[ been 
thAnivat, the final f ^would have been elided. 

Similarly an tldesa though of a vowel, and even though occasioned 
y a subsequent something, would not be sthanivat, if there is npt the applica- 
ion of a rule to something that precedes the adc^a (pflryfTvidhi). If the 
ule is to be applied to something subsequent to the Adc-'a ; it will be applied 
3 the exact adeiSa without considering what was the letter which the adesa 
ad replaced. It is only when a rule is to be applied to a prior object, that 
; becomes important to consider whether the adesa is sthAnivat or not. 
hus the vocative case of jff is ? "fl": I The vocative is formed from the 
oniinativc case (II. 3. 49). The nominative of jff is forjned by chang- 
ig STJf Into ^ and adding the case termination H . Here the Mesa ^, 
eplaces ^fr, on account of the subsequent termination W . Now there 
' a rule applicable to vocative cases which declares that the final fr is drop- 
'ed after short vowels and ir and ^ (VI. i. 69). 

Now is the ^ of WV to be regarded as sthanivat to Sift, which it re- 
'laces ; for the purposes of this rule of elision of finals ? If so, the conse- 
l"ence would be that the final ^ would have to be dropped in the vocative. 
"t It is not so. BeAuse the rule VI. i. 69, which ordains the dropping of ^ 
"er short vowels and 5 and ^fr applies to a letter, which is not anterior to 
^adesa^, but to one which follows it, and consequently there being no 
' fva-vidhi here, the final fr is retained and we have the vocative ift: 1 

Similarly the word ^nrrNr:, 'the pupils of Babhravya.' The word 
'"'*' 's derived, from w» in this wise. ^ + »r*L ( IV. i- 105 ) = wfr. 



+ ,^ (VI. 4. 146 and VII. 2. 117) = WW?: + '»?. (VI- L 

From this is formed ^^I^ in this wise:-irW«r+ ^ (IV. 2. 114)- 

^,+ter (VII. I. 2) = ^? + i^ (VI. 4- >48) = «rm^ + e'(Vl. 4- 150). 

Here, had the substitute ^?^ which replaced the ^ of rw, been sthan.vat to 
vr Tule VI. 4. 150 ('there is elision of the ^ of a taddhita affix coming after 
a consonant, when long f follows'), could not have applied. But th.s sub- 
stitute ^^ is not sthanivat for the purposes of rule VI. 4. 150, inasmuch as that 
rule does not apply to any letter th^i precedes the substitute ^TK . b"tto the 
very letters of the substitute itself. 

Similarly the word 1^:, which is evolved from the root >IT, in this 

wise^ +>IT + r^ (III- 3- 92)=^ + >^ +r (I. 3- 8) = ^+ ^ +•+ T (VI.4.64) 
= r4^. Let us then form a secondary derivative from the word r>tf^ applying 
VKiW I 122), the whole of which affix is replaced by ^^r (VII. i. 2). Thus 
f^ + ^ = fipi + ^ (VI. 4. 148) = ^ (VII. 2. 118). Here, the lopa 
substituted for the ?rr of >Tr by VI. 4. 64 is not sthanivat for the purposes of the 
application of IV. i. 122 by which the affix vs_ is added. Rule V. 1. 122 says, 
'dhak is added to a word ending in %, provided it be a word containing two 
vowels.' Now f^ ends in % and contains two vowels ; but if the lopa were 
sthftnivat to the elided ITT, then it would be a word of three syllables. That 
is however not so ; because the rule enjoining the affix 5^ is not applicable 
to anything preceding the lop<1desa, but is enjoined with regard to something 
after this substitution. 

f%f^, ( ^ff ti^ ) 

-<"68. Not so, in rules relating to the finals of 
words, to the doubling of letters, to the affixing of varacli, 
to the elision of ya, to accent, to homogeneous letters, to 
anusvAra, to the lengthening of vowels, and to the substi- 
tution of ja* and char letters. 

This sfltra lays down an exception to the previous sfitra, by which it 
was ruled that an idesa which replaced a vowel becomes sth&nivat under cer- 
tain conditions. This sMra says that a vowel ide-Sa is not sthanivat under 
the following circumtances. 

I . >TOwrf%f^— ' A rule relating to the last letter of a word.' Thus the 
HI of ^ is elided before the terminations of dual and plural numbers ( vl- <■ 
in). Thus we have %(^ 'he is,' W: ' they two are,' ?#T ' they are.' Now i" 
the technical phraseology of Sanskrit grammarians, the 'q* of W: and ^Ip" 


Bk. I. Ch- I. § 58. ] Substitute is like the principal. 49 

replaced by an 4desa called gSt?^, the peculiarity of which is that the whole of 
it vanishes. So that before the word W: there is this idesa existing, though 
it is in an invisible form. This invisible 4desa will be sthanivat, as it replaces 
a vowel, by reason of something that follows, i. e. the affixes rf: and ^r^ 
being ft^ (I. 2, 4) ; and it will have all the powers of %r by the last sfitra, in the 
absence of any rule to the contrary. Therefore, in the sentence ^??T:'who 
two are' the final ^ of ^and the invisible ^ of ??T: ought to coalesce by rules' 
of sandhi into 5JTT (VI. I. 78). But this incongruity is prevented by the pre- 
sent sfltra, by which the change of ^ into ?ri7 is a T^f!^ ftw or a rule relating 

to the finals of a word, therefore, we have ^irt: I So also in r{j(H ^rfstf, rule VI. 
I. 77 is not applied. 

2. fl^-^HpllvT: ' a rule relating to the doubling of letters.' In the sandhi 
of IM + ^r^ we have tfvspf. Here f is changed into ^. If this v were slhanivat 
;o?', then the rule by which vj could be doubled before 5 would be inappli- 
:able. But ^ is not equivalent to f, though its substitute ; and we have the doub- 
ing of ^and get the form ^■epT- Therefore, in rules relating to the doubling 
jf letters the ddesa is not equivalent to the sth3,nl. 

3- =l^ftf>T: 'a rule relating to the affix ^T^.' The affix ^t:^ is a krit 
iffix which is added to certain roots to form nouns of agency ; thus from fq^ 
to rule ' wc have fj;^: ' ruler.' So from the intensive verb z(rmA we have 
irnrr^r: ' a vagrant.' It is formed in thiswise ^HfTT + ^ri HI. 2. i76)=;inTrw + o 
+ ^(VI. 4. 48). Here the^ of Tf has been dropped and replaced by lopa, on 
ircount of its being followed by the Ardhadhatuka affix ^r^. . The next 
'top is to drop the ?( by rule VI. 1.66 which declares that the letters ^ 
ind ^ are dropped before affixes beginning with any consonant except 
I !■ c, beginning with consonants of ^^ pratyilhAra. Thus Tjnrr + o + 'TT. 
*low there is a rule (VI. 4. 64) which declares that the final long ^ of a base 
s dropped before ardhadhfl,tuka affixes having an initial vowel.-» Here there- 
ore, if the adesa ' lopa,' which replaced the vowel ^, be considered as sthanivat, 
ind ^^ be considered as an affix having a latent initial vowel, then the iSfX of 
fRr requires to be dropped. But this siitra prevents this and we have the form 

fnim-; as, ^cj ^?jmr: sm^ ft^rrg^ n 

■l- tSTfT^f^: 'a rule relating to the dropping of ya.' Thus there is 
I verb ^'r^ 'to scratch'. In forming an abstract noun from it, the affix fir 
tech. %i^) is added. Thus ^"^ + fir = ^"ff + «> + f%, the -JT of nbeing 
'foppedby VI. 4. 48. Now there is a rule (VI. r. 66) already mentioned above 
*nich requires the elision of ^ before consonantal affixes. Now if the lopa- 
"bstitute be considered as sthanivat to v, then the affix fir is not an affix 
'^^'"g an initial consonant and the rule, which requires the dropping of 5, 
'f <ild not apply. The present sfltra, however, provides for this, and we have 
•le form ^fo^:.. scratching.' 




, ,,Tf^:'arulereIatingtoaccent.' There isa sfltra (VI. 1. 191 
which says that when a word is formed by an affix that has an indicator 
« the vowel that immediately precedes such an affix has the udAtta acceni 
No«,»fH is an affix that has an indicatory 5, the real affix bemg ^ 
(VII i^i ) It is an affix used in forming nouns of agency. Addin| 
this affix to the desiderative verb f^f^ 'desirous of doing' we have;- 
f^^ + ^ » pRfU: + • + ^nr, the ^ being dropped by VI. 4. 48 
Now if the zero be considered as sthAnivat, then the accent must fall on thii 
latent V but it is not so. The accent falls on the f of ^; and we hav( 
fkR^I^: , so also fil^W*: II 

6. ^ffiSf^: ' a rule relating to the substitution of homogeneous 
letters.' To explain this, let us form the second person singular of the verb 
ft^ in the imperative mood. The affix f^ is the sign of the second person 
imperative singular; and the verb ftr5[^ belongs to the seventh-class of verbs 
called Rudhadi. This class of verbs take the vikarana IT^r^ (III. 1.78) the 5 
and ^ being indicatory the real affix is T- This ^r is inserted between the 
radical vowel and the final consonant (I. i. 47). Therefore we have the follow- 
ing equation:— ftrs!; + ^nr + ff = ftr + T +?: +fl = fe + 5:.+ o +W + f^. The 
%}• of ST is dropped by VI. 4. in, which declares that the ^ of !pr^ is dropped 
before those sArvadhatuka terminations which are ^r^ or ft^w . By 1. 2. 4 
all sArvadhatuka terminations which have not got an indicatory 1 are consi- 
dered as f^ The affix f| therefore is a ^?^ s^rvadhdtuka affix, and by rule 
III. 4. 87, f| is to be regarded as ^if^ , not having an indicatory <^. The next 
stage is :— ftr + 't+»+«(+f^; the f| being changed into f?r by rule (VI. 4. ipi) 
which says that ' r? is changed into f^, when it follows a root which ends in 
a consonant of ?r^ pratyahdra:' here ^ and ^ are changed by general rules 
of sandhi into^^ and ^ and we have % + 5^ + o-t-^ + f| (VIII. 4. 41). 
Then there ira rule (VIII. 3. 24), which says that in the body of a word the 
q; is changed into anusv^ra when followed by a consonant of 5^ praty&hara.' 
Therefore we have :— f|r + * + »+^ + ft. This is the form to which the 
present rule is applicable. Thus, there is a rule (VIII. 4. 58) which says that an 
anusvAra followed by a letter of ?r^ pratyah&ra i.e., any consonant except 5, »I 
^ and » is changed into a letter homogeneous or savarna to the letter that 
follows. Therefore, if we regard zero as stha,nivat to the «r which it replaces, 
the anusvira cannot be changed into % as homogeneous to |f. But it is not to 
be so regarded, and we have the form fij + «5[-h^-h ft- ftrt^f or ftrf**; 
so also f^f^. 

7- Tf^TIT^I^: 'a rule relating to anusv4ra.' The above example 
will sen'e the purpose here:— ^ + q[ + « + i^r + ,1. jhis by the rule al- 
ready mentioned (VIII. 3. 24), requires the 5 to be changed into anuBvS«' 


)K. I. Ctt. I. § 58. ] Substitute ts like the principal. 61 

^ow if zero be considered as sthinivat, then ^ is not followed by a letter of n?^ 
iratyihira , and cannot be changed into anusv&ra. However, the zero is 
lot regarded as sthinivat, and we change the 5 into anusvira. Other 
Mmples are fir + 5L + • + R + Vff^ = fiL t V l *<f ; so also fhi^ II , 

8. ^t^ftft': ' a rule directing the substitution of long vowels for 
ihort vowels.' Let us form the Inst. sing, of the noun g ftfti f'^. The ter- 
nination of the Inst. sing, is sr or ^. Therefore, we have siftrt^ +^r-=srfifftl. 
i-*+%+^- Here the ^ has been elided by rule VI. 4. 134, which teaches 
hat words ending in ST^ lose their ^ before terminations technically called 
Bha. The termination of Inst. sing, is a BAa termination by force of 
ule I. 4. 18. The next rule that now comes into operation, is VIII. 2. 77, which 
equires the lengthening of the short penultimate vowels, of the jf^ pratyA- 
lara, of words that end in r or ^ and are followed by a consonant. Here 
1^ is a root that ends in ^ ; and if the zero be considered as sthanivat, then 
his V is not followed by a consonant, but by a latent vowel, and so the short y 
)f R^ will not be lengthened. This rule, however, provides for such length- 
ining, and therefore we have :— nf^^ + o + q^ + ^ = JlPr^fff II 

9- ^Rjltl^: , ' a rule requiring the substitution of soft unaspirate 
:onsonants, of pratyahira sr^r, in the place of hard consonants ' In this case 
ilso the Adesa that takes the place of a vowel is not sthanivat. 

Let us add the affix ^f^ to the root ^ 'to eat,' compounded with the 
vord ^ or WftH- In Vedic literature ^ is replaced by ^, (II. 4. 39); so we 
lave, ?r+«r'Er+^'J=^ + «TT+i%=tr+«r + <) + H+Pr (VI. 4. ioo)=^+Br+» + 

>+f%(vin. 2. 26)= ^+5.+ o+»+f^(Viii. 2. 40). 

It is at this stage, that rule VIII. 4. 53 requires the % to be changed 
nto ir. This is a ^ rule, and teaches that in the place of letters of p?^ 
:Iass, the letters of 3r»J class are substituted, if followed by lette,rs of |Ht class. 
'f the zero which was obtained by dropping the ^ of «T, be considered as 
!th4nivat, then the f is not followed by a consonant of ^ class, and cannot 
5e changed into Jj;. But it is not so. Thereforegsj^ +o + i>+Rr-?rf*^:(Yai. Ved. 
IvVIII. 9). The various rules, by which first ^ is omitted, and then jr is 
dropped, have been referred to in brackets, and will be explained in their proper 

Similarly the word >r»^ , which is the Imperative (lot) 2nd per. 
Jual of the root Hf , and is thus evolved. This root belongs to the Juhutyidi 
='ass, and therefore, there is reduplication. Thus HW+ffl^-H^ + TW + IRl = 

* + *f5 + «iT?t - T+TH + ifr»!; - T + 5T + • + ^ + ?rrg; (VL 4. 100) - ^ + 
^ + • + • + nr5.(Vni. 2. 26) =^ + ^ -T « + + ^ (Viii. 2. 40) - ^ + ?: 

**•*•* + WS^^ •= Vf^ll Here the change of w into f^ is by the applica- 
K* of VIII, 4. 53, which is a ja^ rule, and therefore, the zero is not sthdnivat. 



,0 -^m: ' a rule requiring the substitution of the letters of 
' I-"""' .u»rrrtn<:onants' In the application of this rule, 
sr pratylhara instead of other consonants. i ^ vt 

, 8) = «T + ^« + ^ (V'l- 4- 60) - ^ + ^? + ^^ (Vin. 4. 54) ■= '« + 

" At this stage comes the -^ rule in operation, which says tha the 

letters of |T5T pratyah^ra are replaced by those of ^ pratyMiara, when follow- 
edbylettcr^of^^pratyihara. Here 5 is a letter of ^ class, and 1 ^cro 
is not sth4,uvat, it is followed by 5 which is a letter of ^ class, and there 
fore tr is required to be changed into ^ of -^r class. By the present rule, zero 
is not' sthftnivat and thus we have :-3r^ + «gi=SRT5: (VHI. 3. 60). 

Similarly ^RT? the 3rd per. plural of m. "s thus formed;— gf + 

rf^ + f^ + ^'= ^ '+ ^^ + ^nr (H. 4. ?o) = ^ + 5 + . + w + gra: (VI. 

4.98). Here had the lopa been sthanivat, rule Vlll. 4.55 could not have 
applied. But it being a char rule, the lopa is not sthanivat Therefore we 

have, 5RT^ • 

When lopa is tlic substitute of a vowel, it is not sthanivat, for the 

purposes of the application of the rules of accent, rules relating to the doubl- 
ing of letters, and the rules relating to the elision of ya. In other places, 
with the exception of the above three ; the lopa substitute of a vowel is, and 
must be treated as sthilnivat. Thus W%^^: , fk^: , fijW- , ^rsff: • In these 
cases the lopa-adesa being sthanivat, the rules relating to accent, lengthen- 
ing and the elision of ya, do not apply. 

j^^jft II H<5 II xi^fsr II %9^^, orf^, ( wfst^^. 

W^9j: , ^^: ) II 

|f%; II %qr^5if¥¥ff jf% 'sr^rrt'sr: ^TrTsmr^fif fj'ra'r ?r7 ^"^ ii 

59. Before an affix having an initial vowel, 
which causes reduplication, the suhstitute which takes 
the place of a vowel is like the original vowel even in 
form, only for the purposes of reduplication and no 

This sutra has been explained in different ways by the authors of th^' 
Kasika and of the Siddhtota Kaumudi. According to the latter, the sfltrt 
means :— 'when an affix beginning witha vowel follows, that is a cause of re- 
duplication, a substitute shall not take the place of a preceding vowel, jwhils' 
the reduplication is yet to be made : but the reduplication having been ma'^*' 

BK. I. Ch. I. § 59- ] Substitute is like the principal. 63 

the substitution may then tai:e place.' The explanation given by Kasika 
is more in harmony with the Great Commentary. For all practical purposes, 
th&tvvo explanations lead to the same conclusion. According to Kasika, 
the vowel-substitute is sth&nivat, in the sense, that it is exactly of the same 
form as the original, and retains this form only for a fixed time viz., so long 
as the reduplication is being made ; but as soon as the reduplication has been 
made, the substitute takes its proper form. This rule has its scope in the 
rules relating (a) to the elision of long VIT, (b) to the elision of the penultimate, 
(c) to the elision of the affix ftp^, (d) to the substitution of semi-vowels for 
vowels, and lastly (e) to the substitution of ^, Vf\, ?)T^ and «flTJ for ^, sff 
^ and ^ respectively by the rules of sandhi. 

(a). Elision of ^. Let us form the 2nd person perfect tense of 
the root qi 'to drink.' The termination of 2nd person perfect is ^Tjw. This 
is, therefore, a termination beginning with a vowel, and it causes the redupli- 
cation of the root. The conditions of the present sfttra all exist in this. 

Thus we have qr + «r?9 = ? + » + ^IW (^'- 4' '^4)- ^^'"^ ^^^ ^ '^ elided 
by VI. 4. 64. which leaches that ' the ^ of the root is elided before firdha- 
dhatuka affixes beginning with a vowel and which are ^5^ or fe^ and before 
?r .' The affix V(^ is such an affix (I. 2. 5,111.4. 1 15). 

Now comes the rule about reduplication which is contained in sfitra 
VI. I. 8, and teaches that a root consisting of a single vowel is reduplicated 
before the terminations of the perfect. Here, by the elision of son, the only 
visible root left to us is T which is a consonant without any vowel.' The rule 
3f reduplication, therefore, would not have applied to it, because there is no 
rowel in it, but for the present siitra, which solves the difficulty. Here the 
rawel-substltute zero must be considered sth4nivat i. e. as if it were the very 
srr itself. Thus we have <Tr + SL + *+ T?^ - TT^H (VII. 4.^59). The long 
51 of the reduplicative syllable has been shortened by VII. 4. 59.' So also <rj:l 

(6). The elision of the penultimate. Let us form the same tense of 
ra.'to kill.' ir^ + ^H = 5. + » + 5, + W?^(VI. 4. 98). 

Here also the preliminary conditions are all fulfilled, the affix begins 
*ith a vowel and it causes the reduplication of the root. The penultimate 
T of fsr is replaced by the substitute lopa by VI. 4. 98, which teaches that the 
ootsjf^^ito go'f5;'to kill' and a few others lose their penultimate before 
iffixes beginning with a vowel and which are also fif^ or flpn. We know 
^35 to be such an affix. For the reasons already given, we can not redupli- 
•ate the consonants 5^ as they have no vowel. However, this reduplication 
s effected by virtue of the present rule, and we have :— f + f + Wf^ = 
"^^ (VIL 4. 62, YII. 3. 55). The first f, is changed into ar by VIL 4. 6/ 
^•"1 the second 5^ into g; by VII. 3. 55. 


64 Substitute is like the principal. [Bk. 1. Ch. I. § 59, 

(c). The elision of the affix ftr^. Let us form the Aorist (lufl) of the 
causative form of ^. The causative is formed by adding the affix ftr<[ to 
the root ; and the aorist takes the augment V- Thus we have :— *r + tfr 
+ f5Sr^ +fj=,jj7^ +f +5.-Vrf:,+r+^+?- The affix nf (HI. I. 48) is added 
in forming the aorist of causatives. Tlie letters ^ and f are indicatory, 
the real affix being %{. Now by VI. 4. 51, the affix ftr^ is elided before an 
irdhadhatuka affix that does not take the intermediate f . Now "^ is such 
an affix. Therefore we have ^in? + • + tl^. 

At this stage, comes into operation another rule (VI. 1. 11), which de- 
clares that ' the root is reduplicated before the affix ^^ .' The ^ is, thus, 
an affix which causes reduplication; it is an affix which also begins with a 
vowel. Therefore, it satisfies the conditions of this sfttra. Therefore, the 
zero which was a substitute in place of the vowel f, becomes sth&nivat 
to jf ; as if it were the very f itself. Thus we have the reduplicative syllable 
ft, by rule VI. i . 2, which says that a verb beginning with a vowel reduplicates 
its second syllable. But as soon as the reduplication is over, the Adesa takes 
up its original form of zero. Thus «nft^ + • + m^ = V\ ^H . 

(d). The fourth class of cases, where this su^ra has scope, is the 
substitution of ?n. for vowels. Thus let us form the perfect 2nd persor 
singular of fr 'to do' ;— fr + tj^ = ^ + «rf^, the semi-vowel ^ taking 
the place of ^ by the general rule of sandhi VI. i. 77. Now we have already 
learned that iTf5 is an affix which causes reduplication and it begins with 
a vowel. Now j- is a substitute which comes in the place of a vowel (i. e., ^), 
it will therefore be sth4nivat by this s6tra. Had it not been sthanivat,' 
the consonants w could not be reduplicated, as they have no vowel. The 
substitute ^ being taken equal to gj, we reduplicate fr; in reduplication the 
^ is changed into-g^by VII. 4. 62, and ^ into m by VII. 4. 66. Thus wc 
have :— ^wj.*"; similarly ^(Uf; | 

(e). The fifth case is the substitution of ?r^ &c. Let us form 
ist person singular of the perfect of ^ 'to lead:' «ft + l!r5=.i-Kr-«rrw + 
V[. The t is vriddhied before the termination m of the perfect (VII. 2. ns), 
and then changed into ^rr«r by the general rule of sandhi (VI. i. 78). Nowthe 
«rofthe perfect causes reduplication, and it is an affix which begins with 
a vowel. It satisfies the conditions of this sAtra. Therefore the ^w which 
was a substitute for |r, being a vowel substitute, becomes sthanivat to ? in form. 
In reduplicating the word ^jv , we reduplicate as if if were still ^. Thus we 
have the form fit^ and not ^PTR. Similarly fSm, ^^, and «5TTT. 

Why have we used the word " dvirvachane" in the sfltrl ? Without it, 
the aphorism would have stood thus:-" Before an affix having an initial vowrf 
which causes reduplication, the substitute which takes the place of a vowet 

BK. I. Ch. I. § 60.] LOPA DEPINED. 


is like the original vowel." Let us form nft^ the 3rd per. sing, perfect tense 
(^) of the root r^ " to be exhausted," in the atmanepada. The affix of 3rd 
per. sing. atm. of lit, is ?3^(III. 4, 81). Thus >^ + ?p^ = igrr + ^ (VI. i. 
45). Now here ^ is changed into •s(t, on account of the affix ^; this affix 
causes reduplication, but still tn is not to be considered as sthlnivat to ^. 
For if wr be considered so, then in the next stage 'Wr+^=i5T+o + m 
(VI. 4. 64)thelopa will be regarded as sthanivat to ^ and the reduplicative 
syllable will be fir and not it ; the form being flr^ and not SPST. But %n is 
not sthftnivat to^, because >r the purposes of reduplication, the change of 
^ into ^ is immaterial ; it is the second and further change of «rr into zero 
which is directly connected with reduplication, (for if zero be nof considered 
sth&nivat, there can be no reduplication) ; and therefore, this substitute zero 
should be regarded as sthAnivat to ?n'. 

Why do we say "which causes reduplication?" Without these 
words the sAtra would have stood thus :-" Before an affix having an initial 
vowel, the substitute which takes the place of a vowel is like the original 
vowel, for the purposes of reduplication." In that case we could not get 
the form |?gnsrffr, 3rd per. sing, dcsiderative present tense of ^ 'to shine, to 
»lay.' This form is thus evolved r-ft^r+^rg; (III. i. 7) =f| + 3:+'if^(VI. 4. '19) 
=!^+3f +^ (VI. I. 77). Here, the change of f into W is caused by 37 (tech. 
r^), which begins with a vowel ; is this ^ to be regarded as sthinivat to \ ? No' 
)ecause 37 does not cause reduplication, it is ?r?r which causes reduplication' 
Therefore the equation is :-^+ ^ = 5^ (VI. i. 9) =^,^^. jf , ^q^,^ ^'^ 
egarded like f, then the form would have been ^«j<sit%. 

Why do we say "beginning with a vowel"? Otherwise the sfitra 
^ould have run thus:-" Before an affix which causes reduplication, the subs- 
itute which takes the place of a vowel, is like the original vowel for the 
urposes of reduplication." The affix ;^ of the Intensive verlJs causes re- i.9);butasitdoes not begin with a vowel, the substitute 
'"not be sthAnivat. Let us form 9W^^ the 3rd per. sing. Intensive of 
'e root w'to smell.' Thus 5rr+*r^ = ift + ^ (VIL 4. 3,)=irsft^ (VIL 4. 
). Here, ^ ,s changed into | on account of ?f^ j but f^ is not sthftnivat 
"rr; had it been so, the form would have been 5rjft«t%. Similarly \ci^^. 

^i^-m^ w^ 5ftT rfhr ^ >rTfiT ii 

60. The substitution of a blank (lopa) signi- 
es disappearance. 

This defines elision. When a letter or word-form becomes latent, 

66 Pratyava-lakshana. [Bk. I. Ch. I. § 6i, 6 

is neither heard, nor pronounced, nor written, it becomes lopa or is said to I 
elided. Lopa is the term for the disappearance of anything previous! 

In Sanskrit Grammar, this " lopa" is considered as a substitute or Mem, and as such th 
grammatical 2*«> has all the rights and liabilities of the thing which it replaces. This blank or lof 
is in several places treated as having a real existence and rules are made applicable to it, in the sam 
way as to any ordinary substitute that has an .ipparent form. The Grammarians do not content then 
selves with one sort of blank, but have invented several others ; there are many kinds of them, sucl 
as lopa blank, s\a blank, lup blank, and luk blank, which like different sorts of zeroes of a Matheraa 
tician, have different functions. 

The word lopa occurs in sfitras VI. 1.66 and VI. 4. 118 &c. 
The lopa substitute is a sense substitute, and not a form substitute. Thus 
when we say ' let the substitute lopa take the place of such and such a 
letter or word,' we do not mean that the letters ?i , ^ff, ^and ^ should be 
substituted there, but the sense of the thing, namely 'disappearance.' 

( ST^Slfw ) II 

Gl. T]ie disappearance of an a;fflx when it is 
caused by the words Ink, slu or lup are designated by 
those terms respectively. 

When an affix is elided by using the term luk, that disappearance 
gets the appellation of luk, similarly when an affix is elided by usinj- 
the terms slu or lup, the disappearance gets the name of slu or lup. ' 

Thus in ^^+5j<^^+r%=3^-^.heeats.' Here the vikarana^r7 has 
been ehded by using the word luk (II. 4. 72). Similarly in ^?>r% 'he^n- 
vokes, the vikaranauTT is elided by the word slu (II. 4. 75), so in ^^ 'a 
city in the v.einity of weeds called varanA.' Here the Taddhita affix indicat- 
ing vicinity has been elided by the word lup (IV 2 82) 

r«n.hus::5;;;::;::^::t::;:^::.t:Z'nfitr^" "'^ -r r 

for the te„ of the words. ° ""^ '" '"''" '^- 3- ^^ "•"« would have been the substitution of'W' 

T'ir: I. j^,3tl% ft «r«R5r^ ji^-^pf ^r^ ^, „ 

Qo™^ fhp .i" T-^r '^'''°'' '^^^'^ ^ffl^ ^^« taken place 
Popa) the affix still exerts its influence, and the opera- 
tions dependant upon it, take place as if it were present 

BK. I. Ch. I. § 62. ] Pratyaya-lakshana. 5* 


This sfltra declares that when an affix disappears by lopa-elision its 
potency does not disappear. Thus the term 'pada' is defined to be thai 
which ends in a case-affix or a conjugational-affix. But after certain bases 
these affixes vanish; still those bases become 'pada' in spite of the 
vanishing of the whole affix. How can an operation directed by an affij 
take place, when the affix itself vanishes, is a doubt which may natural!) 
arise. This sfltra answers the question. Though an affix may be elided b) 
lopa, yet an operation of which such an affix was the cause, must take place 
Thus ^firf^^ is a pada though the case-termination has been elided. Simi' 
larly the wordgjvr^f ' he milked;' which is the Imperfect (wTf) of 5^, and is thu5 
formed, ^rf + f%5r = 9ifrir + 5 (HI- 4. ioo)=^5^+» (VI. i. 68) = gT?r^ + « 
(VIII. 2. 32) (here J is changed into q' by taking the word 'aduh' as a ' pada ') 
5r^g;+o (VIII. 2. 37) = ^TPT (VIII. 2, 39) = ?PTf^. 

Why have we used the word !T?^^ in this aphorism again, when its 
anuvritti was understood in this sutra from the last ? This repetition indi- 
cates that the present rule applies where the whole of the affix is elided, and 
not when a /(7»'//t7« of an affix is elided. The present sdtra, therefore, does 
not apply to forms lij<e ^JTifN' and ^sr»»ft«r. These forms are the ist person 
sing, ^w Atmanepada of fq;^and jt>t. Thus ^jT?gr + ?T = 'iSfX^ + ^r (III. 4. 
106) = ^ryg: + ?ft|r^ + ^{\\\.\. 102) = ^r?'^ +tTa + '3r. Here, CTa portion 
of the affix ?fr?l^ is elided by VII. 2. 79 ; now there will be no JT??r^5T^l!T of 
this partial elision of an affix. Had it been so, the final nasal j of ^rf=l 
would have been elided by VI. 4. 37 : but that is not so : and we have ^rsft^ 
(VII.3. 54and VI. 4.98). 

The word ST^cr means that by which a thing is recognised. The 
word iR?r«r5T^«!T, therefore, means the effect by which an affix could be recog- 
nised. The orthographical changes, like the following, are not however 
pratyaya-lakshana. In forming the genitive singular of ^ 'wealth,' we have 
* + ^^ = rra':, here, the change of ^ into ^ar by the rules of sandhi, 
though caused by the affix ^h; is not such an effect, which the affix causes, 
h virtue of being an affix, hnt it is an effect caused by the accidental fact, 
hat the affix begins with a vowel, and thus gives scope to the euphonic rule 
'• I. 78. Therefore, when in forming the genitive compound of tnr: + 
^, we elide the case-affix ^fw, we get the form ^5TR. Here the elided affix 
not cause the peculiar orthographic change mentioned above, which is 
dependent upon its letters, and not upon the affix as such. 


58 Pratyaya-lakshana. [Bk. I. Ch. I. § 6;; 

• < * _^— ______ 

63. Of the base (anga), whose alHx has bcei 
elided by the use of any of the three words contaiiiiiij 
g , the operations dependent on it do not take place, re 
garding such base. 

This sutra is a special exception to tht; previous aphorism whic 
was too extensive. It declares, that when an affix is elided (by using th 
•words ^^ , 5f5 , or J7 , then the ' sign ' or ST^CT or the peculiar virtue of th 
affix also vanishes. Thus there is an important difference in the elision of a; 
affix by force of the words sjij^ &c. ; and by the word 5Tr7. In one case th 
virtue of the affix subsists inspite of the elision, in the other it does not. 

The word ^^ in this sutra requires some explanation. " A root 
followed by a suffix (pratyaya), is raised to the dignity of a base (pratipadika] 
and finally becomes a real word (pada) when it is finished by receiving; 
case-termination (vibhakli). livery base, with regard to the suffix which i 
attached to it, is called Anga, body." 

Thus the word Jr%: is the plural of the word JiT'^f: , The word ITT^ 
is formed by adding the affix ?r^ to ir'T (IV. i. 105) ; the force of the indica 
tory 3^ being to cause the vriddhi of the first vowel of the word (VII. 2. 1 17) 
But in forming the plural of IF^', rule II. 4. 64 presents itself, which declare: 
that there is /iik of the affix ^>l when the word takes the plural. Here th( 
affix ^ITT is elided by the word /;//■, whith means not only the elision of tk 
■tf of iip^ but also the shortening of ?rr into ^, that is, the affix being elided 
it vanishes altogether, leaving no trace behind, in the shape of the vfiddhinj 
of the first vowel, which the affix was competent to cause. 

Similarly ^t. is the 3rd per. dual present tense of ffr 'to clean.' It 
belongs to Adadi class in which the vikarana^jqr is elided by 'Ink' (II. 4, 72); 
and hence there is no vriddhi substitution, which would have taken place by 
VII. 2. 1 14, (the ik of the base f^ is vriddliigd before verbal affixes). 

Similarly 'H^rT: ' they two sacrilice ' ; here the vikarana Jj^ has been 
elided by using the word 'slu' (II. 4. 75, let slu be substituted in the room 
of sap after the verbs hu &c). The effect of this elision is, that there is no 
[Tuna substitution of the vowel of the base, which ^r^ was competent to cause. 

When an affix is elided in any other way than by the enunciation 
)f the three terms containing w, it is competent to cause its proper effect. 
Thus ff + fcT^ + ?f^ + % = ^rfr + ^T^ + ^ = ^rr + ^^^ + fr = afrrit^. Here the elision 
)f the affix nich is by ' lopa,' (VI. 4. 51) and hence though the affix vanishes, 
ts effect remains. Why do we say ' in respect of an Anga or inflective 
lase ? ' Obser\'e "T^g ' five,' ?nr ' seven,' TH: ' milk,' gfT ' s4ma veda. 
iere in the word paucha, the plural case-affix is elided by VII. '• ^^ 


Bk. I. Ch, I. § 64, 66. ] Tl DEFINED. 5£ 


(after the words called shat, the -sr^ and jj^ are elided by ' luk ' ) 
Here the affix is elided by enouncing the word ' luk,'' the result is 
that the affix cannot produce any change which it would otherwise have 
caused, in the anga or inflective base; such as lengthening, as in rajan, 'a 
king,' I. p. rajanah 'kings.' But though it is inoperative as regards the 
anga, the elided affix is not altogether inactive. It retains the virtue of rais- 
ing the base to the dignity of a pada. Thus:— <t^5;+=rrH = <T^+ o, (luk VII. 
I. 22). The word panchan is now a. pada, and as such, it drops its final sr. 

04. TJie fliiiil portion of ;i word, hcg-imiin*^- witli 
the last ainong tlie vowels in tJio word, is called ^ . 

This sutra defines fz. It is that portion of a word which is included 
between the last letter and the nearest vowel. Thus in the word ^rf*'!'!^?^ the 
portion ysr is f?; so also in ^rf^fr the portion ^rf. The word f% occurs in 
hutra III. 4. yg. 

The word ^=^: in the sutra is in the genitive case, which has the 
force of nirdhArana or specification ; and though it is in the singular number, 
il represents class name, meaning 'among the vowels.' 

%••, ^TTvn II 

05. The letter immediately preceding the letter of a word is called tlie penultimate. 

This defines TTVJT or penultimate. Thus in the words q^, r'*r^ , s\t, g^ 
he letters ?T , ?• , gr , and ^ are gnr^T. 

The word 'upadha' occiirs in sfttra VII. 2. 116. 

crf^f^f^ fnf^tt "^^ II i^ II TT^tfir II ?rf^5T^, ?%, 
^\^, ^^ II 

CO. When a term is exhibited in the seventh 
-ase in tliese sutras, the operation directed, is to be 
■^laderstood us afiecting the state of what immediately 
Pi'ecodes that which the term denotes. 

This is a declaratory or interpreting sOtra. When in a sdtra, a word 
"sed in the locative case, the operalion ordained by that sfitra is to be per- 



fornied on the word preceding it. Thus in the sfltra f^ TCTTn (VI. I. 7?) the 
word ^ is in the locative case, which sfttra, therefore, means thatj T, ^ ^ 
followed by a vowel (^) are changed into 5, ^- ^ ^. ^^^V J*"" '"''•^' 
translation of the sMra being:-' Of T^ there is ^r-r in ^. The force of 
',«' orthe locative case being to induce changes in the letter preceding the 
vowel. Thus fT^T + 3T^ = ?'-?f^'3; ; so Tfi^ , "T^'fR^ " 

The word nirdishta (meaning 'exhibited') has been used in the 
sfttra to indicate immediateness. Thus in ^rf^rf^g;, ^le f of ^Ir is not direct- 
ly followed by they of r^5, there being the letter -^ intervening, therefore, 
rule VI. 1. 77, does not apply here : and we have no sandhi. 

^^TTf^?5^T^ II ^19 II ^^f^ II ^^^^ . T^, ^^^, 

ffrf: II rrwrftRr TgwfSrF^ ^Tir^'l^ ^rSr w^r t f^ ii 

67. All operation caused by the exhibition of 
a term in the ablative or fifth case, is to be understood 
to enjoin the substitution of sometliing in the room of 
that which immediately follows the word denoted by 
the tei'm. 

This sutra explains the force of words in the ablative case when 
employed in these aphorisms. As the locative case refers to a preceding 
word, so the ablative refers to a succeeding word. 

Thus sAtra VIII. 4. 6i declares that 'after g^, of sthA and stambha, 
the substitute is a letter belonging to the class of the prior.' Thus ^^-f-^mT^. 
Here the word ^^■. is exhibited in the original sfttra in the ablative case, and 
by the present sutra it means that a dental letter g; must be substituted in 
the place of sthana, and by I. i. 54 ante, this dental takes the place of w ; we 
have grf + J,VRg;=T?«J-?TR5.. Similarly in sfltra ^5^ ?f%T: (VIII. 2. 18, ' a word 
ending in a conjugational affix, when following after a word ending in a non- 
conjugational affix, becomes anuddtta.') Here the word 'atiiiah' is exhibited in 
the ablative case, therefore, the operation directed by this aphorism, namely, 
the substitution of anud^tta accent, must take place in the word that follows. 
Thus l&5^ i^'^fjT ; but not so in <r#?^;ifj^ II 

^ ^ti sj«?^aj3^*tiT II \c II u^xfH II ^r\, ^^^' 
ara(?T, a;fa3ra^"HT ii 

ff%: II ?iT^ CTH^ 5^ v^^ ^m w^^^^^^ ^^f^ h ^ijt j5r: ?j»j^9f ^' 
fip^ II 

BK. I. CH. I. § 68. ] SVAM-RUPA RULE. ^ 61 


?rr^rar*[ II * f^TJTTihT^^T?^ rnrptri'^ * II 

?rrf%^ II * rlmft ^ i Mn u iA j i^^w^ * n 

68. In this Grammar, when an operation is 
directed with regard to a word, the individual form of the 
■woi'd possessing meaning is to be \mderstood, except 
with regard to a word which is a definition. 

This is a rule of interpretation. The word ?V which means ' one's 
own' denotes 'the meaning,' and the word WT denotes ' the individual form 
of a word.' The sense of the sdtra is that a word denotes both things ex- 
pressed by those two words ?^ and ^^r, vt'z., its meaning, and its form. Thus a 
rule .ipplicable to ^Ir will be applicable to the word composed of ^, jr, ^ , f 
and not to the words synonymous with agni, such as, TF^^t, SifSTT: &c. 

In this science, therefore, the very word-form is to be taken, and 
understood and operated upon, and not external sense: with the exception 
of words which are definitions, in the latter case the things defined are to be 

This sutra is begun in order to remove the difficulty which might 
otherwise arise from a consideration that a word connotes a certain meaning, 
and as no grammatical operation is possible in a concrete object, we must 
take the words having the same meaning. As when a person is called to 
bring a 'cow,' he brings the animal cow, and not the letters c, o, w. It may 
therefore be said, that as no grammatical operation is possible in a material 
thing, we may take all the names synonymous with the word an d operate 
upon them ; this siltra removes that doubt. 

Thus the siitra 'qr^^ (IV. 2. 33) declares :— "that the affix 'dhak' 
comes after the word 'agni'." Thus ^rf"T + S^ = ^f^^jr "belonging to 
agni," as in the following sentence ^j | <»i<|<iaTC Tr5T Prl^g: • Here the word 
Tf«r indicates the individual word-form ^i% and not its synonyms. Simi- 
larly sfitra IV. 2. 19 declares ; — ' let there be optionally Zd^ after ^?f^3 .' As 
'?r^?^(VII. 3. 50 and 51) or '!f>TfM?T1. . The rule applies to the word-form 
'uda^vita' meaning 'curd-milk' and not to nvf;, ^tRT, ^rST^TT, ^fTTf^T and 
fRftr, which are synonyms. 

There is an important exception to this rule, and that is in favour 
of terms which are technical terms of Grammar and have been so defined. 

Thus Tn^rsTTT? (I. I. 20) and nraw^ ^: (I. I. 2a). Here the 
words 'j' and '«r' denote the words connoted by those terms and not to 
their word-form. There are, however, somesfttras in PAnini which are ap- 

g2 / SVAM-RUPA RULE. [ BK. I/CH. 1. § 69. 


• parently exceptions to this rule. These exceptions have been arranged 
under four heads, technically called Rrj, fTg^.^TJ, and RrS- When there is 
a rule about a word, it may mean that very word-form, or words represent- 
ing species falling under that word, or words which arc synonymous with it. 
Thus rule II. 4. 12 declares, :—"f7T 'tree' fir 'deer,' ^CT 'grass,' &c., 
may optionally be compounded as dvandva." Here the word f^ stands 
as a generic name for the species falling under it, and does not represent 
the word-form, f^. Thus we have dvandva-compound of S«- + ?^Tfr>T, as 
S^fJr^fraTl, or jr^?inff>Tr: l Such sfttras are called f^iT . 

Then in sfttra III. 4. 40, we have an example of f^^. That sutra means 
"the word J<t 'to feed' takes the affix imfa' (^5^) when compounded with 
the word l^." Here the word '^^' means both the word-form ^7, as well as 
the synonyms of ^7 and the species of l^. Thus ff and *T!T ' wealth ' are 
synonyms; while 1^ ' wealth ' andTft 'cow' are genus and species. Thus 
?7 -^ >w + CTJW = ^f^- Similarly ki\Wl,' >T^<fm , iff^'T^, ^N'TPr?. 
Such sutras are called rTsr . 

Then in siilra II. 4. 23, we have an example of FsfJ. " A Tatpurusha 
compound ending with the word ?f>ir ' rourt ' is neuter^ provided that it is 
preceded by the word raja, or by a word denoting a non-human being." 
Here the synonyms only of the word 'riijft' are taken, and neither the word- 
form ' rAja,' nor the special instances falling under it. Thus ?Tr'king' + 
?r>Tr = TT^Hfl: ' king's assembly,' f^^ + ^^ "= m'"^'T^ ' '<'"g's assembly.' But 
not rrsTHTgi, but rr^g^. Nor can wc take particular kings, such as ^^p 
or JsTfSnr. In their case we must have JuTfipT^PTr, ^^S^JTiCPTr. 

Then in sQtra IV. 4. 35, we have an example of f^'ff. The sfltra 
means " the words <t% ' bird ' m^ ' fish ' fir ' deer,' take the affix ts^ when the 
meaning is the l<iller thereof." Here the words qrf^ &c. denote . both the 
word-forms q^f^ &c. as well as the species denoted by those terms, but not 
their synonyms. Thus <rrfr + 55R;=<Trf^T^i 'a bird-killer,' Jim?^^: ,' a fish- 
catcher.' ^i5nT + 5^=:[n'^rq:^: 'a vulture-killer.' But we cannot take the 
synonyms of '7%,' &c. except in the case of ' »t?T?r,' when we may take the 
word '»fR.' As »rrf??^^: and ^i%^: 'a fish killer.' 

^%^^^ ^tuftt: II \% II ^r3[TfH II ^■^^, gf^?i, 

^^^m, ^, 3lH?^tT: ( ^%^ ) II 

69. The letters of the Praty^h^ra ^^ i. e. tlic 
vowels and semi-vowels, and a term having gr for its indi- 
catory letter, refer to their own form as well as to their 

Bk. I. Ch. I. § 70. ] Ta-para rule. 

homogeneous letters, except when tliey are used as pra- 
tyAyAs or affixes. 

The pratyahara 'Six'm thus sfttra includes all the vowels and liquids. 
This is the only instance where ST"^ pratyahAra refers to the second "r of 
;^<n. The letters included in ^'5;, and the letters having an indicatory?, 
refer to, and include their Iiomogeneous letters also. Thus ^ refers to all 
the live gutturals ^, ??f, jy, q-, 3^, similarly ^, j, §r, and j, as in sutra I. 3. 8. 
Similarly gf includes short, long and protracted qf. The words 'its own 
form' arc understood in this siltra, being drawn from the previous sutra. 
Thus svltra ^rf^pir: (VI. i. 87), ' when a vowel comes after ^T, guna is the 
single substitute for both.' Here though the rule mentions only short ^, we 
take the long 5!JT also. Thus not only ;rr + f?T: = 'r^: ; but >rfr + f?r: = 1?:n': I 
So also in sutra aiT'q' '^r (VII. 4. 32), ' there is long f in the room of ^ when 
llic affix 'chvi' (V. 4. 50) follows.' Here long g^r is also included; thus 

f^+^dRr = fr«tTfNrnf%, and ^|r + ^rrRr='^f^rrr?T. So also in sfltra 

7^^"% "^ (VI. 4. 148). 'When long f follows, there is elision of the ?■ or ^ 
of the base,' the rule applies to the bases ending in long §■ and 9JT also. 

This rule of Course does not apply to affixes. Thus sutra III. 2. i68, 
says, ' after words ending in the affix san, and the words .Isansa and bhiksha, 
tliere is 5 ' Here ^^ is an affix and therefore does not include long 3r. 
Thus r>T^: 'a beggar.' So also in IV. 3. 9, the short ^ only is to be taken 
and not the long one. 

cmK^cR^TO^ II ISO II tr^rfvr ii ^--^v-, HcT;^^^, ( wtf 
^\) II 

ffrf; II ?rrff ?i&??T5^t5T?^rfi'rnf^'i^r5f^T ^cjT'^i 0=^^^ ^^^^ mi*t 

70. The letter which Jias ?r after or hefore it, 
besides referring to its own form, rcfci'S to those Iiomo- 
geneous letters which liave the same prosodial length 
or time. 

By the previous sutra it was declared that a vowel standing by it- 

■^elf included all the letters of its class. Thus ^r includes ^vr; and f, f ; &c. 

This sfltra lays down the rule by which the very form of the letter is taken 

snd not all the letters of its class. This is done by placing a ?r either after 

or before the letter. Thus ^^ means the very letter ^ and not all its homo- 

Rencous letters. Similarly ^g; means short 5 only and not long or protracted 

^' We had to refer to this sfttra, in our. very first sutra, in explaining the 
term ^^. 

Tadanta-rule. [Bk. I. Ch. I. § 7>, 12, 


The satra consists of two words ^: and n^m^. Tapara], means 
that which has a ^ after it or that which is after 5. ^at-kala means havng 
the same time. According to time the vowels are d.v.ded into short, long 
and protracted. Short vowels have one measure long vowels two, and 
protLted vowels three. A consonant lasts half the fme of a shor vowel. 
Therefore a letter preceded or followed by 5, refers to .ts own form as 
well as to those only of its homogeneous letters which have the same time. 
Thus the letter^ will include the uditta, anudAtta, svarita (both nasalised 
and non-nasaliscdJK and not the long and protracted forms. 

This sfltra declares an injunction. The anuvritti of ST-J of the prev,- 
ous sfitra does not run into this sQtra. Any other letter than ?r>J may be 
followed by ?T and the rule of this siitra will apply to that also. This rule 
qualifies the previous siltra which would therefore mean that an ?r7, letter 
which is not followed or preceded by a 5 includes its homogeneous letters also. 

Thus in the sutra VII. I. 9 ^rfrfw^- 'After words ending in 
aT?C (i. e. short ^), ^f, takes the place of Thh.' Thus f^: . But in ^|r which 
ends in long ^r and whose prosodial time is different from ^, this rule will 
not apply, and we have i?r|rf*r: • . 

WI%?c^H ^|cn II 33 II <»^TfH II Wf^s, W^JlT, ^%, 

inn, ( ^ ^'TiT^) II 

71. An initial letter, with a final f^; letter as 
a final, is the name of it.self and of the intervening 

This sdtra explains the mode of interpreting pratyfl,haras. Thus the 
pratyahara ^r^ means those letters whose beginning is ST and whose final T?. 
is a^. 

Why do we say with the 'final indicatory letter?' Because a pra- 
ty4hAra like g^ would be otherwise ambiguous. It might be doubted whe- 
ther it is formed with the final ? of ^T? and refers to the first five case-afiixes, 
or whether it is formed with the initial ^of n and therefore refers to the first 
seven case-affixes. The present sfltra clears up the doubt. A pratydhAra is 
formed with the final x^ and not with the initial f ?^. . 

( ^ ^w^) 11 


Bk. I. Ch. I. § 72.] Tadanta-rule. 65 

inf%^^ 11 * 3-FimtIm^lll*)*!*! II * 

T^frr II * ?iT^'ffNww*Nt<i«»<^u:i II * 

72. An injunction which is made with i-egard 
-0 a particular attribute, applies to words having tliat 
ittribute at their end as well as to that attribute itself. 

This sfttra consists of three words : — ipf 'by what (attribute),' ^i^: 
rule,' fl^fR^ ' having that (attribute) at its end.' 

This is a rule of interpretation. When a rule is made with regard 
a particular attribute or letter, it means also words having those attributes or 
ettcrs at their end. Thus there is a rule (III. 1.97) declaring "let there 
le the affix ^ after the vowels." Here the phrase " after the vowels " 
neans and includes " after the roots ending in vowels, as well as roots con- 
libling of a single vowel." Thus Pr + ^rgr^ = '%^. Therefore, this sfttra 
noans that when a rule is laid down in this grammar with regard to a parli- 
:ular attribute, that rule, besides being applicable to that particular attribute, 
s also applicable to words ending in that particular attribute. Thus a rule 
aid down generally with regard to vowels, will apply to words ending in 
.'ovvels ; a rule laid down with regard to certain forms, will app'y to words 
ending in those forms. 

Thus the sfttra ^n;(in- 3- 56) 'after \ there is^r^ ' declares that the 
iffix ach would come not only after \, but after any expression that ends 

n \. Thus \ + srg: = 51^:, f% + w^ = "^n- 11 

Vart : — The present rule, (called tadanta-vidhi) must not be applied 
rules relating to compounds (samasa), and to pratyayas (affixes). Thus 
siltra II. I. 24, declares that a word in the accusative case is coiftpounded with 
the words ^rita, atita &c. As ^k + ^?r: = 5>e^I?r: 'involved in pain.' 
The present siltra must not be applied here, and we cannot say that a word 
in the accusative case would be compounded with another that ends in srita ; 
tor tadanta-vidhi does not apply here. Hence we cannot form a compound 
of^S- + <i^iT^: II 

Similarly, in rules of affixes. Thus sfitra IV. i. 99 declares "that 
the words T?&c., take the affix <ir^." Thus sf? + iS^ = TRHPT: I But we can- 
"ot apply the affix phak to the word f^nr?, the tadanta-vidhi not being appli- 
cable here. The descendant of *^M will be called ^fpTTt^ and not as 
above, "^ 

The above v4rtika is however qualified by the following : — 
Vart :— The above vSrtika does not apply to words formed by affixes 

CO Vriddham defined. [Bk. I. Ch. I. § 73, 

that have an indicatory T^ {3-, ^, 5f), short or long-, or where a rule is pro- 
pounded with regard to letters. 'I'hus the affix ktavatu (I. i . 26) has an indica- 
tory 7, and we have ^rT^-rr. A rule which will apply to kritavat will 
apply also to the word which ends in kritavat. Thus the feminine of 
kritavat is fr?r?'?fi' (IV. 1.6), the feminine of sukritavat will be sukritavat' 
Similarly rule IV. I, 95 ^if f '3 says "after ?r there is the affix ?■»[ ." Tlii 
is a rule relating to pratyayas, but as it is propounded by mere letters, thi 
rule of tadanta-vidhi will apply here. Thus ^ -I- ^j^ = ?rf^ ' the son 

Vari : — When a term, which denotes a letter, is exhibited in a rule ii 
the form of the locative case and qualifies something else which likewis( 
stands in the locative case, that which is qualified by it must be regardec 
as beginning with the letter which is denoted by the term in question, and 
not as ending with it. 

Thus sutra VI. 4. 77, achi ^nu dhatu bhruvilm yvor iyaii uvatiau, 
means " iyaii and uvaii are the substitutes of what ends with the pratyaya 
^nu and what ends in a verbal root in f or ^, whether long or short, and 
of the inflective base bhrd, when an affix beginning with a vowel follows." 
Here the word 'achi' is exhibited in the seventh case, which literally 
means 'when a vowel follows;' but by virtue of the present vftrtika it 
means, 'when an affix beginning with a vowel follows,' as. finr:, a^: II 

^fl'^^mtiTTf^'SIf ?15^ 11 3^ II TT^Tfil 11 ^:, n^ 

«!1T^, 3Tlf^:, r(%, ^'j; II 

ff^: II 5mf»T!.% 'i^ ff^^jj* ^r^^ji^«^^^ VE^t H^fir 11 

?if%^J!; II * ^r ^Rv>?rw fcf ^gr ^^s^: ii * 
frf%^^ II * fsTf^r^rr^iffR-JrarRii t^pt ii * 

73. That word, among the vowels of whicl 
the first is a v^iddhi, is called vmldham. 

This defines the word ftj^ . The sfltra consists of five words :- 
Tfe: ' the vfiddhi vowel ;' ir^ ' whose,' ^f"^ 'among the vowels,' ^nft- '' 
first;' nj. ' that ;' f;^, ' is called vfiddham.'" . ' 

If a word consisting of many vowels, has a vriddhi vowel cominf 
first in the order of vowels, that word is called vriddham. Thus the wordi 
•rrsTT, Jmr &c., have the first vowel ^jr a vriddhi vowel, therefore, they ar« 
called vriddham. 

Bk. I. Ch. I. § 74, 75. ] Vriddham defined. 67 

The word vriddham has been defined in order to make applicable 
to these peculiar words certain taddhita affixes. Thus there is a rule (IV. 
2. 114) by which the affix gf is added to vriddham. Thus Trwr + ^ = H\^T^-\\ 

Why do we say " the firstl" Because a word like ^JTraTST^:, which 
is not a vfiddha word, will not admit of the affix §[. Its corresponding deri- 
vative will be ^JTr^T^f: II 

Vart: — A proper noun, though not coming under the above defini- 
tion, may yet be regarded optionally as a vriddham. Thus ^^tT + 5[ = 
t^frfhrr, or wc may have l^frTr. 

Vart : — A compound ending in a Gotra word, is regarded for the 
purposes of the addition of this affix, as if it was not compounded. Thus 
nit is a Gotra word and also vriddham. Its compound ^?Tn# will be re- 
garded as a vriddham too, for the addition of the affix. As ^cfnR + §^ = 
ffl^??rr: ' the students of Ghrilaraudhi.' So also ^rfTTrfcrsft^IT:, f^^FHtRTr: 

fJ^riR'ff'rr: &c. 

Vart: — Exception must be made in the case of fsT^fr^I^T and ffi^chi^r^l 
They do not take g;. . Thus ^f^l^nTT and ?rfir?I^rrfr.- . 

f frr: II ni^^T-R- jj^^rrrTCT f^g^^rrR- >nT«T 11 

74. The words tyad &c., arc also called 

The nff &c. have been given in the list of sarvanHmas. See sfltra 
27. These words are also called vriddham. Thus fl|^+5^ = 'l|l'55.) 5?fftT5.i 

75. A word that has the lettei's ?r and ^ as 
the first among its vowels, gets also the designation 
ot Vriddham, wheti it is the name of Eastern coun- 

As jfpfl is a country of the east, it is a vriddham word and we have 
^"'"^'''fhT'fhr:; similarly ^[tdTIVITsr?;, >?>^y^ ^: • 


Vriddham defined. [ Bk. I. Ch. I. § 75. 

The word prAk in the efltra has been differently interpreted. The 
Grammarian Kunin takes the word prftk as an epithet qualifying the word 
ftchirya, ' professor' understood. In that case the sfttra will be thus trans- 
lated ;— ' In the opinion of the Eastern (or ancient) professors, a word that has 
the letters e and as the first among its vowels, and is the name of a country, 
is called vriddham.' Under this interpretation, this will be an optional 
rule only, giving the opinion of eastern or ancient grammarians. 

Others however take the word prdk as qualifying the word desa 
and the meaning then is as given in the text. 

Why do we say 'having the letters ^ and ?Br ' ? If a simple vowel 
is first among the vowels, of a word, that word will not be called vriddham : 
and as such will not take the affix g[ ; as ?rTrt^@[^: , 9FF^^5>r: . 

Why do wc say of ' Eastern country ' ? Because this rule does not 
apply to a word like fffrT; which is the name of a town in the Punjab, which 
is not an eastern country. Its secondary derivative will be t^frf:, born 111 

Why do we say 'country'? The rule will not apply to rivers &c. 
Thus from jfriRr we have ^inTT: ' fish born in the river G6mati.' 

Chapter 1 1. 

^ifWflr II * 6^%: «»Tft<7fT#ffr T^rrs^^ ii 

1. All affixes after the verb gkii 'to study' and 
the verb kut ' to be crooked,' and the rest, are as if 
they had an indicatory w. (ftit), except those affixes 
which have an .indicatory s^ (nit) or "j (nit). 

This is an atidesa sMra, and makes certain affixes, though not 
having an indicatory ^, to produce the same effect as if they were really fl^. 

The root »ir^ is substituted for the verb f^ in certain tenses, 
in which the verb f^ is defective (II. 4. 49). The ^Ttft verbs are roots 
3(;Ionging to the Tudadi class of verbs, and they are forty roots beginning 
ivith 5^ ' to be crooked ' and ending with 5f3^ ' to groan.' 

After these roots all affixes are treated as if they were marked with 
1 ^ with the exception of those affixes which are f^Tl. or fcTf- 

Thus from »IT^, we have in the aorist the form ^p.^nftf; which is thus 
evolved, ^jf^ + ^ + |.^ + ^f^ + ?r = ?r^^ + irr + ^ + fT (II. 4. 50) = 
Jfif + ^ff + ^ (VI. 4. 66)=«5?nftH" 'he studied,' fgiqiffSfMr ' they two 
studied ;' ^i^nfffW ' they studied.' Here by VI. 4. 66, the '^ is changed 
nto ^ before the affix Rr^, which is regarded as fl^. 

Similarly, after the verbs ^ &c., all affixes are treated as fv^, with 
he exceptions already mentioned. 

Thus «5? + JT? (III. 1. 133) = ^ + y? + ir=«r (VII. 2. 35) = frfii:, 

lominative singular ^fgri r ' who acts crookedly.' Here the affix 5^ being 
cgarded as f|p^ does not cause the guna substitution of the 7 of ar^, 

>y 1. 1. 15. 

Similarly with the affixes JJ^ and ^f^^, we have fi?gg; and 
f'^''*'f5[. ■ So on with all the forty roots of kut4di class : e. g. ^vfim 


AFK.XESLIKEft^. [ Bk, 1. Ch. H. § 2, 3. 

But the affixes marked with irr or ^ will not be so treated. Thus 
fiSnr by which causatives are formed, is surh an affix ; e. g. ?fff + ftl^ + 
^{+ f^^ = ^,^jr + ^ + ^ + rlT = ^mrr^. -Here there is guna of 
the 7 of ^. So also before the affix CT?. of the perfect tense, we have 
^'B'Wcffr?, and before (he affix T|J5r we have T?^>?^: I 

Vdrtd-a -.-The root \?r^ 'to deceive,' is also treated like 
kutidi verbs, except before the affix ^ff. As C^^rn ' he shall deceive,' 
ftf^gijr ' for the purpose of deceiving ' f^rfWs^ &c- Here there is 
samprasaraiia before the nit terminations m, ?5: and ^^%, and the ?i of 
«rf^ is changed into f by rule VI. i. 16. 

But the affix gj-H is not nit and consequently there is no sampra- 
sArana before it. Thus ^^s^r^r: 'an imp.' 

f^^ ?7 II ^ H tr^rOr ii fir^: , j^^ , (%ci^ ) u 

2. All nHix that be.n-iiis with tlie augment 
fT (VII. 2. 35) is nit citter the root vij., ' to fear, to move.' 

The root f%^ does not strengthen its vowel before the affixes 
that take the intermediate ?•, because those terminations are treated 
like flFW affixes. The root f%'H' belongs to the Tudadi class. Thus ^ftr^iir 
'he will be agitated,' 3Tlr%W 'for the purpose of being agitated' 
gf^fir«TS?r5; ' ought to be agitated.' 

But those affixes, which are not preceded by the augment ysr, are not 
like f^, and they consequently produce their own proper action, such as 
gunation &c. As 3W + f^ + ?^^ = g^-jpr?,, ^l^THT^H ' that which ought 
to be agitated.' 

far-m^T^: imitr^if?? ii ftw^r , gi^r: i (t%h , T^) " 

?f^: ft 3r^^ ^r'E^r?^, ^rwr^Tr rfTr?:>i?^^r r^^rrsiT ^j^^t ii 

3. After tlie verh uriia'to cover,' the affix 
beginning with tlie augment f^ is regarded optionally 
like nit. 

Thus before the fjrff termination frn of the future, we may have 
either ^rjr^ or ^nm^rr " he will cover." 

The equation of the form is : — Jf + ^^ + f + m ^ 7+ ^T^f, + ^ 
(VI. 4. 77) = !fr^r%«TT. When the affix is not regarded as f|^, it produces 
guna, and we have the second form Jfrr&nrTr II 

Of course there is no option allowed before those affixes which ao 
not lake the augment f', and before those terminations, consequently, we have 
only one form : as ^'^ + f^ = URtjf + «nT5_ = ^^qw ' covering,' ^^'ft''^ 
' which ought to be covered.' 

Bk. I. Ch. H. § 4, 6. ] Affixes like ftrir. 71 



4. A Snrvadluitiika (III. 4. 113) affix not having 
an indicatory \ is like liit. 

The terminations whicii are added to roots are cither Sdrvadltdtiika 
or drdhadh&tuka. The SArvadluttuka terminations are all those that are 
marked with a ?^ and also tlio tense terminations called Rff;, the latter are the 
following ;— 

sing. dual. pi, 

3rd Pers. pr^ fTH ^ "j 

2nd Pers. RfT UH V I Parasmaipada. 

1st Pers. f%T ^^ TH I 

3rd Pers. ^ ^r?rrf^ ?t ] 

2nd Pers. VT^ '^V^^^^ v%^^ \ Atmanepada. 

1st Pers. y? i^r? ifff; J 

Except the terminations marked with a T such as frr (% and ft 
&c. all the other S.irvadh.'ttuka terminations are ^g^. The r^T? termina- 
tions like ^c, ?Tf=T^^ &c., are also Sirvadh-iluka terminations. These affixes 
are i^^, unless they have a g^ as indicatory, as Ty\. Thus the affix 
^% being an ^jfrsr S4rvadhatiika affix, is a W^, and before it the vowel is not 
gunated: e. g. ^^w: 'they two do.' The equation is: — ^ + ^ + W^ (the 3- is 
added by Rule IH. i. 79)= ^r + 3r + frg; (VI. 4. iio)-^r + rT^ = ^^: |, 
Similarly ^^!T ' they do.' 

Here the ^ of ^^ is changed into 3^ and we have ;rr, by virtue of 
rule VI. 4. no, which declares that the "jj- of the vcib ^r^ is cl^anged into t 
before those SArvadhatuka affixes which are rhj or ^Rn . Here ?T5 is 4 
SArvadhStuka fg^ affix by the present rule, and hence the change. 

These four sutras describe the \^ terminations. 

Why do we say ' a Sarvadh.'ituka afTix.' ? Because an ftrdhadhAtuka 
•iffix though not being marked with an indicatory i; will not be a fg'fT. As 
^ir 'doer,' ^^jj^ ' to do ' ^ks^^^ • duty.' 

Why do we say ' not having an indicatory t ' ? If a SarvadhAtuka 
^mx has an indicatory 7 it will not be liit. As f + 3- + fWj = ^frf% ' he does;' 
'"^ ' thou doest/ ^frr^ ' I do.' 

ai^^TITftRr f%?I U H II VITffk II 'STO^Tim , ^z , 

. ( «Tf^^) 11 

AFFIXES UKE f^. [ Bk. I. CH. JI. § 5, 6. 

5. The atfixes of Lit (Perfect Tense) not com- 
ing after a conjiinct consonant, are as if they had an iri- 
cUcatoiy ^ (kit). 

With this sCltra begins tbe description of affixes which are regarded 
as fsfi^lliough not actually having a ^ to mark them as such. The termina- 
tions of f^ (Perfect") not being fqr?r terminations, are f^rT, after verbs 
that have no compound consonants. The phrase 'Sffrg^ (not being marked 
withtr) qualifies tills sCltra also, being drawn from the previous sfttra by 
the rule of Anuvritti. 

Thus from h'? ' to tear ' the Reduplicated non-pit second person 
perfect is Kf^j; ' thou hast torn.' fqpTj : ' they have torn.' 

Similarly f^ff^SffW: 'thou hast divided;' f^f^?: 'you divided;' 
fifj: and |-iT: . 

This rule will not apply if the root ends in a conjunct consonant. 
Thus #n 'to fall down' forms its second person Perfect: — wr5 + ^5= 
U^« J : . Here the affix is not treated as kit; for had it been so treated, 
it would have caused the elision of the penultimate nasal (anusvara) of 
#^ by rule Vf. 4. 24. Similarly from i^g^ we have ^t%. • 

The pit terminations of the Perfect are not kit ; and therefore, we 
have fJf^ ' he has divided,' where the root is gunaled before the 3rd per- 
son singular termination CT^ which is a f^ termination, because it being 
the substitute of f^^T^ is regarded like f%?, by I. i. 56. 

TfK»<Hgf?rwn ^ II ^ II q^Tf% II f f^ -flBiftppcn^i^ , h , 
(%ft;^) II 

?f%: II f^«r>T^?^rm'rf id ra? ww^c. f%^r^ ii 

' 6. The lilt 01- I'erfcct Tense afBxes after the 
roots indhi ' to kindle,' and bhu ' to become,' also are kit. 

After these two roots the terminations of the Perfect are fafj- 
These roots have been especially mentioned, because the root %f^ 
ending in a compound consonant will not be governed by sfttra 5 ; a"'' 
the root ^ is mentioned because all the terminations of the Perfect are 
f^ after ^, not excepting the f^H terminations. Thus the verbs «W 
and t^ are illustrations of Perfect Tense from the root (s^as in the following 
examples -.—H'ff^ ??5ij**IH»!;, (Rig Veda VI. 16. 15), and jr t^ T*rt'!''i 
(Rig Veda VI. 16. 14). Here the nasal of the root is dropped by regarding 
the affix as ^3 il Similarly from the root ^, we have ^^, «Pjf^ H 

Vart: — This rule should be applied also to the verbs ^ 'to loosen,' ^ 
'to fasten,'^ 'to injure' and ^t? 'to embrace,' As "^t^l: I thou h»*' 

3k. I. Ch. II. § 7, 8. ] Affixes like ^?^. 73 

oosoned' i^?i + ?rjf5 = ''l*[+^?5- (T'le ^ is elided by the rule already 
iientioned in the last sillra viz., VI. 4. 24). 

= »H^ + 'sni+ ^5^=Mtrf: (VI.4- 120). Similarly ^:;t^:,«Tf^»I?T^, 

^f^^J^JTSlfSRSd^^^^: an l> Is II tr^Tf^ II ^-'i^-J^ 
jn-ffRaj-'^-'ra: , afft ( i^) ii 

7. The affix ktvd is A-// after mj-id ' to be graci- 
ous,' nirid ' to squeeze,' gudh ' to wrap up,' kusli ' to 
tear,' klis ' to suiFer,' vad ' to sj^x^ak ' and to vas ' dwell.' 

After these seven verbs, the gerundial iivd is kit. It might 
be objected, what was the necessity of this siltra ? The affix 
k/vd is clearly a kit affix, as it is marked with the diacritical letter ^ , and 
it was useless to call it a kit affix after these verbs. The reason of this 
apparent repitition is this. Though kivd is a kit affix generally ; but there is 
a later sfitra in this chapter (1.2. 18) which declares that the prefix ^ 
isnotRfrr, if it is preceded by the intermediate y. Or in other words, 
if ?9rT is added to those verbs, which are called %? verbs, viz., that 
take an intermediate f , it is not then kit. Thus the verb tfi ' to sleep ' is ^. 
'1 lierefore ^ + y + 'ETr=^ + ?' + ?T = !(lf^?5rr • 

Now it happens that all the seven verbs mentioned in the sfttra are 
n? verbs, and take an intermediate f. The ^gn^ before these verbs would 
Itave lost its /aVness by virtue of sAtra l8; therefore arose the necessity of 
tills sutra, to provide in anticipation an exception to that sutra, in favor of 
these verbs, where the affix ktvd is necessarily kit. Thus we have ff^fTT 
' lieing gracious' ff^^TT ' having squeezed ' nf?r?^ ' having wrapped ' ^f^?W 
'having torn,' ffefS[r?Tr 'having suffered' ^f^^ 'having spoken' Tf^^TT 
'having dwelt.' The q- k of ^ and TH are changed into 7 by the rule of 
Samprasftrana (VI. I. 15). 

Moreover in the case of the verbs ^, =5^ and f|f^, sfitra 26 would 
have made ijfr optionally kit ; the present sutra makes it necessarily so. 

ff%: II ^? ^? J^r Iff? ?7R sr=5 f?^^: ^ W^ "^ f^'ft H'Pr: II 

8. The affixes ktvd and san (III. 1. Y) are Mt, 
after rud ' to weep,' vid ' to know,' mush ' to steal,' grah 

to seize,' svap ' to sleep,' and prachchh ' to ask.' 


Affixes like %?[ [ Bk. I. Ch. II. § g 


After the above mentioiu-d verbs the ktvd though taking an inter- 
mediate r, .ind the affix 37 are r%gr ■ The affix gj is employed i„ 
forming desiderative verbs. The gr of ^TJ is fT , the real affix being g. The 
root is reduplicated before this WT affix. Thus ^f^V ' having cried/ 
Ff^nrfW ' he wishes to cry'; ftftt^r ' liaving known,' f?rf%f^«Trt ' he wish. 
to know'; 7^f?fr (Vl. I. i6). 'having taken,' f3rf^r% 'he wishes to 
take'; hV^^ 'having stolen,' )fjnr'!rr% 'he wishes to steal'; gofff (VI. i. 
15) 'having slept,' gfc?rrW 'lie wishes to sleep,' 5|r {VI. I. 16) 'having 
asked,' frfr'STTrar ' he wishes to ask '. The verb «T? is changed into Y? , ^7 
into gi, ST'^ into j'sg before /«> affixes by samprasarana (VI. i. 16). 

The ktvd and m« would have been optionally kit after the verb 
^, ^ and ^srby virtue of Rule 26 of this chapter, but this sutra makes them 
necessarily so, after these three verbs. In the case of the verb i{f, these 
affixes are kit by virtue of this siitra only. In the case of the verbs ^^-j and 
Ji'g' the affix ?frr is of course kit, these two verbs are anit, that is, 
they do not take the intermediate f; and therefore the ?frr being directly 
affixed to them, and rule 18 not applying, the indicatory k would make it 
kit. In reference to these verbs, therefore, the present ,sutra teaches some- 
thing new, only with regard to the affix )=l^ , by making that also kit. The 
verb ^^ takes the intermediate f when the affix W}^ follows, by virtue of 
sutra VII. 2. 75. 

?%T W^T II % II tr^lfn II T^: , WW ( ^ , f%?r^ ) 11 

ff%: II fTwrr^rrfr: Trr ?rrrriT: ^ r%3r^m 11 

9. The aOix san hagi n iiing witJi a letter of tlie 
Ptatydlidrajhalia like kit, after verbs ending in ik vowels. 

In this sutra there is the anuvritti of ^\ only and not of ?9>r- The 
sutra literally 'translated means :— "After //ahe_^7;fl/." The PratyAharaV^, 
contains the four letters f , t, ^ ST. The Pratyahara ?i5jr contains all 
the consonants, except the nasals and the liquids. After the verbs ending in 
r^i^the desiderative suffix (J^ is kit, when it is SMfr^, that is to say wlien the 
affix ^, does not take the intermediate x The affix gfl|^ is an affix which 
begins with ^ a letter of the ?iw class. But if the intermwliate f is added 
before it, it is no longer a ?i5Tr(^ affix, and in that case it is not Rfsr . Tiiu? 
from fw 'to conquer' which is a verb ending in.fiK, we have pSTntTrfr 
'he wishes to conquer' ^'to mix ' ^i^isrrw ; so also ff 'to do,' ftr€r^ 
^ ' to cross ' f^^'Hff^, ^ ' to be ' vt^ . 

If however, verbs ending in |- or g- or ^ org? , take an intermediate I 
they likewise take guna. As :— ftir 'to smile' takes guna, and makes its 
desiderative RifJTl^nr^ . 

Bk. I. Cu. U. § 9, 10. ] Affixes like f^ 75 

The fTvTrftq'^is not i/t after verbs ending in any other letter than 
the f^- As fq'<TnEn% (from Tr ) ' he wishes to drink.' So from ^tjj we 
have f^smm. 

The object of making the affix ^^^ kit affix after verbs ending 
in A vowels, is to prevent the guna of tlic vowel of the root, as in ^^fr^ri% 
'rti-shes to collect ' J^TtW ' wishes to praise.' To this it might be objected 
"this cannot be : for rule VI. 4. 16 (when ^ beginning with a jhal i. e., not 
preceded by the augment f? follows, a long vowel is the substitute of verbs 
ending in a vowel, and of the verbs ^5 and i[^^) would prevent guna by 
snbstituting long vowel." To this it may be replied " if rule VI. 4. 16, 
enjoining long vowel, debars rule VII. 3. 84 requiring guna, it should a fortiori 
debar rule VI. 4. 51 which requires the elision of the affix ftr before Ardha- 
(Ihaluka affixes not taking the augment ?T . But evidently that is not so; 
for the elision of fOT is not debarred by VI. 4. 16, Therefore, the present 
sutra is made, so that even by giving scope to the rule of lengthening, 
the affix gg' be treated as P^\." Thus in r%^Kf^ scope is given to rule 
Vi. 4. 16, and the vowel is lengthened. But this rule in its turn will be 
debarred in those cases where rule VI. 4. 51 will apply: in such cases the 
maxim contained in I. 4. 2 is our guide, and a subsequent rule will debar 
a prior rule of Panini when both find their scope in a single case. Thus 
ill forming the desiderative of the verb ir? ' to inform,' both the rules 

VI. 4. 16 and VI. 4. 51 present themselves, but the latter prevails. The verb 
^TT belongs to the churadi class of verbs, and takes the affix ftcr^ . Thus 
?? + rar^r + ^ + f?r^; here the present siitra comes into force, and ^ 
being treated as f^lV^, the guna of the f of |rfqr is prevented. Thus sfitra 

VII. 3. 84 requiring guna being set aside, sutra VI. 4. 51 comes into play, 
and causes the elision of ICT^ and we have ^rj + ff + rW = ?fift^r% (VII, 4. 55 
^ changed to f-} ' he wishes to inform.' 

f ^'tlT^ II 9^ II Tl^lfflr II ?^-3T5cim , ^ , ( f f , ^5^ , 

10. And after a root ending' in a consonant, 
^nd pi'eceded by a vowel of tlio praiydhara ik, tlie affix 
mi beginning with i^jhal consonant, is like kit. 

Thus from fir| 'to pierce' we have pTH?gr% 'he wishes to break,' here 
tne root Pr^ contains the ih vowel f ; it ends in a consonant \ ; the affix ^ 
's directly added without taking an intermediate \, and therefore it fulfills 
^" the conditions of the sfitra ; and the vowel is not gunated. 


Affixes uke f^. [ Bk. I. Ch.*II. § 

If the final consonant of the verb is not preceded by a vowel o 
the ik class, the affix frg[ is not kit after such a verb. As sr^ + ^ ^ 
H = fkm^ • wishes to sacrifice.' Had the affix ^J^ been here a kit affix 
there would have been samprasarana by rule VI. i. i6 which declares tha 
there is samprasarana of the verbs f^, ?f 7, and ?TW, &c., before kit affixes 

If the san takes the intermediate f and is then no longer a gsirfi 
fr^, it is not kit ; and causes gunation etcetera, As f 5^ + f + ^ = ft^«r^ 
' he desires to be.' Here there is guiia of Vi- 

Roots like ?»i, !r?_ &c., are governed by this rule, though they end 
in conjunct consonants, for the word f« of the sutra means jAti or class 
thus ^^ + "ET^ + f%5.= f^ + W% (VI. 4. 24 the m being elided by treating 

^^g) = ^Nrr%orfvr:^nT(VlI. 4. 56). 

%^f%^Ti|I?*T%'cj^5 II %% II iT^Tfrr II f^^^-f«^ , W?^- 

>TT!f: II 

11. After roots ending in a consonant, tliat 
adjoins a vowel of ik pratyAh^ra, the shbstitutes oflin 
(III. 3. IGl) and sich (III. 1. 44) when they begin with a 
consonant of jlial pratj^lli^ra, are hit^ when the atmane- 
pada affixes follow. 

The sutra consists of tM'o words frl^Rl'^ft and ^JT^T^Ttj , literally 
meaning "the affixes /;■« and j/c/Hn the Atmanepada." The other phrases, 
given in the above text must be supplied from the previous sAtras, to com- 
plete the sense. The anuvritti oi the word ^15^, that began with sutra 8. 
does not extend further. As :— pTf^iTe ' may he break ' and ^^^f?. ' may he 
know,' ^lf>lTT ' he broke ' graTj 'he knew.' 

Thus the root f*rj ends with a simple consonant, is preceded by T 
a letter of tk pratyahdra; after this root the jhaladi afifix ?fte of Benedictive 
in the Atmanepada is treated like f^ : ; therefore there is no guna subs- 
titution of the vowel of the root before this affix. pSff + ^ = Pl?^' 
Similarly in the Aorist we have sti^tT =■ ^ + firt + firr -I- rf, the « of 
Aorist being elided by VIII. 2. 26. So also f\^ -F ^nr = J^ -f W (Vlll. 2. 37) 
= ^^S . 

If the final consonant is not preceded by an ik vowel, this rule w'!' 
not apply. Thus Ben. ?T^ 4- ^ = ?ri -(- ^g- (VIII. 2. 36) = t(^ + ^' 
(VIII. 2. 41) = ^Rftff (VIII. 3. 58). Similarly its Aorist is spj? . Had the 
affixes ?ff? and ?r been kit, they would have caused samprasirana of 9 by 
VI. I. 16. 

i. I. Ch. II. § 11-13.] Affixes like f^, 77 

This rule will not apply, if the Benedictive and Aorist affixes are 
irasmaipadi. Thus the Aorist of ew 'to let off/ is sr + ^^ + "St^ «• V 

^ + ir + ^ + ^ (VI. r. 58) = 5i?r3|[. + ^(vi. I. 77) - sTOn?rrw 

II. 2. I). Similarly from f^we have Aorist Parasmaipadi "JnCI^?. Had the 
jristbeen ftj^, rule VI. i. 58 {^^ is the augment of the verbs ^ijt^and f^ 
len an affix beginning with a/Atf/ and not having an indicatory gr follows), 
)uld not have applied. 

This rule will also not apply, if the verb ends in a vowel. Thus of 
c verb f^, we have Ben. %iftg-, Aor. ^%5". Had the affixes been f^^, there 
)uld have been no guna substitution of t into e. 

The rule will not apply if these affixes are not jhalddi but take the 
gment iff. Thus Ben. fgr + fsitH- = 'rfir'ft?, so also Aorist qr^f^ • Had they 
cii^a^, there would have been no guna substitution. 

This rule, of course, is confined to the Benedictive and the Aorist, 
her tenses will not be affected by this rule. Thus the ist and 2nd Future 
ft^sr is Ict and \^^. 

12. And after vci-bs ending in ^, the substi- 
tes of liii and the affix j^'c//, arc kit, when they begin 
itli jhal, and the Atmanepada affixes follow. 

As from fr ' to do ' the benedictive is fr^'Jf ' may he do.' So also 
^1 as ^TfRT ' he did.' So also f sfte and mf%^. 

Of course this rule would not apply if these terminations take the 
irmcdiate f ; as f + f'sfte = ^R-sfre" ' may he choose,' (Benedictive) ; qr + f + 
= ^7ft? or^nrfte 'he chose or covered,' the f being lengthened by 
I. 2. 38. 

^T »nT: II %\ II q^lf^ H HT , »nT: , (%^^ft%T , sn?*!^- 

3 w^ f^?r^ ) II 

13. Optionally after tlie verb gam, the liii 
fl stch beginning with, jhal consonants, in the Atmane- 
<la, are kit. 

The verb ^^ 'to go ' is Atmanepadi after the preposition ?j^ by 
'e I- 3- 29. 

The result of its being kit is that the nasal is dropped in the Atmane- 
^- 'n forming the Aorist with Rr^r , and the Benedictive. Thus we have 

78 Affixes like f%iT. [Bk. I. Ch.1I. § 15, 

the forms :— tm'^ g or ^mft? in the Bencdictive ; and *in*m or tnrrrw in the 
sic/i Aorist. These forms are thus evolved ;— 

W5;+iT^+^=^+»r + 'EftS- (VI. 4- 37) = ^"^^ 'inay he combine.' 
Here the ^asal H of TpT is elided by treating the affix ^asf^'sr^by Rule 
VI. 4. 37. In the alternative we have ?f't€re'. 

So in theaorist ?r>T + »T'i+^ + W = ^ + 5r?L+T^+W (VI.4- 37)=^''nnr, 
The r^^ being elided by VIII. 2. 27 (after a short inflective base, there is 
elision of r%% ifa;7m/ follows). So when »j of t\^ is elided by VI. 4.«37, 
there remains only n which is a base ending in short m, hence, the elision of 
flr^. But in the alternative we have ^int?^- 

fH: f^^n 18 II ^r^^ II f = . ^J ( ^^v) " 

ff%: i( f?%^?it: ir- fipg- r%3^'rr 11 

14. The 5/'r/i Atmanepada affixes are -^zV after 

the root /lan ' to kill.' 

As 5!nf?I, ^nf W<mr, ?nr?^nT are the aorist of ^. When a f^ or second 
aorist is Jiit the verb loses its nasal, by Rule VI. 4. 37. After the verb f^r the 
Rr'5 is only kit and not the Benedictive fSTT terminations, as was the case in the 
previous sfltra; hence the repetition of the word sich in thi.'^ sutra. The siltras 1 2, 
and 13 were governed both by fsi^^and f%^; from and after this sutra, the govern- 
ing power of f»r^ ceases. The governing power of the word " Atmanepada 
in siitra 1 1 does not however cease, and its anuvritti runs through the succeeding 
sfitras ; though as regards this sutra, its anuvritti is redundant, inasmuch 
as before the Parasmaipada terminations, the root?g^ is always repl.-iced hy 
^ in the aorist, there is no necessity of making the alTix sic/i a kit. For the 
object served in making j/f/?, kit, after the verb ?5r , is to elide the nasal, while 
in the case of q>T , no such purpose can be served. 

15. The afflx sic/i before Atmanepada affixes, 
is kit after the Yevhyam^ when meaning ' to divnlge.' 

The word ganclhana means 'to divulge,' 'to make known that 
which had been concealed.' The verb ^iT has various meanings. 

The result of kit is that the nasal is elided. The verb ?T5; becomes 
Atmanepada when preceded by the preposition ^r^ by rule I. 3. 28. Thus 
^ + '!r + ^?r + W=^r^?r = ' he devulged,' ^?Rr?rr?Tr?[, arfPRnr, the sich is elide' 
by Vlll. 2. 27 and ^ by VI. 4. 37. When the verb l^^ has any other meaning 
than 'to divulge,' then the Ri^in the Atmanepada is notfc// ; as a^f^^'f """■ 
' he raised the foot.' So also ^?t^ fi^JWS. ' he raised water from the 


Bk. I. Ch. H. § i6, i8. ] Affixes like f^. 79 

well.' Though here the verb /<?/«, is in the transitive form and takes an ob- 
ject after it, yet it is Atmanepadi by Rule I. 3. 75 which declares "after the 
verb /(7»« to strive, preceded by ^5,^5;^ and ^{^ when it does not refer to a 
book, the Atmanepada is employed." 

7?:^: II 

10. The sick before Atmanepada affixes is Hi 

optionally, wlmii ya?H means ' to espouse.' 

Thus irrmtT ^f^rr^ or a'TT^^ *»^l»i. 'he espoused the girl,' ^r^TfT 
or jij | <i<;< ! HrafJ ' he espoused his wife.' 

The word ' Upayamana' in the sutra means ' to accept in marriage,' 
'to espouse.' The verb iff^ preceded by the preposition TT is Atmanepadi 
when it means 'to espouse' by Rule I. 3. 56. 

'WT'^Tft^ II 13 II TT?[Tf^ II '9n,'5%T:, ?cl^ n ( f^^TcT- 
^^^ ftjcl^ ) II . 

ff%: II Rrs't^l-'fir: ^^rir^rpTr^ y^rrvr^wiw: f%^ RfrT^ffT 'Jrr^i^q^^ qrtr: 11 
lY. Tlic afHx sick before Atmanepada alRxes, 
is LV after .f///^? " to stand " and ^//« (I. 1. 20) verbs, and 
those verbs change their ^r into f before these termi- 

The roots «EVr'to stand,' ^ ' to give,' y^ 'to place ' | 'to pity' ^ 
'to feed' ^x 'to cut' change their vowels into X before the terminations 
of the Aorist of the Atmanepada ; and those terminations are also kit. As 
^7lf|«TfT, 'he worshipped' 77r%T«rrTrr5;, ^rrfWTfT; '^f^ff 'he 'gave' %lfifn 
' he fed.' 

1 a\T %7^ll 16 II q^Tfn II H, SfT, %?. ( f?RT^) II 

ff%: ii g:nr??r«c: t^ ^y^rfw ii 

18. The affix kivd wlion it takes the augment 
'^ («• e. when it is set) is not h'f. 

We had had occasion to refer to this sfltra in explaining sutra 7. 

"le affix ktvd {the actual affix being ivd, the A; being merely ii or indicatory 

^tter) is on the face of it a kit affix. This sfttra however limits its kitness to 

cases where it is not sei. If it is s^i i.e., has before it the intermediate f it 

W'" not be treated like a kit affix. Thus in fff^, f?Tr, the affix ?^r is added 

rectly to the root ^ ' to do ' and f ' to sacrifice,' without an intermediate f 

therefore the root has not been gunated, the affix here being kit. But in 


80 Affixes LIKE ftrs|. [ Bk. I. Ch. II. § 19, 20. 

^^ftisir, ^f%wiT, Tl^PTT, from fCTf , {|f and f rT ' to sweat/ ' to shine,' ' to be,' the 
affix is not kit, because there is an intermediate f before ?^ and the root has 
been consequently gunated. 

Of course this siitra relates to grr Icfvd only. Other affixes though 
having an intermediate % will be treated as kit, if they have an indicatory 
■ ^. Thus the affix frif^illl. 3. 94) by which feminine nouns are formed 
from roots isa f^j affix. This affix when %^, will remain f^'jj, asfir+iTf + ^ 
%^=f?r+75;+T+r?r (VI. i. 16) =f5r^tfw: (VIF. 2. 37). Here there is sampra- 
sarana by treating ktin as kit. So also in TTft^fff?!: and fsr^f^fw: there is no 
guna. After ir^ &c., the affix f%^ takes the augment |^ by a VSrtika under 
sfttra VII. 2. 9 which see. 

?%: II ^ftj^R^ fSif^ f^^ tf( X^^^: <nfr TtST sinpr: ^^ ^T^ II 

19. The Set Nislitba affixes ai-c not kti after 
the verbs 6i ' to lie clown,' svtd ' to sweat,' mid ' to melt/ 
kshvid ' to be unctuous,' and dlirish 'to ofFgnd.' 

The Nishthas are ita and ktavatu (see sfttra 26, Chapter I). They 
are obviously kit affixes. But in the case of the above five roots they arc 
not kit, and the vowels take guna Thus j^fiftf: slept, ?jra?rTr^, SrttflW:, si^:, 
1^5%^: ; iR^fttm^;, U^ffrRT^:, 1^^?m^, n^rf^:, ST^lf^rl^rg; &c. In all the 
above roots the Nishiha affixes are also sit. 

The roots f^j (nrfSf^ ), ft| ( RpRT ), fw|( Mkm ) and »j«r ( fsnffr) 
have all long ?n as indicatory, as well as the syllable fit . These roots 
therefore by Rule VII. 2. 16 are generally unit, and consequently beyond the 
scope of the operation of the present sfttra. As R^»r: , ftTW^n^ . . But when 
the Nishtha affixes denote 'a state or condition, bhdva,' or 'beginning of 
action,' then the above four roots optionally become set. (VII. 2. 17) It is in 
that case that the present sfttra is applicable to them. 

^f%Tf?T5Ilt»m II ^0 II TT^TfH II ^:, f^f^rSimm ( f*«?T 

%?[^H fei) I 

20. The set Nishtha is not kit after the verb 
mvish when meaning ' to forbear.' 

ThusiT|%: 'forborne' >if^^ 'forbore.' 

Why do we say 'when meaning to forbear?' When it has not this 
sense, the set nishiha will be fsRgr . As ^mf^ ^ipir? ' he spoke unintelli- 
gible language.' 

BK. I. Ch. II. 5 31, 22.] Affixes like ptn^. 81 


21. The set Nislitlia is optionally not h'i, after 

the verbs with a penultimate 5 if iised impersonally 
or denoting the beginning of action. 

According to some the sc't Nishthd suffixes are not kit after the verbs 
having a penultimate » if those verbs are used impersonally (bhS,va) or denote 
the beginning of action (adi-karman). Thus qw 'to shine' W^f^H^i' or uli^flH'i'T 
'it has been lighted.' Similarly snfr^<T: or JT^ffTH: 'he first illumined.' The 
word penultimate or upadhA has been defined in sfttra 65 ante. 

If the verb has any other vowel than 5 as penultimate, then the 
rule does not apply. As ferf lqdH ^ ^ ' written by him.' Here f is penulti- 
mate ; and therefore no option is allowed. 

This rule has no application where the NishthS, does not express 
cither iTTT ' condition ' or 'Impersonal action'; or ^rfl^^ 'beginning of 
action' but is used as a verbal adjective. As ^f^w ^Im'ihUT f^rRf ' he 
gives a shining coin (called karshapana).' Here the word ^f^if ' shining' 
is used as adjective. 

The rule applies to the NishthA which takes the intermediate \ and 
not to others as qgrff ^n<pr: 'the rice that has been eaten.' Here no 
option is allowed. 

This optional form of past participle is restricted in its scope. Those 
verbs which take the vikarana -^^^ i. e. the verbs of the BAu class &c., admit of 
this option. Thus ^ ' to wrap up' belongs to Divadi class, and therefore, 
its participle has one form only as »Tni?r. 

^W' art ^ " 'R^ « ^v^ " 1^'. '^» ^ ( ^^' ^\' ^ 

fr^ ti ^: <m f%OT i^^nr: W "^ ^TT Rpt^ " 

22. The set Mshtha and the set klvd are not kit 
after the verb pun 'to purify.' 

The word 'optionally' of the previous sfttra 21 does not govern this 
sfttra, because the word 'optionally' has been again used in the next sfltra 
23; of which there would have been no necessity, had the word 'optionally' 
governing force in this sfttra, for then this would have also governed the next 
s^tra. The anuvritti of ^ %% however is to be read in this sfitra. 


AFFIXES LIKE f^ . [ BK. I. CH. II. § 23, 24. 

By rule VII. 2.51 after the verb T the affixes Nishthi and ^ 
kt.d take the intermediate f. So that ^r ktvd being sit (by virtue of Rule 
VII 2 51) would have been non-kit by Rule 18; and it might be asked what 
is the necessity of repeating it in this siltra : when sQtra 18 comprised the 
case. The reason of this repetition is that by mentioning =grr /t^v^ m this 
sfltra, it has governing force over the succeeding sfttras. As <t^?t: , ^l^^\% . 

■m (an %7^ ^ ^\ ) " 

f ^: II ?yrrrT'TPgmr^tnrf n?d i ^*K i'-w[ g Tr- ^i smt?f : %^f r i f%:^i^ ii 

23. Tlic set ktvil is optionally kit, after 
the verbs liaving a pcnultlniato \ and ending in «i 
and \ . 

The sH ktvd may or may not be kit after the verbs ending in u 
or t^ preceded by a nasal. The result of being kit will be that nasal will 
be dropped. In other words the dropping of the nasal is optional in such 
verbs. Thus from TJU we have iTfiT^Tr or iTfiiff^r ' having twisted,' ^i%?Tr 
or Jji^^ 'having tied round' VRTffr or irf^v^^r • 

The word " Nishtha" does not govern this sutta, and comes to an end 

with the last sfttra. 

This rule does not apply to verbs that have not a penultimate ^ 
though they may endinuortp. As ^f%?^ 'having reviled ' jfn%?^ ' hav- 
ing tied.' Here by rule 18, the im tvdhfiing non-kit, the vowels of the root 
^K^, and Jir have been gunated. 

A verb may have a penultimate g[ , but if it has not final Xf or %, 
the rule does not apply. As t^ + 5c^ = ?ffti?fT 'having dropped' I'fm?^ 
' having killed.' Had it been kit, the nasal would have been dropped. 

^f«*I^^^ag II S8 II tj^tfir II trf5«-^Jf%-W?f:, % {m 

%^ H fiscT ) u 

f rar: II ^% w^ ^jsr f^^w"-^: <^: ^ Ji?ar!T: ^i^r n ftf^r^ 1 1 

24. The set ktvd is optionally kit, after tJio 
vei'bs vaiich, ' to cheat ' lunch ' to pluck ' and rit ' to dare 
or abhor.' 

After the above three verbs, the ktvA affix being s^t, may or may not 
be kit. As ^r^r^ or ?ii%^ ' having cheated.' So also gf^?^ or ^f%3f 
'having plucked' ^1%?^ or ?!rfw??rr 'having dared.' 

When the verb ^^ rit takes the affix f^ it is not governed by 
this sfltra. See sfttra III. i. 29. 

/5K, /. Ch. II. § 25, 26 J Affixes like /%-ff. 83 

When the f:tvd is not sc't, but anit, then there is no option allowed. 
As rf + TRT = '?TFTr- 

25. The Set ^-/z/rt Ls o])tionally h't, according to 
tli(! opinion ofllishi Kasyajia, after tlie verbs trisli ' to be 
tliirsty,' mrisb ' to sprinkle,' and kri;^ 'to become lean.' 

As <rr^fr or ?Tfqr^r ' having thirsted,' gf^TT or if^^^TT ' having sprin- 
klpd,' frftr<arr or ^f%?^ ' having become lean.' By sutra l8, the set klvd is 
never kit. This sCilra adds another exception to that general rule. 

The special mention of Kasyapa is for the sake of showing respect. 
The ^ is already understood in this sutra by Anuvritti from sdtra 23. 

^%T z^TT^fxpsT^: ^g a ^^ a xr^tf^ ii xw-, n- f -^^^vit^, 

ffrT; II 3^raT>Ti%7iTrTVTrirvTr?fr r^Fwr^sTr^: tt: ^v =s:r^ %^ ^\ f^^ 
H^ff: II 

2fi. After a verb wli ich begins with a conso- 
muit, and ends in a letter of Ral pratyirhdra, and lias as its 
pemiltimate f orf,gr or gr,the/^/W and sa?i affixes are 
optionally kit. 

The wording of this sOtra requires a little explanation. It consists 
of the following words: — 

1. rST: ralah, ablative of r^ (after the consonants included in the 
PrnUlyhAra ra/i.e., all the consonants except wy and g-w): — Verbs having 
tlieir final letter any single consonant except ^jv or ^v. 

2. BgtTvjTtT means "after penultimate ^t." It is a compound of 
it + ^f^ . The ^ itself is a compound of 3" + f = TT, in the dual ^. 
I nerefore the phrase means " after (verbs) having for their penultimate either 
X tor ^ u long or short." 

3- ySTTf: means " beginning with a consonant." 

All these three words qualify the word "verb" understood. 

4- ^V means " and san." 

The sfltra means, those verbs which have a rw letter in the end, a 
'^in the beginning, and an f, f or ?, 3^ i" their penultimate, may optionally 
^■■eat the affixes kfvd and san as finn . 

84 Short, long anb prolated vowels. Bk. I. Ch. II. § 37, 28. 

Thus ?Wf 'to shine,' makes ?^%^ or «Trft^^ 'having shone/ Rf»^ 
'to write' makes fyffwV or^l%?^. 

Similarly in san affix we have flTRTf^'lf^r. or f5T5rftni% ' he wishes to 
write' j^far^rsr or f^ tf l fr l Mi ' ho wishes to shine' 

The rule does not apply if the verb ends in a letter other than r5r[. 
As fl^ + ^r = tl^'^tr ; its dcsiderative will be ^I'^'lRr. No option is allowed 

Similarly there is no option when the penultimate vowel is not f or 
7 . As f^ + ^r = ^m. Des. ^T^W . 

The rule also does not apply if the verb does not begin with a con- 
sonant. As ^fq^^ and trf«ff^%. There is no option allowed here. 

The rule does not apply if the ^ and h^ are antt. As 5^, a^^. 

In these 26 sfttras the description of affixes which are treated like Ts^ 
andnf5.'s comprised. 

^^T§TJ3T^5^'H^H: II i^SU tj^f^ li gt-^lH: 3J^, 5^- 
^-^?i: II 

27. A vowel whoso time is that of short n, 
long il and the i)rolated ?/, is called respectively hrasva 
short, dirgha long, and pluta jirolated. 

The 7 a having one matra or measure is short, having two measures 
is long, having three measures is pluta. This svltra defines the three kinds of 
vowels according to their mdtni. The letter 3r 'A has been taken to illustrate 
the rule. The phrase y^^r^jfrf: is a Dvandva compound, in the Singular, 
and is exhibited in the masculine gender, contrary to the general rule II. 4. 17. 

The word kd/a means measure of time required for pronouncing a 

As ^ 'curd' ijg 'honey' here f and ^ are short. ^H \ ( i, ^ft, here 
t is long. Iq^vil^ 'fff^ra Devadatta I Here VfT a is pluta or prolated. 

These words are used in the following sutras I. 3. 47, VII. 4. 25' 
VIII. 2, 82. 

3T^ II ?c II ^^f?^ u 5(T^:, '^, ( w^ ^^ ^^: ) 11 

^- II fTT ^ jrtT; w%<rr?nf%":?pfri!rr ir^Twr%%RrHs?fT: 11 

28. The short, long, and prolated, when 
enunciated as such, hy using these terras, are to be 
understood to come in tlie place of vowels only. 

This is a paribhasha sfltra, and declares the object to which the terms 
• short,' ' long' and ' prolated ' are to be applied. When in this book ' short' 


I. Ch. II. § 29. ] Udatta defined. 85 

'long' or 'prolated' are taught by using the words hrasva, dirgha or pluta, 
■hey must be understood to apply to vowels. As will be found in the sfltra 
1.2.47. ' "there is the substitution of //ariz/rt orshortin the neuter gender 
of the crude-form." The word ' vowel' must be inserted in this siltra to com- 
plete the sense. That is : — the hrasva is substituted for the final vowel of 
the crude-form. As t" wr%rr, T^ ^Irj, nr ^"HJ . 

The substitution must take the place of vowel and not consonant 

As g^nt Sr5)»i'*ir)5. . 

Similarly sOtra VII. 4. 25 ' teaches " There is the substitution of 
(Vwha or ' long vowel ' before all affixes beginning with the letter ?r, except krit 
and SArvadhAtuka affixes." Here also the word ' vowel ' must be read into the 
butra, which will then be " of an inflective base ending in a vowel, the long 
vowel shall be the substitute &c." As f% + ^^ + ^ -= '^raST ' it is collected'; 
j^ ^. ^ -(- If = "ij^r^ 'it is heard'. Why do we say " in the place of vowels 
only"? The substitution must take place in the room of a vowel and 
not of a consonant. As Pt^ + it + % = M?T^ ' it is divided,' fl[«T% ' it is 

So also in the case o\ fluta substitution. Thus rules Vlll. 2. 82 and 
84, 'declare that in calling from a distance, /"/z^^^ is substituted for the f^ por- 
tion of the word in the vocative. (The word \i is defined in I. i". 64). Here 
also the phrase ' of the vowel' must be read into the s(Jtra to complete the 
sense. The sCitra will then read : — " Pluta is substituted in the place of the 
vowel of the f? &c." Thus f^f^^, O Devadatta ! ^^rfTTI O Yajfiadatta ! 

Why do we say "in the place of vowels only"? The substitution must 
be in the place of the vowel of the f? and not of the consonant. As 
^f^HM^H, ^pr^^W . Here the syllables f 5^ and ijg^ are f?, and the vowels f 
and ^ have been prolated and not the consonant g_. 

The substitution must be enunciated as such by usiitg the terms, 
hrasva, dirgha, and pluta. Therefore it is not so here ; ^r :, "TWTr :, ^v ^*Tr5; 
%\h: II See I. 1.4. 

^t^^'^T- " '^^ " "^^ " ^' ' ^V^' ' ( ^\ ) " 
fRf: I! T^''T5T»-«r»Tpfr ^m^i ^ ^fTrT^iftt H^f^ H 

29. The vowel that is perceived as having a 
high tone is called Uddtla or actttely accented. 

With this sOtra begins the description of the three sorts of vowel ac- 
cents. The accent placed on a vowel by raising the voice is called udatta or acute 
accent. As fsfjhf. agnfh, here / has the acute accent. The udatta is not marked 

C)?^ T*8i* m^ft^re^rii ("} ^^iwr^^^r^'r*: " ('.iir^^«R«i?: 

Anudatta defined. [Bk. I. Ch. II. § 30,31, 

in writing. The word ' vowel ' of the previous sfltra is understood in this 
also. These accents are the qualities of letters, and are well known in the sacred 
and profane literature. The vowel which is perceived as having a high 
tone is called udatta. This tone depends upon the organ from which the 
vowel is pronounced. In the various organs, such as the throat, palate &c., 
if a vowel is pronounced from a higher part of that organ, it is called udatta. 
The vowel in the pronouncing of which there is the restraining and checking 
of the bodily parts, and in which there is dryness and roughness of tone, 
as well as a contraction of the larynx, is said to have the acute accent. 
The word is used in sutra 111. 1.3. ' "the first vowel of an affix has 
the udatta accent." As ^ + tTS^-=5ffif?^ kartavyam. 

5(^%^g^T^: II ^0 II Ti^f% II 5ft%:, 3?g?[T'W;, ( a»\) II 

30. Tlic rowel that is perceived as having a 
low tone is called Anudatta or gravely accented. 

The word" vowel " of s. 28 is understood in this sfltra. As ^fi^: agnfli, 
here 5| has the grave accent. The vowel accent known as grave or 
anudatta is pronounced by lowering the voice. In writing, the anudatta is 
marked by a line underneath the vowel. The vowel which is uttered from 
the lower portions of its special place of pronunciation gets the grave 

This word is used in s&tra III. 1.4.' " The case terminations called 
g<r and those affixes that have an indicatory 7 are anudatta " &c. As ?r?r:, TP^' 

In pronouncing an anudatta vowel, there is slackening of tlie 
organs, and mildness, as well as softness and sweetness of tone : while there 
is expansion and widening of the larynx. 

' W^Tfrc: ^filcr: 11 ^1 II xf^vk II ^'ITIpT:, ^xm (31^:, 

^m:. ^g^T-n: ) n 

31. Tlie vowel that has tlic comMnation of 
Uddtta aiid Anuddtta tones is said to he svarita or circum- 
flexly accented. 

The word " vowel " of s. 28 is understood here also. The svarita 
or circumflexed accent is pronounced by the combined raising and falling 
of the voice. It is marked by a perpendicular line on the top of the letter. 

The word is used in sQtra VI. i. 185. ' "Tlie affixes having an indi" 
catory g. t hav e svarita accent." As ayajr k anya fsR^ij^ .^ikyiun , ^ tmh. 

Bk. I. Ch. II. § 32, 33.] The Svarita defined. 87 

This sMra is not to be understood to mean that a svarita is the resul- 
tant of the combination of two vowels, an udatta vowel with an anudfttta vowel. 
It means the accent midway between the two well-known qualities of letters 
known as acute and grave accents. 

?|^Tf^ ^T^*!|5^*t^ II ^:^ II tj^lf^ 11 rfW, wf^^f: , 

32. Of it (svarita) the first portion is uddtta, to 
tlie extent of a half measure, or prosodial length. 

It has been defined that svarita accent is a combination of udatta 
ind anudatta. It remained doubtful what portion was accute and what 
^rave. The present sfltra clears up the difficulty, by declaring that in svarita, 
[he first half is accute and the other grave. 

The phrase ardhahrasva is used to indicate half the measure of 
I short vowel. Thus if a short vowel is svarita, its mitri being one, half 
will be uddtta and the other half anuddtta. If a long vowel, whose mAtris 
ire two, be svarita,,i)Min )i wWX he uddtta, i\ wWl he anud<)tta. If a pluta 
protracted) vowel be svarita, then first half measure will be uddtta, and the 
emaining 2\ measures will be anuddtta. In short, the udatta portion of a 
■ varita must not occupy more time than is taken in pronouncing a half short 
'owel. Thus in IirV'I. sikyam the a is svarita, half being acute, the other 
lalf, grave or monotony ; in 5wrr kanyd, the long A is svarita, its first half 
ticasure is acute, the remaining i^ is grave; in "ITT^^r ^ manavaki, 
lere a prolated is svarita, its first \ is accute, the balance 2 J measure 
s grave. 

33. In addressing a person from a distance, 
the tone is called EkaSruti or monotony. 

Monotony or Ekasruti is that tone which is perceived when a person 
s addressed ; in it there is an absence of all the three tones mentioned above ; 
ind there is no definite pitch in it. It is, therefore, the ordinary recitative 


The word ' Sambuddhi' means here addressing a person from a dis- 

"ce ; and has not its technical meaning of the singular number of the voca- 

've case. As ^trni'egf >fr ITCT^^ t'TTTr^ ' O boy Devadatta ! come.' There 

vanishing of all the accents in the above case ; and the final short vowel of 

fvadatta is changed \nio pluta by the rule already referred to in s. 28 ante 

Ekasruti defined. [Bk. I. Ch. II. § 34, 35- 


j^-— ;:;;— ;;7;^i;;;^^ the word 

will got its proper accent. As ^m^ ^ '^^ ^^ -°"-' » boy 
Dcvadatta.' t^;^ 

34. Tn sacrificial works, tliorc^ is Monotony, 
o.xco.ptin jaj>a (.silent repetition of a tbrinula), Nyunklm 
vowels (sixteen sorts of oin) and the S<f,>M vedas. 

In ".saerillcial works" or on occasions of sacrifice, the mantras of 
the Verla are recited in Ekasruti or monotony. fJut on occasions of ordinary 
reading, the mantras are to be recited with their proper three-fold accents. 

"Japa"isthe repetition of mantras, and their recitation in a low 
voice or whisper. Nyfiiikha is the name of certain hymns of the veda, and 
tlie names of i6 sorts of " Om." Some of these are pronounced with udalta 
and others with anuddtta accent. S.lmas are songs, or the musical cadence 
in wiiich some vedic hymns arc to be uttered. As:—^fh(^^\r. ^'^fiCn: if^^ 

^ifj I ^TT?: r?rfr% f^y^wr ^ ^ii (Rig Veda Vfll. 14. 16). 

When a mantra is recited as a jfl/«, then it must be pronounced with 
accents ;— As ^m^^ ^ ftffSTff (Rig Veda X. 128. i). 

When not employed on occasions of sacrifice, but arc ordinarily read, 
the mantras must have their proper accent, and there will be no Ekasruti. 

In the sama chanting, the mantras should have their accent, there can 
be no Ekasruti there. As 5^ ff^t^PrnrcJ ??r? • Here there is no Ekasruti. 

^t^u w JitRT^^n:: II |«^ II ^j^TH II ^t'5T';T'^ , v , 
n^z^w , ( ^«^f^, ^^fir: ) II 

|f?r: II Tf^r^^i^ ^T^^rn:: ^?Tn^ >TTr% ^^^^ |i 

35. The pronunciation of the word vasliat 
may optionally be by raising tlie voice (accutcly accent- 
ed), or it may be pronounced with monotony. 

The phrase "yajfia-karma" is understood here. Even in yajfla-karmas 
or sacrifices the word ^T? may optionally be pronounced in a raised 
tone. The word ^tt? in the sfttra signifies ^f^^. But why was not 
the word 4\m^ used in the text, it could have been used with as much 
ease as ^qr ? To this natural query, the only answer is, f^f^ffT: ft ^f?^ 
fift: irftr^: strange and wonderful is the structure of Panini's aphorisms. 

Thus ^r^?rr»% f\^\ ^\ ^i? or #»i^ri^ i\i\% ^ ^. . 


I. Ch. II § 36, 37.] Ekasruti DEF/NED. 89 

flrwm^s^ II ^11 tj^rfHii firwHTT, ^f^ik, (^^^f^rO 

36. The Monotony is optional in the rocita- 
;ion of the Vedas, or they may he recited witli accents. 

In the Chhandas or the Vedas there is option either to use the Ekasruti 
one or the three tones. Even on the occasion of ordinary reading, the 
;hhandas might be uttered either with the three accents or monotonously. 
lonie say this is a limited option (vyavasthita-vibhftshd). 

The option allowed by this sfitra is to be adjusted in this way. In 
c.-iding the Mantra portion of the Veda, every word must be pronounced 
villi its proper accent : but in the Brahmana portion of the Veda there might 
le Ekasruti ; while some say there must be Ekasruti necessarily and not 
)plionally in the recitation of the Brahmanas. 

Thus :— ^fJ5r*ft^ 3df# or simply ^fr^jft^ ^uf^- " I praise Agni 
the purohita." 

The word ^r " optionally " of the last sfltra could easily have 
icen read into this sfttra by the rule of anuvritti; why then use the word 
|>n"Tr "optional" again? To this we reply, this apparently redundant repe- 
ition is for the sake of indicating that the anuvritti of the word ^5^^!%, 
vhich was understood in the last sfitra, does not extend to this. Had we 
akcn the anuvritti of ^, the other word also would have been attracted ; 
lence the separate use of the word ft^r^. 

^ la^^rat ^ftci^^ fj^Tf : 11 ^9 II Tj^if^ II -^ , gg^- 

WTqm , ^ftcl^il , H , ^^^: , ( ij^^ftr: ) II 

ffrT: 1 1 HWSJWirraT^^mTT^I ^?l HWCJHrH': ^^Tfrl^rr^^^m^ ?jmff >TTf?f 1 1 

3Y. T]iere slionld ho no Monotony in the Te- 
station of tlie Suhrahmanya liynins and in those hymns, 
the vowels, tliat wonld otherwise have taken the svai'ita 
iccont, take the uddtta accent instead. 

The subrahmanya hymns are portions of Rig Veda mentioned in 
atapatha BrAhmana. 

This Sutra prohibits Ekasruti in the case of certain prayers called 
mbrahmanya. By rule 34 read with 36 ante, prayers might be optionally 
ittered with Ekasruti accent. This ordains an exception to that rule. 
n subrahmanya prayers there is no ekasruti ; and in these hymns, a 
'owel which otherwise by any rule of grammar would have taken a 
'Vania accent, takes an udatta accent instead. 

As ^?m°9)' \ ftsjrnr'^ f frj ^rnr'gr • Here the word ^ ») ; ;)"<( is formed 
-•y the addition of the affix »f5_tothe word g?W^) and this ?r will get svarita 


SUBRAHMANYA HYMNS. [ BK. 1. Ch. II. § 38.39. 



accent by VI. i. 185, (ftw^fMff) as it lus an indicatory ^■, by the present 
sfltra, this n.iscent svariia is changed into ud^tta. In the phrase f^ ?mn=3, 
the word Indra being in the vocative case, f is udAlta, the ^ of Indra is 
anudatta VI. 1. 198 ' The anuddUa preceded by an udfttta is changed 
into svan'ta (VIII. 4. 66) °. 

Thus the ^ of f'T must become svarita, but by the present sutra this 
nascent svariia is changed into an udAtta. Thus in ff^, both vowels he- 
come uddtta. In the word ^ffn^, the ^ hudtUia ; the next letter which was 
anudAtta becomes svarita, and from svarita it is changed to udatta by the 
present rule. Thus in the sentence f^ ^T^ the first four syllables 
are all acutely accented, the fifth syllable is only anuddtta. So also 
in 9^-^ ^r'T'«Sr> for "J*^ reasons given above, the letters T and ^^g are anuddtta, 
the rest are all acutely accented. 

^?l5I^tTg?[TTT: ll|t|| n^lf^ II ^^J-S^I^rr: , 3Tg^m:, II 

38. The word devd and Bralimiina In those 
hymns have anuddtta accent. 

By sfltra 37, it was declared, that in subrahmanya hymns, svarita 
accent is replaced by uddtta accent. This sutra makes an excep- 
tion in favor of the words Iff and inSTfCT occurring in those hymns. 
These words have anudAtta accent. As tff flWUT ^r'T*5?r ' come ye Dev.^s 
and Brahmaiias.' Here the word ^fr gets udatta accent on the first 
syllable by rule VI. i. 198. ' (in the vocative the accent is on the 
beginning): Tf vd has originally an anuddtta accent which by rule 
VIII. 4. 66 ' (an anuddtta following an uddtta is changed into svarita) 
would have been changed into svarita. This svarita, by the previous sfltra 
required to be changed into udatta ; but by this rule, it is replaced by anu- 
ddtta. In other words, the original anuddtta remains unchanged. 

^?!t?^%rfT^T»Tg^mTHm II ^^ « tf^if^f II ^ft«nn . 

f^: II ^^jfPTf^>T% ?^rr<Tf?7fTri5fwm%^^H^f^ ii 

39. The Monotony takes , the place of th« 
anuddtta vowels which follow the svarita vowels, in close 
proximity {sanhitd). 

Sanhit4 is the joining of two or more word^ in a sentence, for we 
purposes of reading or reciting. When words are thus glued together, then 

0) WH^^^re?! ^ II C) 3^TTr?g?T^Ji??fTff: ii 

Bk. I. Ch. II. § 40, 41. ] Sannatara defined. 91 

the anuddtta accents become Eka^ruti if they are preceded by svarita 
vowels; and are pronounced monotonously. As f>T^' »r^ ^g% ^fT^^ (Rig 
Veda X. 75. 5) O Ganga, Yamuna, Sarasvati ! this mine. 

Here the word f «r has udatta on the last syailable : the word n is 
originally anuddtta, but by rule VIII. 4, 66 ' following an uddtta, it is 
changed into svarita ; after this svarita all anuddtta like irjp, &c., are 
replaced by ckasruti. All the vowels of the words if^jr ^5% &c., had anudAtta 
accent by rule VIII. i. 19 ' (all vocatives get anudAtta if standing in the 
middle of a sentence and not beginning a stanza.) 

The word " sanhita" has been used in the sfltra to show that when 
there is a hiatus between the words then there is no change of anudAlta into 
ckasruti. The word sanhil4 will be defined in sutra I. 4. 109 '. 

^^T^^ftcm?;^^! n^XHV' II 85 II TT^Tf^T II ^?[m-^fi;cT- 

tr^^T , ^rar?n:: , ( ^rg^i^^n^ ) ii 

ffw: II ^frTTTC:^ ^^ftfTTr^sr ^r^?nTf?T ^ra-JTr^ftrajfr >t^<t 11 

40. The accent called Sannatara is siilxstituted 
ii; the room of :m anuddtta vowel, whicli has an uddtta or 
svarita vowel following' it. 

In the previous sutra it was said that an anuddtta preceded by a 
svarita becomes Ekasruti. If however such an anuddtta is followed by an 
udfitta or a svarita, it does not become Ekasruti but becomes sannatara i.c. 
lower than anuddtta, 

The sannatara is therefore that accent which was originally auu- 
datta, and which is preceded by a svarita and is followed by an udAtta or a 

This is one explanation of the sfltra. There is another explanation 
which does not take the anuvrilti of Ekairuti in this siitra. The* anudAtta is 
replaced by sannatara when such anudAtta immediately precedes an uddtta 
or a svarita. The sannatara is also called anudAtta. As f^ Jl^?r: jfirTTrnrT: II 

Here the word »frrIT: is anudAtta. The word ^7: has udAtta on the 
last syllable by VI. i. 171. * In the phrase >T'mm: (iTTfTr: + ^T: ) The syllable r> 
's anudAtta, because anudAtta + anudAtta =• anudAtta. This anuddtta ^, 
preceding the uddtta T:, is changed into sannatara. 

^l,m ^%mv.vm'. n hi ii ^^^[Tf^r ii st'j^: , ij^-aw , 

j ^i 'I ^ra^ r rW ^ 5TTr% ?:^r?f ^: miim^^ w 
(') »?mrT5?rTR«T ^gftiT. II (') «n«?^Tmi^ii (') it: «^3k4:«^II 


Karmadharaya defined. [ Bk. I. Ch. II. 5 42. 

41. An affix consisting of a single letter is 

called an Afrikta. 

This defines AprikU, affixes. They arc those affixes consist 
of only one letter of the alphabet. Thus the affix ^ ^ J" '^^^ '^ a one 
lettered suffix and is an Aprikta. Similarly the affix ftrj kvvn is ^r^ApnkH, 
because the letters ^T, r, and ^ are merely indicatory, the real affix .s ,.. 
This Tz. being a single letter, and therefore an /J;>WW«, when added to a 
base, is elided by rule VI. I. 67 ' (the ApnkU,^^v is elided). Thus^nf^ + 
f^ = ^^^ + ^ (111. 2. 58)' =?^?^ll ^Tn;+f&f = 3T?PTr^ 'co-sharer.' 
(in. 2.62). ''^ An affix which consists of more than one letter is not an 
Aprim. As ?ff : ' a ladle ' formed by the Unddi affix ftsT (^p-^ f^^ )• 


42. A Tat-inu-usha (jotnpoiuid, the case of each 
member of which is the same, is called kannadhdraya or 

Appositional Determinative compound.' 

"Karmadharaya or Appositional Determinative compounds form a 
sub-division of the determinative compounds (T;it-purusha). In them the first 
portion stands as the predicate of the second portion, such as in black-beetle, 
sky-blue." (Max Muller). 

The compounds like fr5T>RT 'the blue lotus' "TTTTWr 'the supremo 
spirit ' &c. are examples of karmadliAraya compounds. " The component words, 
if dissolv«d, would stand in the same case, (samftnAdhikarana), whereas 
in other Tat-purushas, the preceding word is governed by the last." 

As, •ir^rs?r5;, is a karmadharaya compound meaning "the hist 
Government." Had it not been a karmadharaya compound, the uddtU 
accent would have fallen on the syllable rf by rule VI. 2. 130, * (the word 
XVSVl has uddtta on the first syllable in Tat-purusha compounds, except m 

Similarly <m'%^+f5=?n^r=->Tm^F?rfNfri (VI. 3. 42. " the feminine 
adjective is changed into masculine in the karmadharaya). 

Each member of a compound may have the same case, but if '^ '■ 
not a Tat-purusha compound, it won't be karmadh&raya. As ff^^+^ff"' 
H i r«<* r>Trt: • 'He who has a wife for a cook.' This is an example of « 
Bahuvrihi compound, and therefore the word <rrf^r retains its gender sig"' 

n^n^ll (') *3^i3^ftf^ll (') ^f^.\\ {*) 9PB*m*TR^' 

Bk. I. Ch. II. § 43, 44. 3 Upasarjana defined. 93 

A compound may be a Tat-purusha, but if its component parts do not 
refer to the same thing and are not in the same case, it won't be karmadha- 
raya: — ^WJCTn^^Brahmana rajyam ' a Brahmana iiingdom.' Here rrs'at'r gels 
uditta on the first syllable by the rule already mentioned (VI. 2. 130J. 

f^: II sTTTsrr ft'Hfirarr '!fi%^3:^w tmr^ror^ rrjT^^sr^ir H?f% n 

43. In (this ])00k, in tlic sutras rcjlatini^^ to) 
roinpoimd, the "word that is exhibited in the lirst (Nonii- 
uativo) case, is called upasarjana or the secondary word. 

This defines or rather describes the Upasarjana. In the sutras refer- 
ring to compounds, the words that have the case termination of the nomina- 
tive, are called Upasarjanam, 

Thus sfltra II, i. 24 (ffrff^r PirrnfttI T^?nT?»FT??ranrnT^ is a samasa 
5>utra enjoining composition. In this siitra the word ff#^ is exhibited in 
the nominative case, and the remaining words are in the Instrumental case. 
The sQtra means, " Xn accusative (fl'^fTr) is compounded with the words 
f^, ^I?ftw, T^W, »r?r, ^I??r?^, Vn, and ^<r5r and forms Tat-purusha." There- 
fore, in forming accusative compounds, the word having the accusative case 
will be called Upasarjana. Thus ^? + pTfr: = ^fff^rf . Here the word 
^t being Upasarjana, stands first in the compound, by Kule II. 2. 30. 
3TO"fr;r^iT, (in a compound the Upasarjana should be placed first). Simi- 
larly in rules relating to the formation of Instrumental, dative, ablative, geni- 
tive and locative Tat-purusha, the words standing in those cases will be 
Upasarjana. Thus ^^iJing'iT: , fJ^T^ ; f^>m5^ , rr^J^T: , ^^T^fl''^: • 

Upas.arjana is, therefore, that word which either by composition or 
derivation loses its original independent character, while it also determines 
<lic sense of another word called JT'^'PT or principal. 

^^"H^ ^^fH^CTT^ II 88 II ^^tf^ II ^^-f^'flf^ , -9 , 
^??-fW^ , ( m^^5f»I ) II 

44. A word which has one fixed case, (wliile 
the word compoamded with it may vary its case) is also 
"pnsayjana, except for the piiri)oses of the rule which 
.Jcquires the upasarjanato stand first in a coni]iound. 


fl4 PRATIPADIKA DEFIMED. f Bk. I. CH, If. } ^, 

A word which in the analytical statement of the sense of a compoun,] 
has one fixed case, whilst the word with which it is compounded may vary 
its case is also called upasarjana, but does not necessarily stand first. 

That which has one fixed case-termination is called eka-vibhakti 
i.e., a word whose case termination has been determined by a rule of samasa 
i.e., while the second word in composition with it may take many case- 
affixes, it takes only one case affix; apurva-nipdte, such a word will be an 
upasarjana for all purjioscs, except for the purpose of the rule (II, 2. ■jq) 
' which requires an upasarjana to stand first in a compound. 

Thus the prepositions R: &c., when meaning across &c., are com- 
pounded with another word in the ablative case. Though the first word may 
have any one of the several case terminations, the second member must 
always be in the liflh (ablative) case, when analytically stated. Ex Rinirr?fr 

Similarly the word R^frri!Tr%: II 

If the word, when analytically stated, docs not retain the one and tli 
same case, it will not be called upasarjana, as the word arnrrt in the compou,. 
nsr^TfO, 'the king's daughter,' because rr?r: + ^t\ = Km^t\ ; fRT: ^ 

Had It been an upasarjana, the long ^ of fT would have been shortci. 
ed into f as in the previous example. 

This upasarjana, however, contrary to the general rule (II, 2. 30) ' 
can not stand first in the compound, because ther,; is no such form as, ^Wr% 

frw. II ^^*f^5?^ srrr^f^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^f^^ „ 

45. A .siyiiiliciuit fonn of a word, not being' 
a verl,al root .(Mtn), or :m affix {fratyaya) is called a 
prdiipadika or crtidc-Ibrm. 

This defines the word " prAtipadika" or crude-form. The pratipadib 
ndi j; "T r'' ''''" "" ''^ development of a full word (pada), from the 

cao b °" ""'' "" "'''^" "^ '«°'- '' '^ t'-' P^^' of' word which i. 

capable of receiving tj,e case.termination3. 

verbal rnnl"' '""f^^ ""'"' ■*""'"§ signification. With the exception of 
verbal roots and^^3,^,,,,d.f„,^ having a significance or meaning is callea 

(') 3TOjf!if <T^V II 

gK. I. Ch. II. § 46. ] Pratipadika defined. 95 

a pratipadika, as RrWT: ' a wooden elephant,' mf^fV[: 'the wood-apple tree,' ^^H 
'a bowl,' "fhr^r'a seat'. 

Why do we say "significant"? Of course it must have some meaning, 
thus of the word ^T,'we cannot say that the portion sr^^ is pratipadika ; as it 
has no meaning, and had it been a pritipadika, the final ^ would have been 
dropped by Rule VIII. 2. 7 ' (the final sT of a pratipadika is dropped). 

The word must not be a verb, as the word ^fT (tlio third person 
sing, number. Imperfect tense of f^); he killed. Had it been a prdlipadika, 
the ^ would have been dropped. 

The word must not be an affix or ending in an affix : — as ^u^ ' in the 
bowl.' Here the word ends in the affix f of the locative case, and is conse- 
quently not a ' pratipadika ' or crude form, but a complete word. Had it been a 
pnUipadika, the ^ would have beerf shortened into f by rule 47 succeeding. 

A-nipata or particle though not a significant form of a word, yet gets 
the designation of pratipadika in the opinion of the author of the Mahfl,- 
bhAshya. As gj-MM|-Mr^> JRT*^ . 

f»^%tI^m^1W II ^ II XT^Tf^I )) f>?^-cff|rT-^WreT: , ^ , 
( mf?ITTf^^) a 

fnr: II ir?T^w^r?rr: ?mmpi urfniff^+fVit >T«r^fr 11 

4G. The forms ending in .Krit alllxes, or Tad- 
dhila affixes, or compound ai'e also called Pratipadika. 

This further explains the use of the word pratipadika. " Suffixes for the 
formation of nouns are of two kin<ls. Those by which nouns are derived direct 
from roots, primary suffixes. Those by which nouns are derived from other 
nouns ; secondary suffixes. The former are called Krit, (III. i. 93) " the latter 
Taddhita (IV. i. 76). ' Thus ■spT j<.i,na, man, is derived from tho root Tf^jun 
by the krit suffix ^; but 'Spfhr janinn, appropriate for man, is derived from 
•R jana by the Taddhita affix fq- tna. The name pritipadika would apply 
Doth to'spf jana and ■spfpf j'ani/ia, as nominal bases ready to receive the termi- 
nations of declension" (Max MUller). 

Of the compounds, of which there are six varieties, we had occasion to 

er to five already viz., Tat-purusha, Karmadhdraya, Dvandva, Rahuvrihi and 
AvyayibhAva. They will be fully dealt with in their proper places. 

In the last sdtra, the words " not ending in an affix" were too exten- 
J^e; this sfltra makes an important provision in favor of words ending in 

ft or Taddhita affixes. So also compounds are also called pratipadika. 

^"ig restricted to compounds only, it, of course, does not apply to sentences. 


Shoktkning of the Neuter bases. [ Bk. I. Ch. II. ^s 47. 

The words lormcd by kfit allixes are pralipadika as, ^ (to do) + <Tff5 = 
- + ,=^rr + ^^-^n-^. 1''"= ^nix ^J5J is a knt affix, and it is added 
rotherooUoform agent by Rule III. i. 133- ' The letters «r and W arc imli- 
catory, the force of 'n being to cause the vriddhi of the vowel of the root. 
The real allix f is changed into ^q^ by (Vll. i. i " the affixes 5 and 5 are 
replaced by ^pr and ^^ respectively), thus the form ^rr^is a pratipadika, 
and is capable of declension by nxeiving case terminations, as, mK^: II 
Similarly ^ + r^% (HI- i- '33) ' = ^t : "o'"- ''•i^'' ^*f- 

The word lormed by Taddhita allixes are also pratipadika ; ^77 + 
<^<n-^^Vm + ^=^f'VT^ 'the son of the Rishi Upagu': nom. case ^ffTir^ , 
similarly *|4Jf: . 

In fact in the chapters treating of these affixes, the derivative suh?- 
tantives formed by them are always shown by the Indian Grammarians in the 
nominative case singular number. The examples of nouns given in Ihis 
book will be always declined nouns and not pratipadikas, except in peculiar 
cases. So also in the chapter of sam:1sa or compounds. 

The words ending in compound are prAlipadika : as tf?': + J'PT: = ?T3f- 
^^, nom. case TTSTJ^^T: • 

f^ ^^^ ST%^f3[^^^ II «(J( II iT^TM II K^: , ^^% , 

f Ptt: II TTO^r%-5^i'lf ?inirr%Tr^* t'^^ ^^ y^fr ^r^frr ^rrWr^n'^^'T^- n 
47. The slioft vowel is substituted in tlic 
neuter, for the final vowel, of ti xiratipadika. 

In the neuter gender, the prAtipadika that would have ended in a long 
vowel, changes it into short. Thus ^jj-frf +^=?rf%n: 'extravagant' as gnf<TIT'= 
^5r? ' an extravagant family' ; gj-f^ mt = ^ufr(yt ' very hairy' ^ntw ^ 'a very 
hairy family.' 

There is no substitution of short vowel, if the noun is not in the 
neuter gender, as irTT + Jf ^ = iTRUfi", nom. case ^HtsU: ' the leader of a village 
or head-borough,' similarly ^srpfr: 'the leader of an army.' 

A word may be in the neuter gender, but if it is not a pratipadika, 
the vowel is not shortened, as sifpt f?ts^: ' two cantos remain.' Here the 
^ of ^n^ is formed by the coalescence of ^ (of the pritipadika ^P^) a"'' 
f (the dual case termination) ; thus ^TF^ + f = ^fl. Now it might be urged. 
that here one letter ^, replaces two letters "^ and f, therefore this substitute 
is equivalent to each of those letters separately, and consequently 5 is '''^ 
vowel of the pratipad ika and ought to be shortened. But this is "»' 

I3K. I. CH. II. § 48, 49. ] A RULE OF LUK-ELISION. 97 

to be so, because the word prAtipadika has been especially mentioned 
ill the text, and therefore this ekidasa is not treated as the final of the 
lorm which precedes it. 

( mfci'Tf^^'i ) « 

48. A short vowel is tbo substitute ofpnlti- 
padika wliicli ends with the word rjr ' a cow,' and of that 
which ends with wluit has as its termination a ferahiiiie 
iillix; wlien reg-arded as u]msa.rjaua. 

The word upasarjana has been defined in siitra 43. In compounds 
the word jfT becomes shortened wlien it stands last and is an upasarjana. 

Thus f^5r + iff = f^5r^: ' possessed of a brindled cow'. This is an ex- 
ample of a Bahuvrihi or possessive compound. So also j^ra^nr ' a spotted 
cow'. Similarly in those prAtipadika upasarjanas which end in feminine 
suflixcs having a final long vowel, there is a shortening. Thus pr: + 5fi:<.ii«('i 
"fH'^r^IT*^: • Here the final long y is shortened. So also . 

The word pnitipadika of the previous sutra is understood in this. 
The word iff in the sutra means the form jfr and not other words synonym 
with it. The word ^sff means " a word ending in a feminine affix," because 
it has the svarita accent. The word upasarjana qualifies both these words, 
i. c. when jfr is an upasarjana and when a word having a feminine termina- 
tion is an upasarjana. 

Other examples are :—^frr + »?Ixr = ^%'jr?; ' without a bed stead' 

?rf%Tr5T: 'surpassing a necklace in beauty'. • 

If such a word is not an upasarjana, there is no shortening, as, 
Hir^Tlft' 'the king's daughter.' Here the word rrsT^^ is upasarjana, and not 
the word ^»nflr, which latter is therefore not shortened. The word must be 
^imvaA^ws word formed by the addition of an affix, which makes it femi- 
nine. Thus the words STffl', ift &c. are feminine originally, and are not de- 
rived from the masculine nouns, by the addition of -any feminine affix. There- 
fore we have ^r^gr^t: 'surpassing Lakshmi in beauty' ^ffrift: II 

Vart : — In Bahuvrihi compounds, exception must be made of femi- 
nine nouns ending in the affix \n^, as ^f^nra'f , fw«PinT^?I?fl' I 

if%.' II fif^frgft *fir ^ftinBiirw TT^ifsw^r ^mf^ i' 

98 A RUi.E OF I.UK-EMSIOX. [ BK, I, Ch. II. J 



49. Wlien ii Tiiddliitji affix Is elided by the 
woi'd Ink there takes place the elision by hik of the 
feminine affix of the iipasai;jana. 

The word ^m defined in sfttra 6i Cliaptcr I, is twice used in this 
sfltra. Where a Taddhita affix is elided by the word war ; there the feminine 
suffix of the pratipadikd is also dropped, or becomes /id. Thus there are 
certain Taddhita suffixes by which patronymics are formed (one of thom 
be'mg gjrtT) from other nouns. Before this ^"7 the initial vowel of the word is 
vriddhied and the final is guiiated. Thus RrrJ ' ocean'; forms Rf»^ + gjof .. 
Wr + ^ = %5)Jf ' born in ocean or oceanic' J)ut there are certain words e.\r. 
Mr>g-f, tfTF'TCff &c. which are all feminine gender (see siitra IV. 3. 3,) "1 
after which the patronymic suffix is totally elid.^d, without leaving any "tn 
of its action, by using the word luk. Thus Mf^ST + (gr"Tg5r) =Hfrr?g-: || II,-„ 
then the present sutra finds its scope. The Taddhita suffi.x being /aked ; tl„- 
original feminine termination ^r also becomes /iU'. Therefore the patr'ony 
m.c derivative of HfT^^ (is not a longer word, as might have been expected) 
but actually a shorter word, namely MFfff: ; similarly from ^^^f wo have 

Thus there is a feminine suffix called gff^ (actually f ) and certain 
words hke^&c, (IV. r.49) ' take an additional suffix called ,rr=r^ (actually 
^r;). 1 hus the feminine of f^^ will be f^ + ?rr?f + 3?f5: = W + ^P^ + 
%. - T'^Srcfr. Now in forming Dvigu compound (Numeral Determinative 
compound;, the Taddhita suffixes are dropped. Thus ^^^T: 'an offering 
(purodash)n,adein a dish with five compartments.' In this compound the 
Taddh.ta suffix ^^^ is dropped. Otherwise the form would have been ^m^: n 
•bnndarly when the word f^t^ forms a Dvigu compound, the Taddhita suffixes 
are dropped. ..But not only that, even the original radical affixes are al.. 
dropped by force of the present sutra. Thus ,%: which means the cake 
sacred to the hve goddesses f^mTf. Here the full form was i^ + f,^\ + 
^5 . (The suffix ^nr has the force of " sacred to God." Thus f^ + gfT = 
ir^ sacred to God Indra). In the above expression, first the Taddhita suffix 
^7 IS /..fe/by rule contained in sfttra IV. i. 88 » relating to Dvigu compounds: 
we have then remaining 7^ + j^f^-^ . ,, t^j^ ^^^^^^ j,,^ p^^^_^,,^ ^^^^^ 

comes mto force and declares that where a Taddhita suffix has been /«W, 
the final fem.nine suffixes of the upasarjana prStipadika are also /«W. 
Therefore, the feminine suffixes ^r^ and 5^^ are also dropped, and we 
haveT%.-y:wl^h means "cake sacred to the five IndrAnis (goddesses)." 

^a \ 

Bk. I. Ch. II. § 50, 51.] A RULE OF LUK-ELISION. 99 

The words ^and upasarjana of the last sutra are understood in this. 
By the last sdtra, a word ending in a feminine affix was told to be shortened 
vvlicn it was an upasarjana ; this sfttra teaches the total suppression of such 
an affix in special cases. To take another example: Thus Rule IV. 3. 163 
declares fifin* " luk takes the place of an affix signifying modification or 
product when fruit is meant." Thus ^ar is an affix which means modification. 
Thus'fi' + ^(T --= ns^ 'cow's milk or the product of cow.' This affix is sup- 
pressed when applied to a tree, in the sense of the fruit of the tree. Thus 
the fruit of the tree ^m^^t will be called ^TPT?!^ i.e., first the Taddhita affix 
islidct/,nnd then the feminine affix is also dropped. Similarly fruits of 
^fCf or ^^m trees, are ^^t or ^^r^t. 

This rule only applies when a Taddhita alfix is elided ; and not so 
when any other affix is lit/iet/. 'llius Tm^f: + ^ = irriffa??^ 'the family 
of (iArgi,' Here in forming the samasa, the case aflix of the word gargi is 
iiih'dhyU. 4 yt '. But this sujiprcssion of the genitive termination does 
not necessitate the elision of the feminine affix f^ of gargi. 

This rule would also not apply if there is no elision by /u/! of a Tad- 
dliita affix, as in TfCiff^^T . 

Nor will the rule apply when the word is not an upasarjana. As 

j^ nimx: II \e ii tj^rfn ii f?T , ^twu: , («T%rrgf^ ) h 

50. The .sliovt is Hiil)stitiitc(l in the iilace of 
goni, when tJic Tixddliita ujiix is elided by luk. 

By the former sutra when a Taddhita is elided, the long |- of the femi- 
"Hic also required elision. But this rule makes an exception in favor of the 
»ord Jrrcfri in which, under similar circumstances the short f replaces the long 
r, as in the compound 'T'^ifn'JjJ: ' purchased for five gonis.' Here the Taddhita 
'uffix which conveys the meaning of " purchased for," has been rejected 
iftcrjfrafl- by V. I. 28, " therefore by previous sutra, the feminine suffix f 
'ISO required rejection. But this sutra intervenes and changes the long ^ 
iito short jf. 

This siltra is divided into two separate rules by the process called 
oga-vibhAga. Thus f^ is made one sutra by itself, and then it means, when 
'^re is a suppression of Taddhita aflix by w^, then the long f is replaced by 
lort X. Thus purchased with five needles = 7^'^: ^tPj: wftT: =<i^_^:, ^JJ^f^: . 
"s IS restricted to such examples of purchase only. 

100 A RULE OF LUP-ELISION. [ Bk. I. Ch. 11. § 51. 

^ gTR?I^5qfifi?(^^ II ifl II TI^fH II ^fir , 5tR2R^ , 
WlfiR-^'9% II 

TrfWg:ii ^rri^PTrftf s^Pfr: ii 

^Tfk^H II ??f5ifrr^rr^f t^t^^ ii 

51. Wluju a Tadflhita affix is elided hy ws'uvj: 
tlic word f!T , thoii tlio gender and numlier (of the deri- 
vative Avord) agree witli of tlie oiigiiial word. 

This SLitra consists of four words: STR', ' vvhero there is a rejection 
by using ^t' 2 ^Tir^qf 'appropriate to the same' 3 S!fr%, ' gender,' 4 T^ ' num- 
ber.' The form vy.ikti vachane is dual. 

When a Taddhita afifi.x is luped, then the derivative word retains the 
gender and number of the primitive word. Note the difference between the 
rejection of a Taddhita by s.aying ' let there be a ^^' and " let there be a ^J"|| 
The direct action of both words is the rejection of tiie suffix ; but a derivative 
formed by luk rejection may not retain the number and gender of the original 
word ; while a derivative formed by Inp — rejection does retain the number and 
gender of the original word. 

Thus in the secondary derivative word fifufqT: meaning ' a village not 
far away from Rn'fi? trees'; the masculine gender and plural number of the 
original word has been retained, though made applicable to a village, which 
is in the singular number and neuter gender; similarly the word <r^5ir: is 
masculine plural in form though applicable to a single province. 

This sfttra is not an approved rule ; as will be mentioned by PAiiiai 
in sdtra 53 following and is consequently of little practical importance. 

Thus q^rSTT: are a class of Kshatriyas, as such it is masculine gender 
and plural number. The country in which PaiichaiAs live is also called I'an- 
chaiAs; similarly ^q-: , »rnmr: &c. There is a rule 5T?rqt5J. ('V. 2. 81, the 
iup takes the place of an allfix when signifying the proper name of a country 
or kingdom). Thus <i^rwr: + ^"^ (this is one of the affixes forming country) 
= T^Rrr:. 

This rule does not apply when the affix is suppressed by the word 
fa^ &c. and not gT . Thus ST^IJT: g^: ' salted soap' CT^U.riqqrd: 'salted gnieV 
5rTOr:[rr* 'salted vegetable.' Here the affix ^ has-been elided by the word 
luk, by IV. 4. 24, sr^iOTrWar (after the word lavana; the affix is luked). 

These derivatives retain only the gender and number of the original. 
but no other quality. Thus as we have already seen that fij^TT: sirishAl.i> 
is the name of a village and is formed by the hi/> of the affix. Now com- 
pounding it with ^ we have ^pH^vt^ 'the forest of the village girishd.' Here 

Bk. I. Ch. II. § 52. ] Rules OF LUP-EMsioN. lOl 

the word f^lOll' means village, and not trees. Had it meant trees called 
sirtsha, then the ^ of ^ would have become Jir optionally by Rule VIII. 
4. 6. ( ^IMrVf^ ^T("Tf?P-'!i; II the ^ of the word q^ is optionally changed into "^ 
when preceded by words signifying annual herbs and trees). 

Vart : — In the case of the words Ilaritaki &c. the gender only is 
retained and not the number. As f^?R?r "FffTfR ' the fruits of Ilaritaki.' Here 
%^ is neuter in form, while ^rf?!^ is feminine. 

Vart : — The words ??r5n%^ &c. retain their number only but not gen- 
der, as ?jr5Tf?(*'^iflH 'mountain forests i. e. forests in the vicinity of mountains.' 
Here m^X^ is singular and ^mfH plural, but the gender of both is the same 
viz. neuter. 

3J^T^:, ( ^ft ) n 

ffrf: II f^^inrrf^ R^«(ti.iiiH W'sfT^q- s^r-ri,<nsi >T7fft -^k ^^ri^?^ 11 

^trI3r5_ II >T5I<.i|tHfif !J|%^vjt ?T|f^: II 

52. And of adjectives, (the gender find nuni- 
l)er arc the same as of the word formed by lup elision of 
the Taddliita and whicli tJiey qnalify) so lar as the jdti 
(or kind or species) is concerned ; (or wlien Jiot cxj)ressing 

When a Taddhita is luped, the adjectives which qualify such secondary 
derivatives agree with them in number and gender. This is a rule of syntax. Thus 
f^tsTT: ITOJhlT: ?f?rf:, ^f^ftTf^TT: ^ t!H t <r«ti'H r: 'the pleasant Paiich.'ilas having 
)lenty of food, plenty of milk and butter.' Here the adjective ricfl^r: pleasant 
«., agrees in number and gender with the PaflchAIah; being also \\\ masculine 
>lural. But when such a derivative is used as a jAli word then the 
idjective does not agree in number and gender, as T'^T^f: jT^T? :, ni^ TTT:. 
lere iTTT? though qualifying PancliALA. does not agree with it in number 
md gender, as it is a noun of class. All attributes of such words formed 
y the lup of Taddhita agree with their substantives in number and gender : 
TOvided that such an attribute is not a common noun used as an ad- 
sctive. Similarly adjectives which do not directly qualify such Taddhita- 
crmed nouns, but do so through the medium of a noun of class, do not 
gree in gender and number with the Taddhita-word. Thus "T^T^TT: 
''nff rTOfhfl' ^tf9r: ' the country of PanchalAs is pleasant and fertile.' Here the 
'Ofds rtpihc: and ^a': qualify directly the word 'SPTT?:' and indirectly 
^6 Word Panch&Ias, and therefore do not agree with the latter. 



The explanation of this sdtra as given by Patanjali in the Mahd- 
bh4shya is somewhat different from that of the KaAikA. The phrase miTT^: 
is analysed by him as '^ and ?rmr%;, Hie sense being " and as far as the 
jati goes." The word jAti is thus explained :— 

A word expressing whatever is distinguishable by its form or figure, 
or which being the name of an individual is easily found applicable to others 
without any further teaching, (a common name) provided it is not a word 
used in all genders, (common noun 5?l?nT[^ genus) ; and (only for the 
purpose of grammar as coming under the rules relating to the above mention- 
ed words), a word expressing descendants by their parentage as well as a word 
expressing a person by the branch of the Vcdas ( ?trar ) which the family to 
which the person belongs is competent to read ^rrai^wsij (sakhddhyetri) 
(irl U - M l fi ) = ^nf^rrr^W: (jativachakAli) ^JT^ »T?1MlRf»?<lRf '^ ^^^^\ 

The following examples will illustrate the meaning of the above de- 
finition : — (i) m is a jAli word because it denotes what is distinguishable 
by its form, i. e. by its being contiguous to a place covered with water, (2) 
?nc is such a word, because when given as the name of an individual, is 
applicable to other sfidras (common name), (3) ^ihTTT is such a word, and 
(4) cf^ a person belonging to the family competent to read the branch of 
the Vedas called katha is also such a word. Rut ^f??T is not such a word, 
because it is a proper name applicable to only one individual and ws is 
likewise not such word, because it, though a common name, is used in 
all genders. 

yi,^(: — Prohibition must be stated in the case of nouns formed by 
the WIT elisio;i of an affix relating to man. Thus the Taddhita affix' ^\ (as) 
is employed in denoting representation by imitation. Thus 'JHC^^: means 
a figure like a horse (in wood or clay or paper). But when the imitation is 
that of a man, this affix is elided. Thus ^^ means a " doll of straw." But 
when we want to say a doll in the figure of a man, we will have ^p^ + aK^ 
(WBTJS^ V. 3. 98) = '^^. Here this word is formed by the elision of an afli" 
relating to man. Adjectives qualifying this word will not agree in gender and 
number. Thus "T^ ^F*T^^: 'the delightful straw figure of man.' ^r^*f' 
?^?ft?i: 'a beautiful representation of an eunuch.' 

BK. 1. CH. II. § 53, 54. ] LUP-ELISION NOT APPROVED. 103 

53. This (concoi-d of gender and nnmbev, ot 
jDi-imitive and derivative nouns, and of attributes and 
substantives) need not be taught (or aiJi^roved), because it 
has the authority of sariij'fia (or conventional term or 

The agreement between the number and gender of the nouns and 
attributes ; of primary and secondary words formed by suffix rejection, is 
not an approved syntax. The gender and number of particular deri- 
vatives or adjectives are not blindly to be fixed by the primary words 
or the governed substantives; but it is a matter more or less of usage 
or idiom: and no hard and fast rule can be laid down for it. Thus the word 
frn: 'wife' has the form of masculine plural, but is always applied to females, 
similarly ^rr: 'water' is always feminine plural in form, so also ^^: q^: 
Rt*rrr:. This sutra, therefore, modifies the former sutras, and leaves the 
whole question of syntactic agreement to be decided by usage and idiom. 

The words like Panchdlas, Kurava &c., should not be considered as 
derivative words formed by the lup elision of Taddhita ; but they must be taken 
as proper nouns and appellatives of certain countries; consequently the 
gender and number of such words are fixed by the nature of such words and 
not by any rule of grammar. 


54. Tlie sutras declaring hip elision need not 
also be taught, because of the non-currency of the etymo- 
logical meaning of the words supposed to be formed by 
lup elision. 

In explaining certain words, it is a round-about way of going to work 
to say that there was a suffix after them, which has been rejected, without pro- 
ducing any effect. It is easier to say that the form is what we find it to be, and 
nat its peculiar meaning depends upon usage. Moreover, in many cases, 
"6 would-be etymological meaning is not in fact the current meaning which 
ne Word has in ordinary language. It is therefore a useless circumlocution to 
presuppose the existence of a suffix, to add it to a word, and, then after all, 
'Q make it vanish.^ 

104 Pradhana and Pratyava. [ Bk. I. Ch. II. § 55, 56. 

Thus ^Kmt: Varariiih is the name of a city. To say that it is derived 
from ^TCrr: a kind of tree, because the city is situated near such trees, and 
tlie trees gave the name to the city, is a cumbersome process. Because there 
miglit bo no trees ^Cjr at all near the town Varana. Let us therefore call 
words lil<e ^rmr, TVr»fr, &c., as simply proper nouns. Therefore there is no 
occasion for the application of the Taddhita affixes given in IV. 2. 69 and 70 
(^fjf ft'fW:, ^TTT'Ifg), relating to residence and vicinity; much less of rules 
relating to ' lup ' elision contained in IV. 381 and 82 ( iHM^gqr , ^"If^^v). 

jjin? fw ?if >n% iWH ?^g;, ^7f T^gi'^Trft v^ wn^ jpttct ^^ ^r^^: ^n[% nm^^- 

.55. And if the etymological racaiiirig l)c held 
authoritative, then when such meaning is absent, the 
word also sJioiild vauisli. 

This sulra strengthens the former sfttra. If it be said that a word 

always retains its etymological meaning in current language ; then when there 
is an absence of such etymological meaning, then the word itself ought to 
vanish. But we know, as a matter of fact, that, there are words which have 
altogether lost their etymological sense, and connote a thing different from 
their radical meaning. Therefore to explain such words by /up elision of affixes 
is improper, because they do not retain the meaning of their primitive words. 
It has already been said that words like <i'^r5Tr &c. are not deriva- 
tive words, &c. but are appellatives. If these words be taken as proving 
their etymological meaning, that is, .as expressing or dependent upon, tin-' 
sense of the original word, then when there is a loss of the original word 
signification, the secondary word must also cease to be employed. Thus if Pan- 
ch.llAs be the name of the country in which the Kshatryas called Panchnlas 
live, then when they cease to live in this country, it should cease to be calh'" 
Panchalas. But we know, as a matter of fact, these words arc now used 
without any reference to the people who once inhabited the countries. Thosi' 
words are consequently not derivative, but their sense is determined by 
usage. They are what may be called ^fk words. 

Bk. I. Ch. II. § 56, 57. ] Kala and Upasarjana. 105 

5(5. (l^or need bo taught) the rule relating to 
tlio dependence of the meaning of a word on the princi- 
pal (pi-adhilna, in a compoinid) or on tlie iifflx (]iratyaya), 
hocause the authority of the meaning (of a word, com- 
p(nmd or derivative) consists in something else. 

This siitra may be divided into two parts. The first part stating the 
proposition and ending with the word vachanam. The second part giving 
the reason. The first part consists of four words; Pradhdna: 'Principal 
in a compound.' As in the compound <MH^<4: ' king's man/ the word raja 
is Upasarjana ; and T^TT: is pradhAna. 2. Pratyaya : ' affix.' 3. ^fq' ' mean- 
ing.' 4. T^Tfl ' word or sentence.' 

In the time of PAnini, there were some grammarians, who held the 
opinion, tliat the meaning of a word is determined, if a compound word, then 
liy its principal word ; and if a derivative word, then by the suffix. Panini 
( ontrovcrts this opinion by declaring that in as much as the meaning of a 
word is fixed by usage and idiom, therefore the proofs for tlie meaning of a 
word are not to be searched either in the affixes wliich go to form it ; or by its 
lirlncipal word, if it is a compound. Because, says PAnini, the proof of the 
meaning of a word is in something else, that is to say in the usage of a people 
and not in the suffixes &c. A person who has never heard the name of 
j;rammar, understands full well when told to bring a Raja-purusha. He brings 
an official and not a king, nor even any person in general. Similarly when 
told to bring an "STrTT^ he brings a cowherd's child, not a cowherd, nor a child 
in general, nor both. When, therefore, the sense of a word is determined by 
usage, there is no use to strive to find out the sense by grammatical rules. 

^T^iq'a^^ '^ Hrim II ^3 II q^Tf% II ^T55-^W^, % 
5?5W, ( a^fsT^ ) II 

ifrT: II ^r5fn*nrA% 'mftps^ ^.Tr^?^n:?r!?Tn!Tf^w ii 

57. And a xvIq fixing the meaning of Tense 
U<ala) and Upasai-jana (sequence) is equally (uniiccessaiy, 
=wid need not he taught). 

Here PAnini controverts the opinion of those grammarians who 

would even define time and sequence. Thus there were authors who de- 

pluperfect as a tense relating to time hundred years past, others said 

^thousand years past &c. PAnini declares that these are redundant 

1 ions and reprehensible, for the same reason as given in the previous 


Singular denotes the plural. [ Bk. 1. Ch. II. § 58. 

To give another example. Thus ^umH'- ^PRf: or the period of 
the current day, has been thus defined by some Acharyas :— " The period of 
time beginning from the point when one rises (or ought to rise) from his bed, 
according to the law, and ending with the point when one goes to bed, 
according to rule, is called adyatana." Others say "from midnight to midnight 
is the period of the current day." Similarly others have explained the 
'upasarjana' to mean "that which is not the principal word in a com- 
pound is called upasarjana." The sage Pdnini has not thought it worth 
his while to define such words as upasarjana, in as much as their sense is well 
understood by all as a matter of usage. Thus common people who liave 
never heard of grammar, also know the correct use of tenses, they say. 
" This is to be done by me to-day, this will be done by us to-morrow, 
this was done by us yesterday." 

Similarly common people also know the use of the word upasarjana, 
for they say :— " T^tH^ ^Jf iirt' ^r ^TH^spr ' we are secondary or unimportant 
persons in this house or village,' meaning that they are not the principal 
persons. Therefore that which is valid according to the usage of the people 
is needless to be taught. 

Why was not this sutra included in the last? What is the necessity of 
making a separate rule of this ? The answer is that it is an illustrative sulra, 
and does not exhaust the subject. There are other rules made by former 
sages which are also not taught by Pftnini. Thus the following rules of 
old Rishis arc not taught herein, they being supposed to be well-known. 
"A Bahuvrihi compound connotes ownership." " In Dvanda compound.s the 
sense of both the members of a compound are principal" " In Avyayibh^va 
compounds the sense of the prior word is the principal " &c. 

58. In (a common) name (expressive of) class, 
in denoting the singular, the plural is optionally em- 
ployed. _ 

The words of this sfitra require some detailed explanation, i' 
name of a jftti or species, always denotes one, since it is a collective nou 1 
and will naturally take the singular number ; by the present sfitra such wor « 
may take the plural number also. In such nouns of class, the plural number n'"" 
also the force of the singular. The anuvritti of a^ishyam does not go further. 

BK. I. Ch. II. 5 58-60. ] Dual may denote plural. 107 

It follows from this that adjectives which are not themselves common 
noun, such as ?r<ra-: &c., agree with the noun and will also get the plural 
number. ThusH>m>^: or?pmr«r^:; "Full grown barley " "JJ^T^ mmj: 
!I5f ?^^.' or "j^^^^Hf JrWOTT: sj^gwhn: II 

Why have we used the word jAti in this sfitra? For this aphorism 
does not apply to Proper Nouns. Thus |^^?p!T: Devadatta, ■H^iff: Yajnadatta, 
Why have we used the word wrre^RJI^r? A word may be a class noun or j4ti, 
but it may not be the appellation of a class. Thus the statue of kAsyapa may 
also be called kAsyapa ; this is a class noun, but as it is not the appellation 
^r^^ or name of a class, such words cannot take the plural form and still 
denote a singular sense. 

Why do we say ' ekasniin' ? When two or more class names are 
compounded as g ( ? | ^ q<fl ' the rice and barley:' the rule does not apply. 

Vari: An exception must be made when a class noun is qualified 

by a numeral adjective. As ^aifr 5fr^: ^'J^- ^fTrr ^trpT . 

f par: II '^'m ^ti M^^^M**:^ ^% "^ 5rf^xHH'«jrn,??5rr^ >nT% n 
mfrf^l^ II «mrTCTf^ siRRvfr <r?f)S^: 11 
^rfWg^ II fwt iKH^sii II 

59. The plural of the pronoun asmad, ' I,' is 
used optionally, though the sense requires a singular or 
chial number. 

Thus " I speak " or " we speak " (^ Jlftft or ^ f»r:), may be 
spoken by one person, similarly two persons may either use the dual case or 
the plural case, thus ^TT^r ip: ' we to speak ' or ^^ f»T: ' we speak.' 

Vart : — There is prohibition when the pronoun of the ist person is 
qualified by an attribute :— as ^f iTfrfrsi^H^ ■ ' I Devadatta am speaking.' 
T? irn^"? fdt^ ' I GArgya am saying.' Here we cannot use the plural. 

Vari: — The word^j^ ' master' may have plural form though referring 
to one person, when following the word ^wf^; as ?^ % »pr: or ^ % ^^'- ' Thou 
art niy master', or 'you are my master.' 

'^^ n H5»% II 

60. And the dual ofPh^lguni and Proshtha- 
PadA, when signifying asterisms, (also connotes option- 
al plural). 


SOME RULES OF NUMBER. [ Bk. I. CH. II. § 61-63. 

The word ■g in this aphorism draws in the anuvritti of the word 
I^' from the last. Of the stars phalguni and proshthapadA, the forms may be 
either dual or plural. As 7ft& -J? ^?«fr (dual) ; or ^nv #: f^^^F^: (plural.) 
So also 1? mi^ or -J7f: umfn H There are two pairs of stars of the name of 
phalguntandproshthapadft, both being of feminine gender, and their logical 
number being ' dual.' The present sfitra ordains plural optionally. If phalgunt 
and proshthapada are not names of asterisms they must have their proper 
number : as <ir?55^ iTajfir^ II 

01. In tli(; VediiH, tlio two stars, Piiiiarva.sii, 
may opptionally l)c sijigular, (and connote a dual). 

In the Vedas, the star punarvasll which is always dunlin form, may 
be in the singular form and connote a dual meaning. As "J^Hsra't or 
yf|^;,^pr^j%y^^ II The option is only allowed in the Vedas and not in 
profane literature. In the latter it must be in the dual, that is, J^^q;,'! Similarly 
when it is not the appellation of an astcrism but of a man, there is no option. 
As 35lf q^THir^^ . 

ftajT^n:^ ii ^^ ii tr^if^t ii fg^i^^:, ^ (^5^,31'«t- 

^Vi^) II 

G2. In tlic Vedas, the two stars Visaklia may 
optionally be in the sinf^nlar niiinber. 

The word Rnjrsjrr is in the dual number as a rule. In the- Vetlas, 
it is found sometime to have the singular form, denoting duality. Thus 

Rirarr fRppr or ftrjjril jRT^rf^jF^r l^nr ii 

G3. In the Dvandva compounds of the star.s Tishyi^ 
and Punarvasu, the dual constantly coracs in the plaf'' 
of the plui-al. 

When there is a collective compounding of the words Tishya a" 
Punarvasu (meaning two groups of stars), the final compound is always ni 
dual. Thus grftff^ fiTRrj^^fJs:^^ 'the Tishya and Punarvasu having risen art 
seen (dual).' 

RK. I^ Ch. II. § 64. ] Ekasesha, 10& 

There is one star called Tishya ; and there are two stars railed 
punarvasu. As the Dvanda compound of these stars refers to more than 
two stars, it ought to have been in the plural number. This rule teaches 
tliat there should be a dual number, when; otherwise then; would have been 
a plural number. Why do we say 'Tishya' and 'Punarvasu'? (.)bserve 
fVsrnaTjrWT: ' the stars Visdkhci and AnuradhA.' The conipouud is in plural 

This rule would not apply if these words do not connote stars but 
aif used in any other sense. As fti^jfj^rq-fr^r TrCT^^: , ' Boys called Tishya 
and Punarvasus.' 

Why is the word ' star ' repeated in the sulra, when the previous 

siitras and the context show that stars were being treated of. The repetiticm 

is for the sake of including the synonyms of Tishya and Punarvasu. As 

The rule only apjilies when these words form a Dvandva compound, 
and not when they are cornpoun<led in any other way. Thus frr^sTfT^^f^- is 
an (■xami)le of Bahuvrihi compound meaning " persons «'ho confound the 
Tishya witli the I'unarvri^u." 

']"he rule only applies to the />//(;y// Dvand\ a. If the Dvandva takes 
tliL' singular termination, (his rule has no application. As HT^'TST^^ fffHT^. 

This sulra indie, ites by implication (jfiapaka) that "every Dvandva 
rompound may optionally take the terminations of the singular" for otherwise 
the employment of the term q-?^=^;T?;!T in the sutra would be superfluous. 

The word 'always' has been used in the text to show that the 
governing power of " o[)lion " stops here with this sutra and docs not extend 
to it or any further. 

G4. Ol'tho words liaviii^- the sanie form, and 
^n in the same one caso-torjitiiiiitioii, the last one is only 

This is a very important sutra, and deals with what is technically 

ta cil Ekasesha (or retention of one). When there are two or more words 

le same form, and the same case termination, standing together, one is 

retained and the rest arc dropped. Thus ffr: + ffT:-fTf> (trees, in dual) 

Every individual thing requires an individual word to express it ; one 
therefore could not express many things; to prevent the rej)etition of 



Ekasesha. [ Bk. I. Ch. II. { 65 

the same word to express many objects of similar form, is the purpose of this 
sfltra, by which one word is only retained. 

This applies only to words having the same form and not if they 
have different forms ; as E^ ?WTr: the plaksha and nyagrodha trees. 

The word " form " is used in the text to show that even if two words 
liave different meanings, but the same form, the rule of Ekai^esha will apply, 
as ^TtT: (tlie) +^r^- (eye) + ^TtT: (axle) =^'^r: Similary im and m^f■. . 

The present rule only applies to the retention of ofic, and prevents 
the retention of two or more. 

The word :fr^ (retention) is used to show that there is not a 
substilulion (Adesa) of one for many, but the retention of one out of many. 

The rule will not apply if the two words are in different case-termi- 
nations, though they may have the same form. As 'T^:(l.s.) <T^r (2. s.) 

srr^m ; ar^rcjr'-^f (3. d.) '^fff 3r?r(!Tr>-^f (4. d.) =^fff . 

^ i!" ^el^^t^^rgaj^: II l^ II i7^Tf% II i^j:, -m, 
^^-■^Wn:, ^ 15^, fij^^: II 

fpTT: II f^r^^?f^r?n^^ f ^rrq'^'^^ tr^^nT%?7 \^^■. 11 

GI>. The \i'L(l(llia (or patronymic Gotra word 
becoracs ckaioalia, and is rotaiucd, when conipoiiudctl) 
with a pati-oii^'mic Avord calh^d yiivan, pfovid(Hl tliat tlic 
s])ecific difference iu fonu between tlieni be in tlicii' 
signs (atlix) oniy. 

The word sesba of the previous sutra is understood here. The wonl 
" yun/i" in the text is in the instrumental case. The yuvan word is dropixd 
when read along with a Vriddha word. The word Vriddha means gotra: tlK" 
old .icharyas (grammarians) used the word Vriddha for gotra. The vri<ulli'i 
(or in other words, the gotra) word designates a person between whom and 
original head of the family a son (or a word formed by an apatya affix) inter- 
venes. In using together two words, one formed by a gotra affix and the 
other by a yuvan affix, the Vriddha is retained, where the difference between 
those words is in their affixes only. These two words gotra and yuvan are 
defined in sfitras IV. i. 162 and 163. (^nnf "Wu^ 'TT^ H ^ftwPT f tT^ ^^| " 
Roughly speaking a gotra word is formed from the orighial noun which is '""« 
name of the head of the family when a son of such person is living; and a 
vriddha word represents thus a grandson, or lower than that, but not a son , 
while a yuvan word is derived from such last mentioned gotra word by 
another affix and thus represents persons lower than grandsons. 

BK. I- Ch. II. § 66. ] Ekasesha. Ill 

The word 'tad' in the sfitra refers to the gotra and yuvan affixes, 
Xhc word lakshana 'sign' in the sutra is synonymous with 'cause' or 
'occasion'; meaning the specific difference is caused or occasioned by the 
golra and yuvan affixes. The word %(| in the siitra means ' if.' The word 
fj 'only' is used to exclude others. The word i^fm: in the sutra means the 
'dissimilarity of form.' 

Thus irn'^: + irFsffTir: = Tn'^rf. Here the first word denotes a clan 
called GArgya (the offspring or grandsons of Garga formed by the affix ^fTT (IV. 
I, 105) ' the second word denotes a younger branch of the same, and is formed 
by the Taddhita affix T^ denoting a secondary derivative. " In this then, the 
first or " Vfiddha " remains ; the second or the yuvan is droi)ped ; and the form 
" GArgyau " means both the old and the new clan. Similary ^r??^: + ^^^TT^T^: 

This Ekasesha is to be done only in those cases, where the two words 
li.ivc the same radical form, the only difference between them being in their 
derivative formation. 

The words must differ only by their affixes, but their radical element 

must be the same. The rule therefore does not apply to ; — TF^.' (a Vriddha 
word( + ^r^^^rr^iTT: (a yuvan word)c::JnTlr7r??'Tr^'ft II 

This rule of ekasesha does not apply if one of the words be not a 
Vfiddha word. Thus iT^: + TrP^KCJ: = niFrfqT^nji' II 

Similarly vice versa iTF^: + T^: = ir^^T'fS' I Here the one word is 
Vriddha, but the other is not yuvan. 

The word " only " is used in the siitra in an exclusive sense, the 
(orce being, that two words may stand in the relation of Vriddha and yuvan, 
their radical element, i. e. form may be the same ; but if the secondary word 
has another sense over and above the sense of a yuvan affix, this rule is not 
applicable. Thus Rule IV. i. 14S ^ says a " Vriddha word may optionally take 
tlie affix ?^ to form a yuvan word and to indicate contempt and born in the 
country of Sauvtra." Thus >TrTi%f%: + Hmftr%5ir: = >mTftf^PTrJn^r%5Fl'. 
Here the second word, though a yuvan word, connotes the additional sense 
of contempt and degradation. The affix ^ar is not merely a yuvan affix but 
conveys the other sense also. The pure yuvan word being '^^^X^yf[^(^^■ 

J . , N. B. — The system of domestic economy among the nncient Aryas considerably ditiTer- 
for "f "'^ Pf^'i'ent one. The surnames or the gotras represented the patriarchal system. Three 
^"""■^"fnamcs are constantly met with in ancient literature. The first was most important: it 
Oar!' P^,'''ony'nic by which the lord of the united family the patriarch was known. For example, 
son ■ ?', ."'f!^'^''^'')'* WHS the recogniscil head of all the Oargas who may be a hundred. His eldest 
S(,^j"'I.^f" .WIS called Gargi. This is the first form of the patronymic (apaty.a). The grandsons or 
Gj, ° "'S' were named GSrgyas (Vriddham or Gotra). On the decease of the old patriarch, , 
gtcnt j" '° ^ called Garga ; and the eldest of the grandsons was called Clrgi ; and those 
i^ilitrff'" ""^ *'"' belonged to the family, and were designated GSrgayanas (yuvan) were now 

I Gargyas." 

(') »mf^^ jjsi II (») arfSrsfrv ii (') 'j:3n|^nfr?g- ?J5t^ ii 


Ekasesha. [ Bk. I. Ch. II. § 67. 

nij. And so also ii fenimiiio word, endiiifv 
witli a vriddlia aOix, wdien similarly spoken along wllli 
tlio same wonl but wliicli (^i^ds witli a yuvau affix, is 
o]ily retained; a,n<l it is treated like a inascmllne. 

VVhc/i a woril denoting gotra and in tlic feminine gender is com- 
pounded witli another word denotirig a yuvan, tlic lirst is retained and the 
is drop])ed ; and the feminine noun so remaining is then treated like the 
masculine. This aphorism makes an addition to the previous sutra and is 
governed by all tiie conditions mentioned in tliat siitra. 'thus ITTI f + irr^JTRCT: 
.-=iri'^t • Here note that the resultant form is the same as in the former 
sutra namely tlie masculine. 

Similarly fRfr + ?r^rTtir: = ?RT7 (masculine dual of ?rfir). 

Vt7>/ — The word .sin' in the sutra means Vriddha stri, that is the eldest 
daughter of a grandson, or a further des<-enilant considered as the female 
head of the family, The words ' tal lakshana'i cliedeva vi-ieshah ' of the 
previous siitra govern this sutra also i. c. the distinction between the two 
words must be in their formative element and not in any thing else. 

g^T^f^feiiT 11 ^ II tTcfTf^ 11 ■^^\■% f%^^T ( ^^: , ^^^ 

^wjg^^f^^^: ) II 

GT. A word in tluMniiscidiiK; .^'eiidei', similarly 
spokcMi alon.u' with tlu' same word, ImiI ending- with tlio 
rcmintne. atlix, heeomes ekaseslia, and tlie latter is 

When two words of different genders differ only in their derivative 
elements but not in their radical elements, that is to say, one is masculine 
and the other feminine because of certain affixes, the masculine only is 
retained and the feminine is dropped. 

The governing force of the words 'vriddha' and "'yuvan,' of sfitra 
65, does not extend to this sutra, but the remaining portion of sutra 65 is to 
be read into this sutra. When a masculine word is read along with a femi- 
nine word, the feminine word is dropped and the masculine is retainefl, 
when the difference between the two words is caused only by the feminine 
and masculine affixes: as Wrwitr: + wrwcft - ^rercri' 'the BrAhmana and the 
BrAhmaiii'; ^pjf ^I; + aj**?i = ^^t\ . ' the cock and hen.' 

I5k. I. Ch. II. § 68,69.] Ekasesha. 113 

But not so in the following :— ST^;: + »T^rr = *^*iH U^ r 'the cock and 
tlic peahen,' Similarly ^tot^: + nUT^f = Trur^JTCT^^ft. Here the feminine 
affix #risr , by which the word ganaki is formed from ganaka; in addition to its 
feminine signification, has the further signification given to it by Rule IV. i. 48, 
-j^rTI^r's'tmnT , meaning the " wife of " a ganaka and not a feminine ganaka ; 
so .nlM) f?5^ f^STJlfi- %?^?3-rT?fr II Similarly ^r^: + ^ff f = ^rar but Hjf^: + 
5rmrntlr -= ^f'ff^Fsfl'. Because the feminine affix in a''/«/n' conveys more 
than its feminine signification. Sec Rule IV. i. 49. 

This rule does not, of course, apply when it is not a masculine noun 
which is compounded, but it is a noun without any gender or neuter noun 
which is compounded with a feminine noun. Therefore 5ir^+!Tr^r = Srr^'Tr'E^. 
Tlu: word Jrr^ is an indeclinable and is without any gender. 

G8. The words bJirutri, ' brothoi-,' and putra,' 
'son,' when spokcMi of nloivj; with, ' sister' and 
'liiliiti-I'dauu-liter' rc^spocthxdy aro only ivtaiuetl, and 
tlin latter arc dropped. 

With this sutra ceases the governing force of the remaining condi- 
lions contained in siitra 65. Even where the radical elements of two words 
are different, there may be an ekasesha under special circumstances. Thus 
'Tr? + ?¥?i = «rmTr (brother and sister or brothers), similarly ^ + f^ir = 5^, 
(son and daughter or sons). 

N. B— The practical application of this sutra is very neatly illustrated 
by the following example. There is a verse in YAjuyavftlkya smriti 
"ra'fft%frr^TfTcr^^mT??T?Tr which declares that on the death of asonless per- 
son his property passes to his wife, daughters, parents and hhrAtarah. 

Here the word bhratarah, if it be taken as simply the plural of bhrAtri, 
It means " brothers " and excludes sisters. But if it be interpreted according 
to this sfitra, it means " brothers and sisters " ; and tlius gives sisters a right 
to mherit property of their brothers. 

114 Ekasesha. [ Bk. I. Ch. § 70, 71 

G9. A neuter noim, which has the same form 
only differing in allix; is optionally retained, and the 
other is dropped, and it is like a singular mimber. 

A neuter prevails over a masculine or feminine noun when spoI<en 
along with them ; provided that the words differ in gender signs only ; bui 
radically they be the same. Thus ?rr5n:?f>, I«j4, f^TCT q«qHR f^%^ ' Idleness 
lust, and sleep, indulged in, increase.' Here the adjective ' sevyamdnam ' i; 
in the neuter gender, though it qualifies the words ' Alasya ' which is in the 
masculine ;' maithunam ' which is in the neuter, and ' nidrA ' which is in 
the feminine gender. The rule, therefore, may be stated in these words, tliat 
where one adjective qualifies several nouns, in different genders, but one 
of which must be neuter, the adjective agrees with the neuter. 

The above illustration also shows that the neuter ekaiSesha may be in 
the singular number. 

If the neuter is compounded with another neuter, this rule does not 
•apply. Thus g# + g# + 3IS'=Wff^ t'>e word is in the plural; there is no 

The words frgrTTCT^f nr^Tsr: of sutra C5 governs this sulra also : 
thus ^SV gr«f5T:, f|CT=^f?m5Frr,3T#'^^. "The white (masc.) blanket, 
the white [fcm.) wrapper, and the white {neut.) garment," may all be .spoken 
of collectively as ^# {ncut.). 

f^?IT^TT^T II 30 II tT^lfsr II fqcIT, WniT (^,37»!TcR^II 

TO. The word pitri, ' fatlier' is optionally only 
retained when spoken of along with niatri, 'mother.' 

Thus f^ + ^prr = f7rl^ , ■ father and mother, or parent ' or tfrwrfT?!^' 
The verse quoted under sutra 68 illustrates this sutra also. There the word 
' pitarau ' has been explained by all commentators as " father and jnothcr." 
The word " ekavad " of the last sutra does not govern this sfitra ; though the 
anuvfitti of ' optionally ' is to be read into this. 

tlT^TO ) II 

Vl. The word 6vasnra ' father-in-law,' is o])- 
tionally only retained, when spoken of along with svai^iu, 

rk. I. Cfl. n. § 71.73. ] Ekasesma. 115 

Thus !nr5T:+!C^may be either ^i^jjff ' father-in-law and mother- 
in-law,' or !CT«^TW " 

f?ftq^^ ( 9^: ) II 

ffrT: II iir^fi^ ?isf 5^ftr m^•. m^r^ R?«f ^is^f^ 5?r?n%?^'g 11 

72. The pronouns ' tyad c%c.' when spoken of 
nlongwith any otlier noun, (jironoiui other tJian 'tyad 
&c.') are always retained as elcasesha, (to the exchision, 
of others). 

The list of 'tyadacli ' pronouns has been given under sOtra I. i. 27. 
They are 12 words beginning with ' tyad' and ending with ' kim,' when these 
tyadddi pronouns are compounded with any other noun, (or a pronoun, which 
ilocs not belong to their class), they prevail, the rest are dropped. The 
word ' sarva ' is used in the aphorism to indicate ' universality ';/'. e. w/ia(- 
cvcr may be the word in composition with them, the 'tyad &c. ' are retained 
to the exclusion of others. The word 'nitya ' is used to indicate that this 
is an obligatory rule, and not optional, as were the last rules. 

Thus ^: (he) + t^?Tr: (Devadatta) = <^ (they two). 

Vart : — When ?3f^rt words are compounded among themselves, the 
word which is read last in the order given in the Ganap.'itha remains, the 
rest arc dropped. Thus ^: + ^: = ^; ?r: + ^: = 5^ll Thus nj is read after 
^f (see I. 1.27), so^rf will be retained and not tT| ; similarly f^^^ is read 
after ?rf, and therefore Rf»^ is retained to the exclusion of ?rf . 

^TTimg^i!g?i^5r5 ^ II is| II tr^xfii II ^iT«r-TTg-^^, 
^^^% , ^"^ , ( icmO " . 

^1%^ II ^^?r?T'^f5^^Tt,»ii5^ II 

73. The feminine noun is only retained, when 
denoting a collection of domestic animals, not being 

As a general rule, when there is a compounding of masculine and 
sininine nouns, the masculine noun is retained (see 67). The present 
'"'■■a is an exception to that rule. It ordains that when there is a com- 
oundmg of words denoting group of domestic animals, of different genders ; 

Jig Ekasesha. [ Bk. I, Ch. II. § 


the feminine noun is preferred ; provided that the words should not relate t( 
the young of such animals. The word 'ataruiia'in tiie aphorism qualifies 
the word ' pasu ' with which it is in construction, and not the word ' sangha.' 
As irrr^'ir: ' these cows (and bulls).' ^jir fHT: ' these goals' (both males and 

The rule only applies to domestic (gramya) animai.s and not to 
If /'/(/ animals ; and only to icusfs {p:iiu) and not men. As^q'f^, 'these 
wild deers' (male and female), jq'fTT fT, ' these antelopes ' (male and female) 
?fT?nirr:, 'the Brdhmanas' (male and female) '^riV^:, 'the Kshatriyas.' !n all 
these, the masculine noun is retained by Rule 67. 

Varl. — This rule must be conlincd to domestic animals having 
divided hoof. Therefore ^TT^f VJ, ' these horses ' (male and female). 
Here the masculine noun is retained, because horse has no divided hoof. 

Why have we used the word (sangha) " collection " ? Observe iiiff 
TlT^'^fT:, ' these two cows are grazing.' Here the word 'gavau' does not 
connote ' bull ' also. 

Why do we say " not being young." ? ^rW f^ ' these calves ' ; 
^^frr f^ ' these kids.' Here the masculine noun is retained, by the applica- 
tion of Rule 67. 



i;mc['Jt ^Trig: II 9 II rf^iffr ii "^g^-sTT^ir: , viTciac ii 
^fiT: II w ??a^TTr^ m^ ftr^Trr^qr »Trgairr >t^^ ii 

1 . The words begin aing with bhu ' to become,' 
nnd denoting action, are called dhatii or verbal roots. 

This defines tlie wonl dlialu or root. TIk; list of Sanskrit verbs 
begins with tiie root bhu 'to l)c.' Sanskrit grammarians liave divided all verbs 
nito ten classes, according to certain modifications which their roots undergo 
licfore certain terminations. The ten classes arc as follows : — 

I. i5hu class. 2. ,Ad 3. IIii. 4. Div. 5. Sii. 6. Tud. 7. Rudh. 
8. Tan. g. Kri. lo. Cluir. 

There arc nearly two thousand verbs, and they are conjugated in two 
forms, some taking the Parasmaipada terminations only, the others the 
Atmanepada terminations and some both. The present chapter deals mostly 
with rules determining the nature of the verbal root, whether it is Parasmaipadi 
or Atmanepadi or both. A verb expresses action. The word dhitu is a word 
corned by older grammarians than Pdnini and they employed the term in 
deiioting a word expressing action. Here also therefore, the 'word dhltu 
means a word which expresses action. 

I he ^r in the sfitra is for the sake of auspiciousness ; for the regular 
sandhi of >i^+3fr^ is vTff^ and not >T^; while Dr. Ballantyne considers that 
" IS a separate root: he translates the sutra thus .— " Let the verbal roots bhfl 
' tie,' v& ' blow ' and the like be called dhitu." 

'^tr^i&JTig^Tft^ ??T^ II ^ II TT^fn II gtr^^ , ijj^, wg- 

^%^: , ^ „ 

2. The nasalized voweLs are iijr in Upade^a, or 
original enunciation. 

118 Indicatory rjiiiKUs. [ Bk. I. Ch. IH. §3,^ 

Aiuinflsika or nasalizi-d vowi-lb are sf^ tliat is indicatory, when occur 
ring in teclinical word-, J'luis in fl>^, ftj, f%^ tlie anunAsika ? is ^s 
Tlu- original sutra containh tlu- word ' upadesa ' wiiich we liave translated as 
teclinical term. ' Upadeia ' literally nvans ' Instruelion 'or the first mentioninp 
of a thing either in a hiitrajjiilhii, or gaiiapJllha or dlidtupatha &c. 

From this sutra up to sutra 9, there is a description of servili- or indi- 
catory letters called fw " In Paiiini'- Grammar there is no visible sign of the 
nasality of a vowel— hence we can know a vowel to be nasalized only from 
PAiilni's explicitly asserting that il is so, or from our finding that he treats it 
in such a way thai wc must conclude he regarded it as nasal." An upadesj 
is defined as signifying an original enunciation, that is to say, an affij 
(pratyaya), or an augjnent (againa), or a verbal root (dli&tu), or in short, an) 
form of expression which occurs only in technical treatises of grammar, and 
uliich is not a word read) for use, but one of the supposed original elements 
ol a word. Thus in the root rrer ' to increase,' Ihe linal ?r is indicatory, the 
real root !.'■ ctvj. .So also the hnal ^ of tt^ is fw II 

If the word is not an upades-a, then the nasal vowel is not <w II As 
^^ ^STT' II A word may be an up.idesa and nasal, but if it is not a vowel, 
it need not be f?T as the atlix tif^fr in sutra 111. 2. 74. ( gjnit sft?^ ffft^ ^rftTV ) 
It is only the nasal vowel of an ujiadepa that becomes ff( , and not all the 
vowels. The woid f^ occurs is sillras V. 2. 16. ('^SSf^rfH &c.). 

f ^5W»^ II ^ II tT^tfir II f ?y-3»?^^, ( gq^i^ ?H ) H 

^/tT: II vr;?^? «5?Rr5^ ^^-rn ?<? ^Tr^t »m% 11 

:i. ill ii[»a(l(jsa, the linal cou.souaiit ofroots &c. 
IS ?;t. , 

All the final < onsonants of roots, affixes &.v. are indicatory. As in the 
pratyAhAra si'itras ^ ? 7 CT; here cr is f!TII ^ gi ^; here af is ??T II IT sitr, 
here^ is fw II ^ ^r^ ; here -g is fff II It is only in upadeia, that a final 
consonant is ??T. Not therefore, m ^jft^ar or mH^f[^, which are complete 

^ f^flTfi^ -^mv II 8 II TT^ifjI II ^ fttWR^, ^-^^-'H: II 

^'irff II 

-i- 'I'lio fiual tlental consonants, and the flna' 
«, and ^^, aj-e not frr, in ailixe.s called vibbalcti or inJiectiV 
. ailixe.s. 

Bk. I- Ch. hi. § 5.] Indicatory letters. no 

This is an exception to the previous sutra which declared all final 
consonants to be ?rT. In case terminations, the final w, w , ^, >^, sr, w, and it, 
are not ffT. Thus the case termination of nominative plural is jT^. Here the 
final a, though a consonant is not an ffi ; and is not rejected, us in JTrSTCTf: II 
The wordf in the sutra means the letters of the class n, by virtue of sutra 69 
Chapter I. (see ante). The word vibliakti will be defined later on in sutra 
I 4. IS4. These are terminations applied to nouns in declining them through 
various cases ; and to verbs in conjugating them. Thus in sutra VII. I. 12, 
;?r?Rl?wrf^=TRf^-) the vibhaktis fij, ^PT and ??r re[)lace ?r, IFra and 3^ . Here 
the final fT of the affix ^PT is not indicatory and hence not rejected, as f^RI. 
.Similarly verbal tcrniinalioiis mi and «JTT as T^PT: , T5«T- H -^o also the final 
IT as *Tnr and ^ff in ^T^gfrfT and ^li^rlH II 

-, s ^ "v ^ 

This excepti6n applies only to \ibhalvtis and not to afilxes in general. 
Thus the finals of jth(III- 1.97 ^iHtTH;) ^H (V. 2. 123 *HlMr ^0) and »i«t 
(111. I. 78 ^fvTlf^^^H'ri) aie f?r and are rejected. This exception, however 
does not .apply to the vibhakti ^ (in V. 3, 12 f^fJfT or III. 4. 106, 5^Jflf)- In 
those two sutras the final <T of the vibhakti is th. The reason of this is, that 
tlic present siitra is an anitya sutra, /. c. a rule not of general application. In 
sulra V. 3. 34, (f^^q-j:) we find, ' the word ^^ takes the vibhakti sjg in the 
sense of mode or manner.' As f? +^-5 =f?2fJr , 'in this manner.' Now V(H 
is a vibhakti by V. 3. i. (5r«Tf|^r RHf^) the 3 is fW , the real vibhakti is ^H. 
Now had the present sutra been of universal application, then there would 
have been no necessity of adding this 7 as indicai'Ty letter, which has been 
evidently added to save the ^oi^|^ from becoming an fiT This sutra is con- 
sequently an anitva su(ra. 

3TTf^f^7f ^: II H " ^^'fir II STTT^: , fs?-?-?^:, (f^) II 

^f%r: II fsT 5 J ??$ fiTf ^t'^fraRRrf^ifr ^^^frsir^ftwiTr t^'T i i 
n. The inilial fii, ti', ^hkI fJn i^i"*' TTM 

The syllables fsr, ? and f, standing at the beginning of a root are indi- 
catory; as fsrft?r ' to have affectionate ])!easurc.' The real root is f%^, the fsj 
is servile. So |5rff ' to rejoice, be glad ' the real root being ^?. So ^?T^ ' to 
give ' the real root being ?r. 

The fsr shows that the past participle tTT has the power of the present 
"1. 2. 187 (sfl^: =^;). As fsiTraH— -KP^r. ' blown '; fsi^fT— ftfT: ' fat '; fsi^tirr— «£!?: 
'tioW.' fsff^^r-f^^^: ' soft,' fST??tfr-?^: 'kindled.' 

The T subjoined to a root serves to show that it admits the affix 
■"Tto form a noun indicative of the act (HI. 3. 89 f^^J^fS); as T^f:— t"?^: 
'shaking ' ; |^^^_^^^; • swelling.' 

The ^ indicates that the root to which it is subjoined admits of the 
^^^ f*-«r (III. 3. 88, f^fi: f%:) to form a noun or adjective atributive of the act 


Indicatory letikrs. L Bk. I. Ch. III. § 6, 7. 

by which the substantive thing has been produced, as 5^— sjftwT ' artificial ' 
jiT^— ifrjrijTr ' ripe ' ; f^— afc^l^ ' sown.' 

If these three syllables do not stand in the beginning of a verb, 
they are not indicatory ; as "TT'SffflT, ^S^^l^f^ &c. 

m ^^r^^l^ 11 % 11 h^t^ 11 m, u^^tr^, ( wf^ v\J 11 

G. Tlio initial g; of an affix is indicatory. 

'I'hc initial tr of an affix gets flic name of fil and is rejected. Tlius 
by Rule III. I. 145 ( fi l f^ft isf?) the affix Kf^ is added to a verb to indicate 
proficient in the art expressed by the verb. The ^ and sj are fH and ^j^f 
takes the place of t (VII. i. i, ^tfr^ir^). Tluis Tg;+Kf!T-T|^+5i^-;r^ 
'a dancer' (by profession) ; fem. nkc^ (IV. i. 41, f^^TT^^TV ' words formed 
l)y affixes having an indicatory iqr take the affix ?h| in the feminine.') : so 
also rsfm: fem. KWfit- 

The initial 1 of an affix onlv i^ ji and not every initial ^ Thus not 
in <fr?: ' six,' or ^fT^: II The cr must be initial, therefore it is not fH in the 
affix /?!r^ in s^f^iisfi^Tsr^, (Uii I. 45) as mf^: ' an ocean ' tjf^: ' a buffalo.' 

5^ II 3 H iT^tf^ n 5-^ ( TlFmm 3Tlf^:, ^H ) 11 

7. The initial palatals and ling-nals of an affix 
are indicatory. 

The consonants 'n . S , it , tt, tj , z , z , 'g , ^ , and t are always 
f^^ and are rejected when initial in affixes. The word 'affix ' of the previous 
sfltra governs this also. 

As thtj affix iTrg chphafi in sutra (IV. I. 98 'flr^^'^rf^^fVqrg^). Here 
^ is indicatory, as, q?y^Rpi?r: II The g; chh of an affix is always replaced 
by ff (VII. I. 2 ^im^-^H4tnV- 'yg tl^aM f !J?7nfr?hrR). The initial w of an affix 
is ^. As. 515 (Norn. PI. tetm.1 ^r?rtJTr: II The initial p of an affix is always re- 
placed by s^ScT, as >| + ?r7+fe = >T^rT II (VII. 1. 3 l^i^:). The initial w of 
an affix is ^5^ as in *?r which comes after the words ^ j fu^iK &c. As ^SJ^l^' 
(IV. 3. 92 *lfu.i*r^k^?i:V The indicatory ^ causes vriddhi by rules VII. 2. 1 15' 
116 and 117: (?pflr^f6lfff, ?lJlTT>TRrr:, fltf^T^RT?:). 

The initial ft of an affix is ffr as in III. 2. 16 (^?e': the root "(l^ takes 
the affix z when compounded with a noun in the locative). As ^Vlt: 'who 
goes among the Kurus.' The feminine of words formed by this affix take 
^(IV. I. 15 fi'^spr^i^wTr^ &c.) As ^^^, »nr^. The initial f of an affix 
is always replaced by f^ (VII. 3. 50 3?^a(r:.) The initial f of an office is U 
as in III. 2. 97 f^nmrf 11^. the root ifst takes the affix T when in composition 


with a word in the locative, as gTRfrJT: , l-jrsf: . The ^ indicates that the 
finiil of the word called f? should be elided when an affix having indicatory 
(] is added. The initial j of an affix is replaced by ^r( (VII. i. 2). 

The letter ^ is always an fsr when initial. As in the aphorism IV, 4 
85 (3I?rr5r-) the affix cr comes after the word HW 'food.' As (JTsr + "^ = WT: • 
I'lie 11 causes Vriddhi. 

This sutra could very well have been included in the last aphorism. 
Why has it then been made a separate aphorism ? The reply is that the 
present sutra declares an anitya rule— that is to say, a rule which is not uni- 
versally true. The initial palatal or lingual of every affix is not indicatory. 
Thus in the affixes =5*^5 and sgi^g the initial^ is not indicatory but forms 
part of the real affix. As f%qT^: f^l^^'- ' famous for one's learning.' See 
S. V. 2. 26 rf;r /^tTVi:^ i!^"^. Similarly the initial ? of the affix #J?^ (V. 
2. 31 y?r^ f jfc«^, ^^ !Trf?r^;nrr; 's^tm ?>?»i ^nTir^jr^r:), is not it. As vfMi\i ^ 

■flat nosed.' 

Of course it is the initial palatal and lingual which are servile ; if 
these letters occur in the middle of an affix, they will not be indicatory. As 
5 of the affix Sf5^ is not indicatory in sfitra V. 2. 35 (^rMf^r trffJ*^) ^T: 
' dexterous.' 

HS«Jli?rf|^ II 6 II xr^}^ 11 S-SU-J, 3»?f%^, ( HrfTIT^, 
arif^: frfj II 

^J^ II wfe?T^f5^?T^^ ^^v;^^■^nf^f ir'ftiRr prtr- ^wr- ^^ fw^n h^^?t m 

8. ''I'lio iiutial 1 and ^, and the gutturals of all 
affixes, except taddlrita, are indJcatoiy. 

The initial W, ?r, ^, V^, ^i ^i ^ of affixes are indicatory, except in 
Taddhita affixes. Thus the initial ^ in ?w^ is fijr (111. 3 1 15 ««gj5 l) f^ + ?=jrT = 
^^?[(VII. I i) 'collecting.' The initial fr in ^^TJ^ is T5^(III. i 68c|r^?J5;) 
'J+V3,+ fif^='fr + 9f + ^ = >I^<% 'he is.' The initial ^ is yg; as in tR and tTTJ 
(•• !. 26), as g^: ' eating' ^rfj^^^. The initial ?!T is ^g^ as in ??ri.(III. 2. 38 
'^'^''^ ^- ^S% the word ^^ takes the affix k/tac/t when compounded with f^ 
and ^u) fsfirq'^: ' speaking kindly ' q'jY^: ' submissive.' The initial ir is f^as 
I" the affix Tfj (HI. 2. 139 TSfrfSr^JTV ^), ^f^TRj: ' languid ' f^T^: 'victorious,' 
^'IRJ: ' unmovcable.' The initial ^ is fg; as in ^r^ (III. 2. j6i H^^Tnr^fT 
''"?.) H^ + ^^= >T^p:^ 'brittle.' The initial ^ is fgr,* as in fffir (termina- 
tion of the ablative sing.) r^ ditto of genitive sing. (IV. i 21, as5>r'Tfr + 
'^ = 5TTg' + ^[r5=giT'T?r: 'of a well minded.' In Taddhita affixes however, 
nese initials 5J »^ and gutturals are not fj; and are therefore not elided. 
Thus«i3T + Pr5-^^3T5T: (V. 2. gGsirftRVlTnfl' sn^^nn^Tn-?.) 'crested'; ^m + v 

J22 A RULE OK ASSIGNMENT. [ BK. I. CH. III. § 9, 10 

^^^.(\'.2. 100 siPfrf^qTTrrW^srf^^: ^^Wi ''wiry;' f^ + ^5. = f^^ 
(V. 3. 81-86 TTTf^Tre: ^!r ) ' a smull tree ' 

^m ^: II % II TT^tfH II nw, 'Sttr:, ( J?{J II 

1). OftJiis, (namely of that which Jias benn 
callfd r?r), tliere is elision. 

This sutra declares (lie function of %!J^; nanu;!)' it is a mere indicatory 
letter, and must be rejected It is useful only a.s a mnemonic and is nol a 
part of the term. 

The word tasya in the sutra indicates that the substitution of lopa 
must be in the place of the ?o/i(>/V term called fa;, and not only in the place 
of the final letter, which last is the general rule (sec. I. i 52). Therefore, the 
wliole of f^T, % and j is rejected and not only their finals. 

V^T ^^^^91: ^\^\\ 11 9« II ti^TT^ II ^^T-^l^^, 
Wg^:, 'S'n'Tm II 

^»^;i.ny\ II 

10. Wiion a I'ule in^'olvcs tlie case of equal 
numhcrs of siihstitntes aiul of things for which these ai-e 
to ho snhstituted, tbcii' mutual correspondence or assign- 
ment ol'oacli to each, is according to tlie order of cnuiri- 

Thus sutra III. I 134 (sT^T^T'^frfl*^ F5jfcj;:?r^:) declares :—' the 
alTixesPf, fSifi- and ?r^ are applied to ;i^f, Tff^ and 7=^; class of words.' It 
means the allix fw is applied to the words of qrfif class, the affix f^f^ to words 
of lift class, and ^^ to words of if class. The application must be respec- 
tively according to order, and not hap-hazard. Similarly in VI. i 77 ^ 
vmf^ (il a vowel follows) in the place of f, ^, ^,5? there is ^r^ /. e., ^, r, ?■ 
wll So also see S. IV. 3. 94 (iJ^t^5Jr5TTr4?tt^,'^ncr?f55;s«r s^lW:) where the 
four affixes dhak, chhan dhafi, and yak are applied respectively to the words 
tfldi, ^alatura, varmati and kuchavdra ; t. e., the first affix in the order of 
enumeration to the first word, the second affix to the second word &£■ 
As ^^Tf:, OT5frjff?T: , TT^^^: and gfp^^ci: I" 

Why do we say ' of equal members ' ? This rule will not 
apply if the number of substitutes and of things for which these are 
to be substituted are unequal. As in sutra I. 4. 90 5W5«J'*{JTrefnPnw^fS 
!lf^ (re^I^: for here the words lakshana &c. in the first part 


i I Cii. Ill- § II, 12.] Atmanepada verbs. 123 

•the sutra are four in jiiimber, wliile the words prati &c. are only three That 
sfltra therefore must be read as thus. " The words s?^, <lfr and ^ are karma- 
pravachaniya, whenever they indicate eitlier lakshana (a mark), itthambhu(4- 
kh>dna (a statement of mere circumstance) ; bliSga (division j; or vipsi 
(desire)." ^ ' 

^ft^JTTfV^K: II 11 II ti^ifH II ^JK^^, 3»fv»^K: II 

11. In these; iiplioii.sms, Avheu ti word is 
marked AvitJj ti svtu'ita accont, l)y tluit an adJiikara or a 
g'ovcrnin^' riilo is to bo uud('r.stood 

When in this collection of grainmatical sutras, there is any sfitra has a circumflex accent, it denotes that it is either the beginning of a 
subject and the subsequent sutras arc governed by it, or tlial it ends a sub- 
jeft and separates the previous sutras from the following. 

As a rule, the siitras arc not marked with accents; it is therefore 
Irom commentaries that one has to learn whether a siitra has a svarita or 
not. Thus the following sutras, must evidently have svarita as they are go- 
verning siltras ; !??ifZf. (111. I i.) ^nff: (III. I. 9'). ^^^'T (VI. 4. l), Ht^r 
(VI. 4. 129). 

aTH^Trlfl^rT 3nr*J%q^ II 1^ II ^^ifsi II ^T^^T^T-^^-f ^t 

3?TW%xr3»T II 

12. j\f't(!r a root Aviiicii lias an indicatory ann- 
datta vowel cumdattet) or an indicatory n (nit), tiie 
affixes are tiiose of the Atinanc]:);ida. 

The word 'atmanepada' here governs all the subsequent, sfitras up to 
•"-u 77 inclusive, and is understood in them all ; and will not thi'refo're be re- 
peated. Thus of the verb s?Rf the final ^ is anuddtta and is fH. It is there- 
fore an fttmancpadi verb. As stftrf. So "JJ— «t, Vt^ Jfh- 

HT^T^^^: II 1^ II tr^f^f II «rar-^'^:, (3TTc'l^cr^»f ) II 

^f^: II Hrt -**4fiii ^ri»T^f^>raf% ii 

1-3. An atmanepada affix is tlie siibstituto of 
the affix 5T (III. 4. GO) when it,(Ienotes tlie action of the 
verb or the object of the verb. 

Sfitra III. 4. 69 declares the " letter 51 (p!^, f^ Sic.,) is placed after 

Iransitive v'erbs in denoting the object also as well as the agent ; and after 

"itransitives in marking the condition (t. e., the action itself which the verb 

ports) also as well as the agent." The Paras, and .Atmaii. affixes would 

121 ATMANICPADA VERBS. [ Bk. I. ClI. III. § 13,,^ 

have come, therefore, generally after all these verbs. The present sfilra res- 
tricts Atman. affixes to bhdva and karma verbs. 

This is clear. Impersonal verbs and passive verbs as a rule are conju- 
gated in the .llmanepada and take the terminations of that pada. These ori. 
ginally were verbs expressive of states rather than of actions. As of vfr^ we 
have if^nrcf HTffT 'you dislike' (lit. ' it is disliked by you ') gwfsr ^TTrTr ' you 
sleep.' Similarly passive verbs as f^ar^ ^; ' the mat is made ' ; fi^'jf ijr- 
' the load is carried.' 

All verbs in .Sanskrit may have three voices viz. active, passive, and 
middle or impersonal ; active voice is generally parasmaipada. The reflexive 
verbs known as ofr^^aft are also atmanepadi. Thus r5?rff ^^nr: ?^^^ 'the 
wood cuts of itself.' See sutra 78. 

^^nfr ^^ wTf?T!i[TT (I ^« II Ti^rfir II ^^ft, ^'^-Bqifii. 

^^ II ( 3TlcW%5r^»1^) II 

IT. Ill deiiotmg-tlie agent, when redprociLy 
of action is to 1)0 oxpTcs.stHl, the affixes of the Atmane- 
pada are ciiiployed. 

The active or gif^TF^ ^erbs when denoting reciprocal action are 
fttmanepadi. As, s?rf%qr^^ , ' they cook for each other,' sjif^a^ ' he performs 
cutting of wood which was the ajipropriate office of another.' 

The words " reciprocity or interchange of action " of this sutra 
govern and are understood in ihe two following siitras also. 

^ The word karma in the siitra means action and not the technical 'ki^rma ' 
meaning 'object and the word vyatihAra means reciprocity or interchaiigf. 
When an actipn which was appropriate to one person is performed by another, 
jj^se duty it was not, that is called ' interchange of action.' When such in- 
terchange is not meant Paras, is used. A.s g;Tf?iT ' they cut.' The word 
kartari here is used for the sake of the subsequent aphorism 78, which see. 

H vfh Ti^m^'. ii g«, h Tn^rm ii h, »ifaf-ff^-3T^«>: ii 
( «iniw^cr^n ^^^ifirfTT ) ii 

^f?r^ II »inra»-^ ^re^^jv m?^?r: ^ ssiftfif 9^m^ h ^^ ii 
TT^^? II i?faqvr ^rfl' 't r ijH^'<t< i n 5[^ ii 
^ifr^^rg; II ?T%T^^. II 

1 5. After verbs liaving the sense of ' motion,' 
or ' injury; Avhen expressing interchange of action the 
Atrnanepada affixes are not used. 

Bk. I. Ch. III. § i6, 17.] The Atmanepada verbs. 125 

This aphorism prohibits Atmanepada affixes in certain cases where by 
force of the last sfltra Atmanepada affixes would have been obtained. As 
EJf^ms^ ' they go against each other,' sirfirfl^llS'T ' they injure each other.' 
«?rfmrf??T ' they fight together.' 

The word 'not' of lliis sfitra is understood in the subsequent sfitra. 

Vart. — This prohibition extends to the verbs ffT ' to laugh,' and the 
rest. Ass^ffTf^rfSrl, s^t^STPqn'fT, s^f^rT^FrTll 

Vart. — Prohibition must be made of the verbs ??^'to injure,' as 


wrf^^g; 11 qr^qfrn^f^ t?ke?t?; u 

IG. xiiid after the verlss which take the words 
itaretara ' each other,' and anyoiiya ' one another,' as 
u[)apa(.la (or dejiendant quaJiiyhig words), tlie affixes of 
Atinaiicpada are not nsiid, tliong'h nx-iprocity of action 
be denoted. 

Thus ^tlfrtr^n s^m ^JTf^ ' they cut each other ' gi»qi??T^«i 5?rf?rW!rf?W 
' they cut one anotlw^r.' 

Vart. — This rule must also be applied when the word qr^qr is in com- 
l)osiiion with the verb, as an upapada. As TTt^rn^f s^rfrT^T^fl. 

%fi|8I: II Ito II q^fsf II ^:, ftj^T:, ( afTrl^TI^^ ) II 

^f^: li ?: TTfifirf f^ W^H^i mf^ II 

17. After the veri> vis ' to enter,' wheti pre- 
t't.'(ied hy the preposition ni, tlie Atnianepafla aflQxes are 

As fki\fr\ 'he enters,' but ftft^ ' he enters in.' 

Even when the augment ^j? of the Imperfect, Aorist and Conditional 
fnses intervenes between the root and the preposition, terminations are of 
:'ie atmanepada. As s?rf%TRr ' he entered in.' 

The f^ of the sfitra must be an upasarga, because that has a sense, 

*nd not any ^. On this there is this paribh4shA : — ^g^iT?l9 ITT^^'sr " a 

- mbination of letters capable of expressing a meaning denotes, whenever 

's employed in grammar that combination of letters in so far as it possesses 

' * meaning, but it does not denote the same combination of letters void of 

"^eanmg." Thus in »Tvjf% ft^ir trm: 'the beetles enter the honey flowers.' 


The Atmanepada verbs, f Bk. I. Ch. III. § i8, ig. 

Here the ft is a part of the wcrd irjft and has no sense by itself, and there- 
fore the verb is in the Parasmaipada and not in the Atmanepada. 

( mo ) II 

^frr: II Tft-^^rt'-^ ^Tfrrij.^'torRTrF^^f ir^ft ii 

18. After tliu verb kii 'to purchase,' when 
pi-eced(;d hy ptiri, ^'i oi- aA'ii, tho Atmanepada affix is em- 
ployed^ even A\heii the Iriiit of the action does not 
accrue to the a<j,'eut. 

The verb faft'ST ' to buy or barter,' an indicatory V and therefore, 
by sutra 72 it will be Atnianepadi when the fruit of the action accrues to the 
agent. Tlic present sutra, thi'refore, refers to cases where the fruit of the 
action does not accrue to the anent. 

The root '^t ' to buy ' as a general rule takes the terminations of both 
padas, but when it is ])recedod l)y |)ari, vi, or ava, it is restricted to Atmane- 
pada terminations. As Sfft-isTcffFT ' lie buys ' ; R^rrKr^ ' he sells ' ; ^^jfifcff^ ' he 

The word pari, vi, and ava must be upasargas, therefore, in the follow- 
ing example, there is no Atmanepada termination, because the vi there, is not 
a preposition but a noun, as, ^TfR^Nrffr ^75^- 

f^n^t ^: {) 3^ II tT^THT II firT^TWtm , %: ( WS ) « 

%fM- II (% Ttr «^fer^fr'jr^irr5'R7? mf^ 11 

J 9. After the verliji 'to conquer,' preceded 
hy vi or para, tlie Atmanejiada affix is employed. 

This sutra debars S. 78 by which the root f^ is generally Paras- 

AsfiriTsr^ 'he conquers' iTTnm^ 'he conquers.' The words vi ami 
parA must be upasargas (prepositions), for the application of this rule. In 
the following examples, they are used as substantives ?f ffsnff^T ^?, 1 

'^l-faff ^5t, ( 3^X9 ) II 

^f%: II ?jrf;<rlr??r%r<ir??if%?T:9 ?€»ir^R^<R h^ ii 

«liffl*H II wj: gp^^far ? Tf i t. ^t ' r II 

Bk. I. Ch. III. ^ 20, 21.] The Atmanepada verbs. 127 

20. After the verb da ' to give,' ]jrecedecl by 
an, and when not meaniii<^^ ' to open tlic mouth,' the At- 
manepada affix is nsed, even when the fruit of the aetion 
docs not accrue to the ag-ont. 

The rootJfris generally both Parasmaipadi and Atmanepadi (see S. 72). 
E3ut when preceded by the proposition ^r. it is restricted to the Atamanepada. 
As f^^rriT^W ' he acquires knowledge-.' But when it means " to widen the 
mouth" whether actually or metaphorically, it is parasmaipadi. As ^J^ 
s^n^^rfff. ' He expends his own mouth.' 

Var(: — The prohibition also applies when tlie action is similar to 
the act of opening the mouth. As Rqrf^^f ssTf^ff^ ' he opens the tumour.' 
cijti s?ir?f r^ fff 'the river breaks tin: bank.' 

Fcf/'/:— When tlic action does not affect the agents' own body the 

verb is atmanepadi, as s?Trff>rf?''ffr'rI^f: l^lij^n J^JT^^ , ' the ants open the 
mouth of a locust.' 

^fr J^'^tTR^TW II R'i II y^\fk II V^M' , a?5-l»T;tlf^*q[: , 
^ , ( «nf^: , '3?Trq% XT© ) 

^rra^g^ II ?riTr>rgK3T# fm sttp^^ 11 

^fWg; II ^ir^: vr»iniPTr?»TSr "nr ^^tts^it 11 

^i^^w II flj^-fsr^rrar^frg; 11 

^rfrr^T? II grrwf«r^«r: 11 

^frfsfrg^ ij ^rfrnfTfrr^afn^q- 1 1 

^rffT^g', 'I Rfr>T?q-^rF^r fr^r^r^ri&fs^frr ^^fio^fif n 

^rfrr^ii II ^rfl^5Sf=Esfr^7^»s^RH; 11 

srrfWfl; 1 1 ^t TTr^r^Hfr ff^f ^=ffrES!t«r 1 1 

21. After the Aa>rb krid ' to pLij-' preceded by 
mu, sam or pari, as well as ah, the i\tmanei)ada affix 
s used. 

The word "wf " is to be read into the sutra by virtue of the conjunc- 
on -^ in the text. As ^sift^ ^^-ftg^ ^Jifir^^, or qfr??frelT ' he plays.' 

Far/.— When the verb jfffT compounded with ^rj^ means ' to make a 
^ing or creaking noise,' it does not take Atmanepada"' terminations. As 
^rj^^i5m;?r^ 'the carts rattle or creak.' The word anu, pari &c., being 
^"ght along with sam, indicates that the upasargas anu, pari &c., are to be 
^^n, and not the karmapravachaniya anu pari &c. Therefore, when these 
^ 'xes are used as karmapravachaniya, they do not cause the verb «fff^ to 


The Atmanepada verbs. [ Bk. I. Ch. III. § 21-22. 

take the dtmanepada terminations as »lT«rra^!^?)^i3fw I ' be plays in imitation 
of the boy.' For the definition and action of karmapravachaniya, see. I. 4. 83 
and n. 3. 8. 

Varf.— The verb wr«r?r takes the Atmanepada terminations when mean- 
ing 'to wait for', ' to over look' 'to have patience' as, ^RTiff ^ snr^ Hr"l^^i 
' Have patience with the boy.' 

Vart— The, verb fw takes atmanepada terminations, when meaning 
'to enquire':— as, f^frng- ^RT^ 'he investigates sciences. 

p'art.—Thc verb ^W when meaning ' to bless,' takes atmanepada 
terminations, as, ^{^^ ^r«I?r 'he blesses with clarified butter,' Jjn^j HPjn I Why 
do we say 'when meaning to bless?' Observe, Jircj^^tlJJTWf^, ' he begs of 

Vart.— The verb ^f% takes fitmanepada terminations when meaning 
' to take after the nature of the parents.' As ^?5;»r^r STJ^T^ft ' the horses 
resemble their father.' »Tr^ rrr^ri^J^T^t 'the cows always imitate their 
mother.' But when not having this meaning, we have !Trjrg?tf?f ' he resembles 
his mother.' 

Viir/.— The verb fgrrfff takes atmanepada terminations when 
meaning ' to scratch out or scatter \\ith joy, for .ibodc or food.' As ST>Tft?FT?r 
f^4t?H'- 'the happy bull scratches with joy.' ^rrfi^TC^ ^?^r >rvTr«Tr 'the 
cock scratches in search of food,' wPtR^TT^ '^fJiMifRjf ' the dog scratches to 
make his abode.' When not having these senses we have i4/<ff*Tfrr ^^f?J ho 
scatters about the flowers.' The dental ?r in apaskirate is added by sfltra 

VI. I. 142. 3?riw3^r^^H":frB»iH 11 

Vari. — The verbs 5 ' to cry' and si^ ' to ask ' take the Atmanepad.i 
terminations when preceded by the preposition ^JJI^ , as ^^W JJ"!??: ' the 
jackal howls.'' sfl^^grflT '^W%' he questions the Guru.' 

Vari. — The verb ^5^ when meaning 'to touch the body by the word 
takes atmanepada affixes. As|^^Rr5rj% 'he promises by oath to'Devadatta. 
Otherwise we have W(f^ 'he curses.' 

;gTr^5fg«l ^: n ^^ h tr^jfii II ^7Fr-9^g.p.fg«j: ^ ;^t II 

^r^^ II ?rr3=: ^«i: irflrirpr ?f?I ^w;^:^ II 

22. Aft«r the verb stlia ' to stand,' preceded 
by sam, ava, pra, vi, the Atmanepada affix is used. 

As m^% ' he stnys with,' "JRfirff^ ' he waits patiently,' siftar% ' he sets 
forth,' f%fws% ' he stands apart.' 

Bk. I. Ch. III. § 23-25. ] The Atmanepada verbs. 129 

y^rt. — The verb ?*IT when preceded by *4)|^ and meaning 'solemn 
declaration ' takes atmanepada terminations ; as SfRfr ^^wn^n^^^ II Or to 
take another example, TTfJ fW ^r ^ ^R1!TI^?<irf% ' for thee I shall surely have 
recourse to water or poison.' 

q , ( ^T , 3TTW%5 ) II 

fTrT: II si5(rr?r% fst^ns^fr^ff ^ ffrg-^rr^^ft ^rRt 11 

2-3. After tlu3 verl) stha when nie;iiiing ' to 
indicate one's inteiitions to another,' or ' to naake an 
award a.s an ai'liitrator,' tLo Atmanepada affix is em- 

The word prakisana means disclosing one's intentions. The word 
•itlieyAkhya is a compound of stheya ' arbitrator' and akhya ' name.' 

As fr[^^ Trr?TrT?W ' the wife expresses hor wish to the husband,' ?ff«r- 
fq-g-% , 'he refers to thee for settlement,' ^c«r ^'nf^'f f?r?fr ^:, 'who, when 
lie is in doubt, has recourse to Karna as his judgr or umpire.' 

l^TJ^v^^THm II ^8 II ^?Tf% II g^: , t^^-B^-^^f^ , 

ffrf: II 7fr T':rf?r f^g^ r^n-^gfjij^f^ ^'ar>TRr?nT#T?' >t^ 11 

TrfW^ 1 1 3^ If r!rrm% ^=ffrs^ 11 

24. Art(>r tJjo verb sthii, preceded l)y nt, when 
not meaning 'to get np or rise,' as Irom a seat; the At- 
manei^ada affix is em]:)loy(;d. 

The word ' karma' in this aphorism means 'action,' and docs not mean 
the grammatical karma or ' object.' 

As fit ^frre^ ' he strives for the house' so also ^J*% 7f*Ig'% II But 
'^WiTrfprfg-frr ' he rises up from the seat.' 

Vart. — The force of the preposition ut must be to express ^, 'effort, 

exertion, wish or desire, to surprise or excell.' If this be not the force of ut, 

the terminations are those of the Parasmaipada. As ^fjffjf^ irrTr?^ ^r^TJ^rfff^ 

a hundred is yielded by this village.' The word ^r qualifies the word 

anurdhakarmani,' and does not debar the latter. 

gtril^^^^^t II ^i, II q^tf^ II ^W\ , ^f^-%\^ , ( ^OT, 

«TTe tie ) II 

1%: 'I 5<p^f?j|RfBrr4?5r3iT^aiif q-^ H HWirn^ ^ ^ H^frr 11 
^rRwT II ^HT^^wfl'irR) *<"iR5ft tuc'iMfii^rf^ n *<!"{, 11 
^fWg, II ^ f^ r^if nf? ! irfrs^ffl^ 11 


The Atmanepada verbs. [ Bk. I. Ch. III. § 25-27, 

25. Aft-or the \-erb stlia, preceded by upa, 
wlieu meaning ' to adoj-e,' the Atmanepada affix is used. 

As 5fwrJirfT?T!TTr%g-^ ' he approaches with prayers or worships tjie 
Gdrhapatya iire with aindra hymns.' 

If it docs not mean ' praising with hymns' the terminations which 
the verb takes, are those of the l^irasmaipada, as H^lfr^Trtgrf^ ^^^ ' she ap- 
proaches the husband through ) oulh.' 

y„,-f^ The verb fiXJ after tiic preposition 37 tai<cs the terminations 

of the .'itmanei)ada when meaning ' worshipping a deity,' ' to approach for in- 
tercourse or uniting or joining,' ' to form friendship with,' and ' to lead to as a 
way.' Thus:— ist Dcva puja grrrl^^rwTW?^ ' he worsliips the Aditya.' 2. 
Sangati karana Tr^J^rTO^ ^rrf 'the «ife approaches the husband,' ?-f«r^rjTr%^ 
'forms union with charioteers.' 3. .Mitri karana ^fSrrjqT^S'W ?rr«-: ' the good 
man approaches the saints to make friends witli.' What is the difference bet- 
ween Sangati-karana and Mitri-karana? .Sangati-karana means drawing near 
and approaching together in space, as Jtirrag^fTiTI^S-fr 'the Ganges joins the 
Jumna.' While the friendly relations may he established without coming in 
physical contact. 4. Pathi -.—isr^ 'r^rf: ^sT^Tfrr]?^ ' tliis road leads to Sruglin.i. 
Vart. — It must be stated that the Atmanepada is optional when the 
sense is ' desire of getting.' As PrmRJ srrSTOT^^'TfJTS'^ or ^r%ST% ' a beggar 
waits at the palace of a Brahmana with the desire of getting something.' 

ar^^^Tl II ^ 11 tj^Tf^ II ST^^^TcI^ , ^ . (^tr ^T 3TT0^9)ll 

iiO. After tlte verb stha, preceded by iipa, 
when used ititransitivcly, the Atmanepada affix is nsccl. 

As HrJf^^ra srqfnrjff ' he stands ready at the lime of dinner,' ?n?f5''^5' 
^fffS"^ ' he is present whenever it is dinner time,' ^q'f'r^Tfl^Tf^?^ ' he is present 
whenever there is food, that is he comes at tlic time ot dinner.' The word 
bhukta is formed by adding the affix kta to the root, and has the force of 
' condition ' here. 

The phrase 'when used in the Intransitive ' governs the three suc- 
ceeding sutras also. 

If it is transitive ; the verb upasthS. takes tlie parasmaipada termina- 
tions. As CTSTTTHlfrTS'^ ' he approaches the king.' 

^f?«lt cjq: II ^3 II q^fsr II ^-f?j«iT*»^, T!^: , ( ^^^' 
5j5m (arre trc ) ii 

BK. I. Ch. III. § 27, 28. J The Atmanepada verbs. 1,31 

27. After the vci'b ttipa ' to shine,' wJien used 
intransitively, and preceded by ut or vi the Atmanepada 
iilllx is em] )1 eyed. 

As ^r{<t^ or ft'rTT^ ff^^ ft'tfRlf ' The scholar shines with knowledge' 
But in transitive verbs, it is Parasinaip;:di. As ^WjfrS g ^U.ftj'lU. l^rr:, 'the gold- 
smith heats the gold,' f%?nf% fS" ?lf^r ' the sun heats the back.' 

Var/. — It must be stated that the terminations are of the atmanepada, 
though the verb ut-tapa or vi tapa be transitive, wlieu the object is some limb 
of one's own body. As ^TTTrTTrf*!'!; or f^rPftTirfCT^, or fs' ' he heats his own hand 
or back ' The word f^r^ means one's own body and not the pdribhAshika or 
the (cchinical ?qT^ meaning " a thing which not being liquid or gaseous and 
lieing capable ol being perceived by the senses, and not being one produced 
by a change from the natural state, exists in a living being and though found 
elsewhere actually or at any particular tinje, had previously been known as 
existing in only a living being, or is found to have actually (not figuratively) 
;lic same relation to the being it is in, as a similar thing has to a living 
X'ing." (See IV. i. 54 ^^TJ^mPJ^T^^rmTiimrfmi). Therefore not so in 
he following Iq^ifr ^|r?TT^3r JS'gWqf^ ' rJevadatta heats the back of Yajila- 
Idlta. When the preposition is other than ut or vi, parasmaipada afli.x is 
Miiployed , as, R-ffTf^. 

W^tq^f ^: II '^c II q^TTVT II 37T^:, ^^T-f 5^:, ( ST^^^Tc^^ 

me ^0 ) II 

'i >m% II 

28. After (lie verb 3'nm 'to stop,' and lian ' to 
ia.jure ' wJten used intraiisit ivel}^ and i)rece(.led by aii, 
tbe Atmaaeiiada attix is (nnplo.yc'd. 

The word intransitive of s. 2fi is understood iiere also. Both these 
•orbs are generally parasmaipadi. When they take the affix ^ they become 
'tmanepadi. Yam belongs to BhvAdi class; and han to AdAdi Thus 
''' + '5^ + ^7 + ^ = 8Tr + ?r=5 + 3T% (VII. 3. 77 f5ir%^!mf 5: 'chh is the substi- 
ute of the finals of ish, gam and yam, when an affix having an indicatory 
f follows) = giRT^^ 'it spreads.' STW^fT and ?!n?r^?^ ; so also an + ?^ 
*-'f=3?r+5 + ^ (I. 2. 4 and VI. 4. 37 ^5?T^rTf?ra-'Tf%w5fi?'Tr|ffrr>T3'TTf%^iBipft 

'w^l1=T%j = 9^rfff, 'he strikes.' sfl- = ?^ + 3TrJT = 3Tr + fJr.^ + 3Trft (I. 2. 4 and VI. 4. 

•^w^trrj^f^ar tr f ^^if^r^^^praf ^r- ar^ rJwfl'j^HRTr^CVIl. 3. 54), (fr?5^- 
^?) PI. w^. 

Not so when these verbs arc used in the transitive, as HJI^'^ordavtrnr- 
'^"5 ' he draws up the rope from the well,' STTf^fT f T?r Tlt^ ' they kill the 
'"1" with the foot.' 

132 The Atmanepada verbs. [ Bk. I. Ch. III. § 29, 


Vart.— When the object is some member of the agent's own body 
these verbs take the Atmaneparda terminations though transitive. As aff?r^-^ 
irrfSj^ ' he puts forth his own hand.' ^^m^ Rrr ' he hurts his own head.' When 
the object is some limb of anoth<-rs body, the terminations are of the Paras- 
maipada, as ?rff^rr r%r: "TT^hi 'tlicy hurt others head.' 

^^T'rTlf^af^^':?^fH5filf^^: II ^«5 II V^^ II ^^'., 

n^^^^-vl^^-■^lrn'^^■v^ik^^y^'., ( ai^e wa tie ) n 

^rf^aFTH II f^f^Or ^tksitit 11 

2'). After tho \-ci'bs gam ' to go,' richehli ' to 
become hard,' pnichclih 'to ask,' svai; ' to fmd fault,' ri 
' to go,' srii ' to lieai',' and vid'to know,' wlieii used in- 
transitively and pr(!ceded by sam, tliC! xXtnianepada alTi.\: 
in employed. 

The above seven verbs wiion preceded by the preposition ^PT and 
used in tlie intransitive, take the terminations of tlic Atmanepada. As ^tfigfr 
(VII. 3. 77) 'he joins,' ^^'esW 'lie becomes hard or goes.' Hf^^ 'he asks-,' 
«^q^^ he ' blames,' ^ijT'iT ' they arc attained.' In the case of tliis last verb 
which belongs both to Bhvadi and Juhutyadi class it is Atmanepadi only in the 

Aorist. As «jj+=iT+^i^+?r (III. I. 56 ^r'rrwt^ifTi'-^'rv) = sETf^r, as *rr5-?fi 
(V!. 4. 75 ^5ia[??RWriFifrif>lR) W'f + ^ + 3T1; + si??r = ^ITCwI (VII. 4. 16 
^;f^r4f j-<iU! :). This occurs generally in the Vedas. The verb f%j must have 
the meaning of 'to know,' and not that of 'to acquire.' ^^^tf ' he hears,' 
^^c% 'he kfows.' 

Vai-t. — The root ^ (to sec) after the preposition gJT when used in- 
transitively takes the terminations of the Atmanepada as ^rrSC^n 'he see.^. 
But when transitive, it takes Parasmaipada terminations as infj^ #n!ff^ ' "^ 
sees the town.' 

f^^5tffiiv^|r: II ^9 II TT^tf^ II fH-^-^^-finR»: , ^''< 
(we tre) 11 

f frf 1 1 Rgji 37 r> ff0i T^ff i^r^tat^RTSf^ ^fW 1 1 

Trft^w 'I ^^J|^^.^^l?<f^:^^^^f^^w'^pr'f 'i'^^1 , 1 1 

30. After the verbs hve ' to call,' preceded by 
ni, sam, upa, and vi, the Atmanepada is iised, even, when 
the fruit of the action does not accrue to the agent. 

3k. I. Ch. III. § 31, 32.] The Atmanepada verbs. 133 

The verb 5: 'to call' whether transitive or intransitive is Atmanepadi 
ifter the above prepositions. The condition of being Intransitive does not 
ipply to this sfltra, and from this sutra forward general rules of Atmanepada 
ire treated of. As f%|«rff, B%m, TT?^% 1 1 

The verb | is marked in the DhitupAtha with a 3jr and therefore by 
iitra 72 of this Cliapter, it will take the terminations of the Atmanepada when 
he direct fruit of the action accrues to the agent. But even when the direct 
ruit of the action does not accrue to the agent, the verb hve takes the ter- 
uinations of the Atmanepada when preceded by the above prefixes. 

Vart. — The verbs ^^ ' to throw ' and 37^ ' to note ' take optionally 
Mmanepada affixes when compounded with upasargas. As H<*<(H — •% ' he 
;asts out,' tTT?^ — «% ' he collects.' 

^ti^mt^: II |i II ^^rf^r II ^^flarm, w^:, (|f: 
5?te tr«) II 

oi. After the verb hve, when meaning' 'to 
:;lia]]euge ' ami preeedetl by an, the Atmanepada is itsed, 
:!Voii wiien tlie ii-tiit oftlio action does not accrue to the 


As jrrf?t H^crlRff ^fT 'an athlete challenges another athlete (in order 
conquer him)' or^ncafPrTrf^rrr 'one student emulates with another student.' 

This sutra is also for the purpose of showing that the root hve takes 
lie Atmanepada terminations even when the direct fruit of the action does not 
iccruc to the agent. 

The word spardhA means to emulate, to vie, to desire to conquer 
mother. When the verb hve has not the above signification, it takes the 
erminations of the parasmaipada. As J |l H l g <l f?l jftTTST: 'the cowherd calls the 

We x(9) II 

32. After the verb kri when meaning ' to dt- 
''Ulgc,' 'to revile,' 'to sei-ve/ 'to use violence,' 'to 
''''^^iso change,' ^ to recite,' and ' to do an act tending to 
'"Got a desired purpose,' the Atmanepada is used, even 
^^lien the fruit of the action does not accrne to tlie agent. 


184 The Atmanepada verbs. [ Bk. I. Ch. III. § 33. 

The verb fr^r by sutra 72 would take the affixes of the Atmanepada 
when the direct fruit of the action accrues to the agent. This sfitra has been 
begun to show that this verb takes the Atmanepada terminations under certain 
circumstances even when the direct fruit of the action does not accrue to the 


The word gandhana comes from the root gandh ' to injure,' of churSdi 

class and means to inform against another maliciously with the object of injuring 
such person. Avakshepana means ' to revile' 'to over-come,' sevana means 'to 
obey and serve,' sdhasikya means 'an act of violence,' pratiyatna means 'im- 
parting a new quality or virtue,' prakathana means ' to narrate fully,' upayoga 
means ' the disposal of a thing for the object of attaining merit &c.' 

Thus 5?^F^, TfT^^n means he informs against (2) ;[^4t ^f^5?t^^ 
' the hawk overcomes or reviles a snail ' (3) IH!J^5<I^^ ' he serves the prosti- 
tutes,' Hj j mHI T' Ta^^t ' he serves the mahamatra.' (4). qr^rrpT ^f^% ' he outrages 
another's wife.' (5). ^%^f#I?^flr 'the fuel gives a new quality (boils) to the 
water (or he prepares the wood and water for a sacrifice).' The object of the 
verb kri takes the affix of the sixth case i. e. genitive, only when the verb 
means pratiyatna, see S. II. 3. 53 (fr^T: V'^^SI) 1 Therefore udakasya, though 
an object, has genitive form. The verb takes the augment «? only when it is 
preceded by upa and signifies pratiyatna see VI. l. 139. {^TTSf^ sjf^Jra' TJ'f 
^rTTrwiT?I?f) II Therefore, there is the insertion of sibilant in upaskurute. 
(5). Jir«ir: !T^F?r 'he recites stories,' 3liTn7r?rf JI^^^ 'he recites slander.' 
(6). ^rffir^W ' he devotes a hundred ' pieces of money, for the sake of merit. 
q^si^^ he devotes a thousand. 

Why do we say in these senses? Witness eirj SR^rf^ 'he makes a 
mat.' In this case the Atmanepada afiix is not employed. 

The verb kri is understood in the three succeeding sfitras. . 

91^; vl^^^ II 1^ II tr^Tfvr 11 9to:, vn^, (i>5i: we ^o) 11 
ff%: II ?if^ <nrfs[ ERtt^: m^^ q^^mTT^rw^? ^rafrr 11 

33. Aftei* the vei"b kri preceded by adlii, 
when the sense is that of ' overcoming or defeat,' the 
Atmanepada is iised, even when the fruit of tlie action 
does not accrue to tlie agent. 

This siitra is commenced to show that kri may take the itmanepa<l» 
affix even when the- direct fruit of the action does not accrue to the agent. 
The word prasahana means 'to over come, to be not defeated.' As 5Prf^^ ' "' 
overcame him or he was not defeated by him.' 

Why do we say, 'in the sense of to overcome?' Witness ^hR*^^' ' 
l«arB» the meaning ' in which example the Atmanepada affix is not employe"- 

Bic. I. Ch. III. § 34-36- ] The Atmanepada verbs. 135 

The necessity of making a separate sfltra of this rule, instead of in- 
cluding it in the last apporism, a'rose with the object of giving a distinctive 
meaning to the prefix adhi. 

%j scrs^^T^Tn: II ^)j I) n^jfn u %: , sera?- v^w. , (irai: 
wo as) II 

^frT: II ft <^g; gsflr^T^^ifrS f i hi m ,^ isrs^^i^CT ^fmpt'j'f mf^ H 

34. After tlie verb kri ])receded by vi, even 
•when the fruit of tlie action does not accrue to the agent, 
and wlien tlie sense is that of ' making sound,' (liter- 
all}^ having ' sound' for its object) the Atmaneijada is 

The word karma in the sutra indicates objective case or kdraka ; and 
does not express 'action,' as in some previous sutras such as 24 ante. 

As iffrrr Rr5p% *^rri. ' the birds are making noise,' i^f^n ff^T«? 

The word ft governs the succeeding sfitra. 

Why do wc .say " when governing a word expressive of sound in the 
objective case"? Witness f^^ ftcRfrft' 9KTT: ' love affects the mind.' 

gU^T^^l^ II ^<, II Tj^f^T II a^^^TrT^, tf, (?^: 

<3no tjo ^:) II 

^frT: II ft "^jT «*>0fl<'+'?^Kj'**^*f*«IH-*l'n<l<1^# 'Prfw It 

35. After the veri) kri i)receded by vi, when 
used intransitively, the Atmanei^ada is used. 

As fti^T^^ 4?M<*I ' the horse move gracefully,' sfT^T^ "jtl ' ho lTr ft^!t 
' the students being full of food are acting as they will or arq aimlessly wander- 
ing about.' 

ffif: II ufhi, Jfrraf ?fwsr?'iT;gj#si>#ftiip9ftr«rnr%n'T%<f >raft, ?fiPRTftf 
''^f^j ^?5 II 

36. After the verb nl ' to lead,' when used in 
the sense of ' to guide so as to render the person guided 
"'Worthy,' ' to lift up,' * to make one a spiritual guide,' 

^ determine the true sense,' ' to employ on wages,' 

136 Thk Atmanepada verbs. [ Bk. I. Ch. Ill ^ -^^ 

' to pay as debt,' and 'to give as in charity,' even when 
the fruit of the action does not accrue to the agent, tlio 
Atmanepada is nsed. 

This siitra is begun in order to show that the verb sff may take tiie 
terminations of the Atmanepada, even when the direct fruit of the action 
does not accrue to the agent, in the following cases, viz., when it means 
to ' respect ' &c. 

Sammdnana means to respect ; as T^TfT ^fNf ^Tt^RT^ 'the Chdrvi gives 
instruction in the LokAyata sastra.' The word charvi primarily means intelli- 
gence, and by secondary use it has been extended to the preceptor also, such 
a preceptor gives instruction in LokAyata Sastra, that is to say, having estab- 
lished the truth of the doctrines of that philosophy by argumentation, imparts 
them to the pupils. Those doctrines being thus established by reason, be- 
come respected (SanmAnita) and honored. 

Utsanjana, ' to throw up, or lift up,' as HI^KI^J^Pni^ ' he lifts up 

AchArya-karana 'acting as a teacher,' that is to say, to bring a boy- 
near oneself in such a way, that being so 'brought near (upa-neta), he may 
himself become an acHArya. As >ri"i')<*i5<t=ni^ 'he initiates Manavaka (!. c, 
making himself the preceptor he brings the boy near himself.') 

JnAna means ' knowledge, a demonstrated verity.' As TT^ ^T^ st^T- 
■v^ 'the ChArvi investigates the truth of the LokAyata doctrine.' 

Bhriti means ' wages.' As ^r^SKTCrjTnH ' he employs the servants on 
hire or wages.' 

Vigauana means the paying off as a tribute, debts &c. As IST^r 
ftrT^^, ' the Madras pay the tax due to the king, that is, they discharge the debt' 

Vyaya means 'allotment of money on works of merit &c.' As 5r?i ^^^ 
' he expends a hundred pieces on religious acts.' a??r f^^nr^ ' he devotes a 

Why do we say, in these senses ? Witness ^^ sntf^ TR^. ' he carries 
the goat to the village' Here there is no Atmanepada affix, as the verb has 
not any one of the above significations. 

«*^f^, (f^^: WO tie) II 

37. After tlie verb ul, when it governs an 
incorporearobject existing in the agent, as its object, the 
Atmancpatla is used. 

Bk. I. Ch. III. §38.] The Atmanf.pada verbs. 137 

The verb ^ is Atmanepadi when governing an object which has no 
material body, but is an abstract noun, that is an object which has abstract 
but no concrete existence ; and when such an object has its seat in a 
portion of the agent of the verb. As %t^ f^HM^ ' he subdues his own anger,' 
iffs fvn^ ' h'i suppresses anger.' 

The word ^arira means the body of living beings, any portion of such 
body is also called sarira. 

The object must reside in the agent, (kartristha), otherwise the verb 
will be parasmaipadi. As j^TTt tin^TT^ !Kt>T f^T^f^ ' Devadatha removes 
Yajnadatta's anger.' 

The object moreover must be immaterial, otherwise the affix will be 
of parasniaipada. As iTf f^PT^frf ' he removes his own wort.' trrsf J^sprfW 
' he bows his neck.' 

Why do we say ' in the case of an object ? ' Witness ftgsf r f%Tf fa' ' he is 
biibmissive through knowledge,' STjniT f%5T?rra'. Here the verb |^H4M has not 
taken an accusative case, but is in construction with an instrumental case, 
and therefore the present rule does not apply. 

ll^^'ifn*!^^ ^^: II \c II ti^T(% II ?a^-^'i-ain^g, 
^w., (mo Tie) II 

^frT: II ^Trsirf^s^qV ^qhfirrrfmt >ra^ 11 

88. Alter tlie verb kram 'to move' when used, 
in the senses of ' continuity,' ' energy ' and 'development,' 
the Atmanepada is employed. 

The word ' kram ' governs the succeeding sutras up to 43 and is 
understood in them all. 

The verb kram by sfitra I. 3. 78 (after the rest, let the parasmaipada 
affixes be employed in marking the agent), would have taken the affixes of 
the parasmaipada ; the present aphorism enjoins Atmanepada affixes in cer- 
tain cases when the verb means to have a taste for &c. 

Vrltti ' continuity ' means unobstructed, or want of interruption (i. e., 
•1 taste for, or facility in, anything), ' sarga energy ' means application 
resolution and determination. TAyana ' development ' means increase and 


As (i) 1^^44:41 BfTTW f^: — ' his reason proceeds unobstructed through 
'le Rig. scriptures i. e., he can easily comprehend the Rig.' (2). sjtraKtariwr- 
''ffl SKI^ ' the pupil shows energy or exerts to study the grammar.' (3). ^lft»l^ 
"f^rnir ^>i?3 < the shastras are developed in him.' 

Why in these senses only ? Witness ^^jM^lH ^ ' he runs away.' 

133 The Atmanepada verbs. [ Bk. I. Ch. III. § 39.^, 

U%3^»T: w: tie) n 

39. After the verb kram, preceded by upa 
and para, when used in tbc senses of continuity, energy 
and development, tlio Atmanepada is employed. 

The words vritti &c., of the last sutra are understood here also. Why 
has this been made a separate sutra and not included in the last ? The reason 
is to make a restrictive rule in the cases of upasargas ; that is to say, only in 
the cases of the upasargas upa and pari, there is 4tmanepada affix ; but not 
so when any other upasarga precedes the verb kram, though the sense may 
be of continuity &c., Thus OTiRT^ 'he commences to advance,' T(HK»I§ 'he 
marches to attack.' 

Why do we say after the upasargas ' upa and pari ' ? Because, after 
any other preposition the affix will be of the parsmaipada ; as^r«ri%'he 
makes progress.' If the sense is not that;of " continuity " &c., parasmaipada 
will be employed, as .JHf*|*{r%, qrrstfRra-. 

sTT^^spi^ ii«0ii xf^xf^ II 3Ti^:, ^>rR% (^ssm, 3ne no) 11 

ffrl: II ^T^ "^'rg; ?R1^ ^ffTf^ TSTRTfT^Jr^m >T^ 'I 

qT^^5^ II i4ird*^<iT^ rrW ^TfTs^r^: II 

40. After the verb kram, preceded by an, the 
Atmanepada is employed, when used in the sense of tho 
rising of a luminary. 

As •4(i*'(5 W^: 'the sun rises.' ^rrsjT^ ^^>Tr.- 'the moon rises ' ^inRJpS 
S^itwfft' 'the stars rise.' 

Vart.— This ascending must refer to heavenly bodies. Therefore in 
^l*!"!^ v)*rriJ*i?rBnT , 'the smoke rises from the surface of the terrace,' the verb 
Wf is parasmaipadi. Why do we say in the sense of " to ascend" ? Witness 
WRff^ irit^^: ^wriJ ' the boy assails the ox.' 

^: xn^%?:5r II «^ II tr^Tf% 11 ^:, m^.fini^, ( «^: 

«TT9 ^0 ) II 

ff%: II ^'J3^r3.!IW%: "m^ri&iif <l^*<HN I <:H^'<i; H^Rr II 

41. After the verb kram, preceded by vi, the 
Atmanepada is employed, when used in the sense of 
' placing of foot- steps.' 

As ^rsfl' f^mif ' the horse is pacing.' The term vikramana is applied to 
the special movements of horse &c. 

Bk. I- Ch. III. § 42, 43. ] The Atmanepada verbs. 13? 

Though in the DhStupAtha (catalogue of verbal roots), the verb Jfrft 
andwj have the meanings of pAda-viharana and p4da-vikshepa, that is 
" throwing or placing of foot," and so it might be objected that the present 
sutra is a useless repetition, yet as verbs have various other meanings than 
v\hat is assigned to them in the dhdtupatha, the present sfitra is not un- 

Why do we say "in the sense of throwing of foot"? In any other sense, 
the terminations will be those of the parasmaipada. As R:!irprf^ ST^PRI^: 
the fold of the antelope skin is ruptured.' 

nhri^ ^i^^*qw II 8^ II tr^ffi 11 Ji-mn«n^, ^^^• 
ym\ , ( '5KT: wa tro ) 11 

42. After the verb krain, the Atmanepada is 
employed when it is pi'occded by pra and upa, both con- 
veying the same sense; viz. that of "beginning an 

As sT^jfrar Ht^fnr , HM»hH^ 'TT^^ ' he commences to eat ' &c. 

The prefixes pra and upa are synonyms, when they denote the com- 
mencement of an action. 

Why do we say, " when they are synonyms." Witness the following 
"nf^g: H iMHfr l gp[tf^ »'J* I Hff T 'he goes during the first part of the day and he 
comes back during the latter part of the day.' Here in one case the sense 
is "to go," in another it means "to return." 

Why in the latter case of 'aparedyur upakrimati ' there is not At- 
manepada by virtue of sutra 39 ante, as there is the upasarga upa here ? The 
answer is that Rule 39 is not applicable, as that rule is limited by. the condi- 
tion of the sense of ' continuity ' &c. while in the present sfitra, that limita- 
tion is not applicable. 

'si^q^T^ji 118^11 tj^rf^ii 3T\-^^^»!^?»^, wf ("sem: w© ^«) ii 
^: II 37^ f^g'iJTg; »F>rSm?^* >i^ 11 

43. After the verb kram, the Atmanepada is 
optionally employed, when it is not preceded by any 

The root ' kram ' may always be conjugated ^as Atmanepadi when 
"ot having any upasarga. The upasarga will be defined in I. 4. 59. The 
option allowed by this sfitra is an example of what is technically known as 
'Pr^pta vibhAsA »/»., an option which is not an alternative limitation to a 
R«neral rule already found or known. 

140 Thk Atmanepada verbs. [ Bk. I. Ch. III. ^ 44.45, 

Examples: flPf^ or wtflrf 'lie goes over,' Why do we say ' when it is 
without any preposition ?' For no option is allowed when it takes preposition, 
As tfjfrnr^. 

w?^ w: II 88 II ^V^ •' s»^*. '♦. (<s(roxie) h 

fr%: II 5rpTr%T"Tft t^hmnkh^j »rTf% 11 

44. After the verb jmi, wlicn used in the 
sense of denying,' tlie xitmanepada is einlpoyed. 

The root jna which ordinarily means 'to know' and is parasmaipadi 
by rule 78, becomes Atmanepadi when through the virtue of any prefix it 
means ' to deceive: ' as ^THTpft^ ' he deceives,' ^nPTTSTRl'^ ' he denies the debt 
of a hundred rupees,' ?T??pnin'ff^ 'denies a thousand.' 

Why do we say when meaning ' to deny ? " observe :—!r»q Pirnr?n' 
Hrrrftr 'thou knowest not anything.' 

s»«'^«Ti[ II ^ II q^Tf% II wr^^^Tc^, 'ar (xsi, ^jo x(9) 11 
ff^: II in'nfH*H5rR«ir^grf^?fi<(^iiiji<H^4f ir^ 11 

45. And when used intransitively, after tho 
verb jua, tlie Atmanepada is employed, even when tlie 
fi'uit of the action does not accrue to the agent. 

As «fq^ ^rHf^ »ig^ Trnft^ 'he engages in sacrifice by means of clari- 
fied butter or honey.' (.See II. 3. 51). 

This Atmanepadi form of jna is employed when the fruit of the ac- 
^tion does not accrue to the agent. From sutra 76 it will be seen lliat 
when the fruit of the action accrues to the agent, the verb is Atmanepadi. 

How in the above example the verb jna is intransitive ? Because the 
word sarpilris not the object of knowledge, but it is an instrument of sacri- 
fice, into which one engages from complete knowledge (jfiAna) ; and it (sar- 
pishah) is in the by virtue of II. 3. 51 ( |fHf%^^ ^>ri5 ) W 
which the instrumental kSraka of the jna is put in the genitive case. 

Why do wo say of " Intransitive "? Because in the transitive it is 
parasmaipadi, as t^of ^ itpjjf^ 'he knows (recognizes) the son by his voice.' 

arivqi^ , ( tr: arretie ) 11 

\f^: II «iT^?$^ "nthjTmTflfTJm^iT^ ?r^»iRi^i?iT^t v%^ 11 

4G. After the verb jna, preceded by sam, iW<l 
prati, the Atmanepada is employed, when not used i» 
the sense of" remembering with regret." 

Bk. I. Oh. III. § 46-48. ] The Atmanepada verbs. 141 

The word jna is understood in this siltra: and the aphorism applies to 
that jna which is used in the transitive. As ?nr swfr? ' he looks for a hundred,' 
so a?# SffirTrftS ' he promises a thousand.' 

Why do we say wiien 'not meaning remembering with regret?' 
Because it is not Atmanepadi, when it conveys that meaning. Tiius Tfj: 
aUHTf^ 'he remembers with regret his mother' ft^: ^tJtPftf^ II 

ffw; II »rr*nif?g ftiiNiDg ^t?^ <nf*icrt»i *)<(<? mf^ 11 

47. After the vei-b vad, the Atmanepada is 
employed, when used in tlie senses of " shomng" brilli- 
ance, or proficiency in," "pacifying," "knowledge," 
" effoi't," " difference of opinion," and " flattering." 

By sfltra 78, vad generally takes the terminations of the Parasmai- 
pada, by the present s6tra, it takes also the affixes of the Atmanepada when 
having certain meanings. 

Bkdsana, (shining) means to illumine as ^^ ^i?ff jff^Rlif. The chdrvi 
illumines the Lokayat shastras, by his discourses and clear exposition. 

UpasambhAshd (persuasions) means to appease, to conciliate as ^A- 
^njTI^^ he conciliates or cajoles the iervants. 

Jndna (knowledge) means to know completely as irIT "Trrf al^rnr^ the 

chdrvi knows completely to discourse upon Lokayal shastra. 

Yatna (endeavour) me.ins energy as «J% »^. ' He toils in the field,' 
•f? T?% ' he toils in the house.' 

Kma/» (disagreement) means dissension, want of unanimous opinion. 
As ^trl?^^. ' They disagree over the field' i. e., holding different opinions 
they talk diversely. 

Upamantrana (enticing) means to coax in secret as, ^5f»Tr?frgT«r?fr 'he 
entices the wife of a respectable family {i. e., seduces her in secret)' qT?rrPJT- 
'^ 'he flatters another's wife.' 

Why in the above senses only ? See ?rgif%f^?f^ 'he says something'. 

si^mn^^r^ffT?;^ 11 gt 11 tR[Tf5T 11 wn'^Ti^mT'?^ , ^»i;5Kt- 
^'^ . ( ^J , we ^e ) a 

fftr; 11 m^TTTTOf ^rgijTrcT ^Tfnmnr ^nrr'^nTrf^mw^? H^f>f n ,-,^* 

48. After the verb vad, the Atjtnanepada is 
employed when used in the sense of " speaking articu- 
lately in a similar manner." 

J 42 The Atmanepada verbs. [ Bk. I. Ch. III. § 49, 50 

As tfJTf^F^ WWCTT' ' the BrShmanas are speaking.' But in ^tn^^ 
«J^?r: 'tlie cocks are crowing' it is properly Parasmaipadi. 

Tiie sense of the sutra is that when men, who are only capable of 
articulate speech, speak all in one and the same time, then the verb vad 
takes the affix of the Atmanepada. When lower animals make a chorus of 
noise, the verb does not lake the Atmanepada. 

There must be samuchcliArana for the application of this rule, when 
there is no samuchcharapa or speaking in a chorus, this rule does not apply, 
asjrrennr^^ 'the Brdhman speaks.' 

9?%TTii»^^T?^ II »^ II tl^fsr II a?^T: , 3T*'S^m^ , (^: , 

3!I9 tr«.) STrH^JT^ II 

49. iVl'fcei' tlio vei-b vad, iii-eceded by anu 
when it is intransitively used, tho Atmancixida is em- 
ployed, when the sense is that of" si^eaking articulately 
in a similar manner." 

As ?l^^"^ g*?: c|i5tn^ katha is echoing or imitates kalapa. He 
reutters exactly what the kaldpa-reader or the teacher says. The word anu 
here means similarly. 

Why do we say 'in the Intransitive'? Because when it is used in 
the transitive it takes the alBxes of the Parasmaipada. As T^fi^ ?rg^ft?W5q# 
he repeats the yajurveda which he had learned before. 

The words ' uttering of articulate speech' are understood here also. 
Otherwise 8^5^% ^oir the lute resounds, here it is Parasmaipada. 

( ^^: i3TT« tlO ^qw^'Sft ) II 

50. After the verb vad, the Atmanepada is 
employed optionally, wlien the sense is that of " con- 
tradicting each other." 

As fti?w^% or-F?r $HT: (the doctors are at variance). The words 
vyaktavAchdom (articulate utterance) and samuchehSrana (speaking to- 
gether) are understood in this sfitra also. 

No option is allowed when the sense is not that of contradiction or 
wrangling as ^IR?'^ KVSrV: . The Brihmanas are speaking together. 

The phrase ' articulate utterance ' is necessary in this also. Because 
as ftf ^T^?r WS'TK' the kites are quarrelling, the verb is in the Parasmaipa<^*- 

]3k. I. Ch. III. § 51, 52. ] The Atmanepada verbs. U3 

The wfangling must be by talking atone and the same time other- 
wise this rule will not apply. As !R^#frr t^ 3? f^fTf^ the doctors con- 
tradict by turn another doctor. 

oswT^Ti: 11 «^i II TT^fir II 3?atTf ,W' , (wc m ) 

fRr- II ^T^ifTTtrr^T^ t^ 11 

51. After the verb grl ' to swallow,' when pre- 
ceded by ava, the Atmanepada is used. 

As 'JTTpirfw (he swallows). The root gri to swallow preceded by the 
preposition ava is Atmanepadi. The verb gfi taken in this sfitra means to 
swallow and belongs to the Tud4di class, it is not the grt ' to make sound ' 
which belongs to the kryddi class. Because there is no word formed with the 
latter verb by affixing the preposition ava to it. By sfltra 78 this verb gri 
'to swallow' would have been Parasmaipadi, the present sutra debars 

When it is not preceded by ava, it is Parasmaipadi, as fiff^ he 

^w: nf?rBT% ii^^im^tfiT ii ^m , nf?!w% , (^jcwotro) w 

52. After tlie verb grl preceded by sam, the 
Atmanepada is used, when employed in the sense of 
' iiromising.' 

As ^ g fJK<? (he promises to pay a hundred rupees) If it does not 
mean to promise or acknowledge, it takes parasmaipada terminations. As 
«rf>Trj% iTRPThe swallows the mouthful. 

n\^' ^^^^\ II H^ II Xt^fir II ^^: , ^: , ^^^^TH^ II 

{mom) II 

Tf^: II 5rei?i!wT%: w^f»^P»7?rrTn7r?i?i%7t >r^ i' 

53. After the verb char ' to walk ' pi-eceded by 
ut, when used transitively the Atmanepada is employed. 

As a^^MfK^ he strays away from home ; ^H>q<<H;j ^ K ^ he transgresses 
'he commands of his preceptor. 

Why do we say " when used in the transitive"? Observe qi«<T5^rf% 
we vapour is rising. Here it is parasmaipadi. 

^T^^xng'wig^ II H8 II q?prf?r ii ^»r: , 'j'lftm-^'WT?^ , 
(^; we x(9) 11 


TrtE Atmanepada verbs. [ Bk. I. Ch. III. § 54, ,5, 

54-. After the vei'b char, preceded by sam, and 
connected with a noun in the Instrumental case, the 
Atmanepada is employed. 

As ^VT ^'^^ he rides on the. horse-back. 

The rule does not apply when it is not in composition with a word in 
the instrumental case. As ?>?^ ^,^ ^"fK^ r* ^TJ ' ^^ ' ^ Devala ! thou 
wanderest through both regions, this and that. Here though the sense oi the 
Instrumental case is implied, yet as it is not expressly stated, we use the 
parasmaipada terminations. 

^^^w %1H^4^ n w^ II 'Rfifn II V^'- . "^ , w , ^ , 
ns'rf-s?^ , ( ^R^Jfs 50 "^v w tro ) 11 

7rf%^5. II ^ftrffs'PTfR' ^rfim ^gt^ T^^ft^ ^^irs^?, 11 

55. And after tlie verb da to give, pixjceded 
by sam, and connected with anoim in the Instrumental 
case, the Atmanepada is ein])loyed, provided this Instru- 
mental case have the sense of the Dative case. 

When is the 3rd rase used with the force of the 4lh case? That is 
answered by the following. 

Far/.— The Instrumental has the force of the Dative when immoral 
conduct is implied. As ?re?rr or fq^^rr hsrt'S^ (he gives with the object o( 
enticing to the female slave or prostitute). 

The verb da to give, is generally parasmaipadi, it becomes ^tmane- 
padi under the above conditions. 

Why do we say " when it has the force of the dative case" ? Because 
when it has not the sense of the dative, parasmaipada terminations wiH he 
used, as qr^W ^JT^fS^i ' he gives with his hand.' 

It might be asked how the atmanepada terminations are employed 
when the preposition sam is not directly applied to the verb, but another pre- 
position pra, intervenes between sam and the verb. The reply is that the 
word samah in s^tra 54 is not in the ablative case (which would have required 
its being placed immediately before the verb), but it is in the genitive case, 
find is used as an attribute, 

( STW W ) II 

Bk, I. Ch. III. §56,57.] The Atmanepada verUS. 145 

56. After the verb yam, to give, preceded by 
upa, when used in tlie sense of " espousing," the Atmane- 
pada is employed. 

This is clear. As >IRl^'nr«5^ he espouses or knows his wife. But 
not so when another's wife is meant, there it is parasmaipadi. 

By rule 78, the verb yam would have been parasm aipa^i, but the 
present sOtra makes an exception, when the root takes the preposition upa 
luid means " to marry, to espouse, or to accept." The meaning of sva-karana 
is confined to accepting in general. This is according to Kdsika; according 
to MahclbhSshya, sva-karana means to make one's own what was not 
previously his own. 

Why do we say in the sense of " marrying"? When it has any other 
sense parasmaipada aflfixes will be employed as $^^ ?J5f^TT??f HRjfjTfB^, 
Devadatta has illicit intercourse with the wife of Yajiiadatta. 

WlJ^ari ^T: II ^3 II ^^T^T II WT-^-'E^-^H , ^if! , 

( sn« tre ) n 

57. After the Desideratives formed by the 
affix san, of the verbs jna to know, sru, to hear, smpi to 
remember, and dri6 to see, the Atmanepada is employed. 

The above four roots are Atmanepadi when in the Desiderative 
form', the suffix " san " being the pratyaya by which desideratives are formed. 

The verb ]f\i takes the terminations of the dtmanepada when used in 
the senses indicated by the three sfltras 44, 45 and 46 already explained. 
The desiderative form of jn4 would ex necessitate take Atmanepada affixes 
when used in the above senses ; see Rule 62. The present sfltra however 
enlarges the scope of Atmanepada by declaring all desideratives .of jii4 to be 
Rtmanepada, in whatever sense they may be used. 

Similarly by sutra 29 ante and the vArtika under it, the roots iSru, 
and driiS, take the terminations of the Atmanepada, when preceded by sam, 
the desideratives of those would of course have taken Atmanepada aflRxes by 
1^2, but the present sfitra makes it general,- 

The present sAtra however enunciates a new rule in the case of the root 


As »!*$ f^i^itiA he wishes to know («>, enquires after) religion g^ 
^f% he serves the teachers, sfsr ^^«T^? t he wishes to remember the lost, yf 
%^^ he wishes to see the king. 

Why do we say, when taking the affix san ? Because the primitive 
*'«rbs will take the parasmsipada terminations as ^fTfffit he knows ; W'Wf he 
''^'^'■s. ?«fftt he remembers if![i^ he sees, ■'■ ^ 


140 The Atmanepada verbs. [ Bk. I. Ch. III. § 58.60. 

HT^nl: II ^l- II 'T^^ •< T , ^i , ITS ) ( ^^i aTTOtrs) || 

58. After the desiderative of jfia wlieu pre- 
ceded by anu the Atmanepada is not employed. 

This is an exception to the last sfilra. The desiderative of jn4 with 
the prefix anu is not Atmanepadi. 

This sfitra read with sfltra 45 limits the scope of parasmaipada to the 
transitive, desiderative verb anu-jnA. As fiTTjfjTJITWfit he enquires after 
the son. 

Why do we say when preceded by anu? Because otherwise it will 

take the dtinanepada terminations. As <j*^ f^jfrr^ he inquires after religion. 

SRiim*nf ?ra: II ^% II ^t^ II nf^-3n^«UT^ , w^: , 

( ^^'. W9 tie ) n 

ff^: II jf^ ?rr^Tf?it <i^^cft%: ^T^rftTr^r^HTT^ ^ H?rRr 11 

lid. After tlie de.sidca'atives of km wlien pro- 
ceded by prati and an the Atnianc]^ada is not used. 

The verb sru when taking the prelixes prati and An, is not atmane- 
padi, though taking the desiderative "san." This is also an exception to the 
rule of sfitra 57. Thus in^^JM^n^ and 5srr5'^t^% |i 

The word prati and kn must be upasargas; if they are used as karnia- 
pravachaniyas (see l. 4. — 83) then the rule will not apply As s^tT Jrf^ ^'<^ " 

aj^: %?»: Il ^0 11 rr^if^r II ^'. , Rlrr: , ( WO qo ) H 

ff%: II VJ^n: fim^'nV^f ^ «»l«ft fWirfni^TT H^ I' 

CO. After the verb 6ad to decay, when it has 
one of the aflBxes with an indicatory & (^it) the Atmane- 
pada is used. 

The root 'sad ' when taking any affix wiiich is marked with an indica- 
tory ?r, is conjugated in the Atmanepadi. In connection with this, must be 

read sfitra Vil. 3. 78. '?rarrairwmr?n!if^^f^??rfffWirsrW%TH*r?i*o'< ^<j#^ 

sftfl^ft^f: by which the root ^ is replaced by ?fltr before affixes having an 
indicatory ^ . Thus ^rf + nr + ^ = #?r + st^= ^^ he decays or withers, 
#jf% they two decay fSttff^ they decay. 

Why do we say before affixes having an indicatory ^r? Before 
other affixes, it is not Atmanepadi. As «nrf?«r5, if he decayed, 5P??rfiT he will 
decay, Rniwfir . 

The well-known vikaranas like W{ , V &c., the affixes like WJ ^'^•' 
are Riw affixes. In other words the root ^ad is Atmanepadi in all conjuga- 
tional tenses. 


; I. Ch. III. § 6i, 62. ] The Atmanepada verbs. 147 

fffr: II ^?i%^!5f*rrr: RT?fvrf»mt »nffr HS'^nr t >i^ 11 

61. After the verb vnfi to die, when it lias one 
of tlic affixes having an incUcatory ?r, as well as when it 
takes the affixes lun (aorist HI 2. 110) and lih (Benedic- 
Livo III. 3. 159) tlie Atmanei^ada is used. 

This is a restrictive sutra, the root fS? (to die), is marked with a y 
as an indicatory letter, so by sutra 12 it would be always Atmanepadi. But 
the present aphorism restricts it to W^ lun (Aorist) and ^3= liii (Benedictive) 
tenses, as well as to those tenses which arc fii^ . It will be found hereafter 
that out of the ten tenses, those that take fifs^ affixes are the special tenses 
!>., the present, the Imperfect, the Potential and the Imperative. 

It is only before these three affixes, namely, liii, lun and sit affixes, 
that the root mri takes the terminations of the dtmanepada. Thus the aorist 
?If(I amrita he died ; Benedictive fsft? mrishishta ' may he die.' Similarly 
before iit affixes thus i%!r^ ' he dies,' = f + W + ^ (VII. 4. 28 ft^ ^nrfjt?^) 

i^ + ^ + % = RnrW (VI. 4. 77. s^Pt ^5VTi5w?rf cfrfrar^W^) ft^ , f^rawf 

The root f belongs to the sixth class of verbs called Tud4di which take the 
vikarana ^ in the conjugational tenses (III. i. 77). 

In other tenses, viz., the two Futures, the Perfect and the conditional, 
this verb is parasmaipadi. As: — frftwtft he will die. ^pifrstlf^ . 

^^m^'. W %?, II ^^tOt II ^n\, «H: , ( WO t(« ) II 

f i%: II ?R: ^\ % qrf : 'J JI 'WHHift <Tf«iv(^HI^I«*<'^4f >T^f% II 

62. The verb whicli is Atmanepadi in its 
primitive form before the taking of tlio affix san, will 
also be Atmanepadi wlien it ends in the affix san. In 
other words ; after a desiderative verb, Atmanepada is 
employed, if it would have been nscd after the primitive 

If the primary verb is parasmaipadi, its desiderative will be also 
parasmaipadi ; if the primary verb is Atmanepadi, its desiderative will be 
Atmanepadi. This is the general rule. Some exceptions to it have already 
been mentioned in sfitras 57, 58, and 59, A root which was Atmanepadi, 
before taking the Desiderative affix ?i!j^san, will be itmanepadi even when it 
takes the affix wr san. In other words, that by reason of which the Atmane- 
pada affixes were ordained in the primary verb, will cause the same termina- 

148 The Atmanepada verbs. [ Bk. I. Ch. III. § g- 

tions to be applied when tlie verb ends in ^T san. Thus it was said in sfltr; 

12, that roots having an an udAtta accented vowel as indicatory ora^^rta: 

their indicatory letter take the terminations of the dtmanepada. Thus ^fR? 

he sits down and ^ ' he sleeps.' The verb m% (to sit down) and ^fr? (tt 

lie down) will remain Atmanepadi, even when they are used as Desiderativei 

Thus ^Tfirflw^ ' he wishes to lie down.' Similarly sfltra 17 declared that the 

verb f^R% is Atmanepadi as firf^'!!^ . this will be Atmanepadi also in the 

Desiderative form, as f%flrr?W^ ' he wishes to enter.' So also by sfitra 40 

»Tri(iJI% is Atmanepadi, the Desiderative sfrf^tlrr will also be Atmanepadi. 

But though by 60 and 61. 5fh!f% and f^rf are Atmanepadi, yet 

fitrowf^ ' he wishes to lie down ' 3^^ ' he wishes to die,' are parasmaipadi. 

Because the Atmanepada affixes were ordained after the roots ^r? and 

f^ only under excep-tional conditions and not generically, and as those 

conditions do not exist in the desiderative, the latter does not take Atmanepada 


Of course that which in its primary state would not have taken the 
terminations of the Atmanepada, there being a prohibition to that effect 
will not allow them in its Desiderative form. As miTf^etH i ^f ^ ' he wishes 
to imitate,' <)tlf^*^Wf*(. Here the root fi^T by rule 79 has been especially de- 
clared to be parasmaipadi, to the exclusion of atmanepada affixes which would 
otherwise have come by Rule 32 and 72, and therefore its Desiderative 
is also parasmaipadi. The force of W causing Atmanepada is counteracted 
by 79. 

Now it might be asked: — True, this rule provides for those cases where 
a root is conjugated in two forms, one a Primitive and another a Desider- 
ative conjugation. But what provision do you make for those partial verbs 
which take the affix y^r even in their primitive form ; and in whose case we 
have no prior form to look upon as a guide in the application of Atmanepada 
affixes. And there are at least 7 such quasi-roots which take ^ST in this way, 
Called also the self-descriptive ^pr . Those quasi-roots are iJJ, f?rs^, ^ff, tn?. 
W^ , (fn^ and^TPT. What are we to do with these quasi-roots, which are always 
conjugated with the affix ^5 and have no simpler conjugation ?" To this we 
reply ;" In the case of these partial verbs which take the self-descriptive 05 
the pada will be regulated by the indicatory letters which these quasi-roots 
have. For though the full roots are ^cg ftpnST, P N f^ W , »ft'{l»« , ^^^ • 
^StVf^ and ^pw , yet by the maxim H^ ^ ft?^ gj^m^^ f^^^ 1^ ^ ' 
"a sign made in a portion of a thing, qualifies the whole thing;" the sign 
made in the expression ^ &c., will qualify the whole verb ^g^ 8k." Thu? 
we have 7nt«?t he despises, f^i[^n9% he cures ; 'fNhr't he investigates &c. 

Bk. I- Ch. III. § 63. ] The Atmanepada verbs. 149 

ff^: II sTiwrwnrf*?«rRfr: iriirJ3i??r>T?«fP^^ Hfftr 11 

63. Like the verb that takes the affix am, 
it' the verb be conjugated witli the Atmanepada termina- 
tion«, so of the verb kri wlien subjoined thereto as an 
auxiliary, the terminations ai'o of the Atmanepada, 
even wlieu tlio fruit of tiie action does not accrue to 
tJic agent. 

This sfltra api)lies wlierc tlie fruit of the action docs not accrue to the 
agiMit. There arc in Sanskrit two forms of the perfect tense (/^): 
one formed in the ordinary way by the reduplication of the root and adding 
the terminations ; the other called the periphrastic perfect, is formed by 
adding ?ir5. to the root, and then a(i(ixing to it the perfect tense of the 
roots fr (to do), ^ (to be ) or HCT (to be). These latter verbs are 
called anuprayoga or auxiliary verbs, as it is with their help that the perfect 
tense is formed. The question then arises, what conjugation, parasmai or 
.'itmanepada, do these auxiliaries take in forming the periphrastic perfect ? 
This sutra supplies the answer : — the auxiliary ^ follows the conjugation of 
principals, the other auxiliaries do not. Thus the root ^ (to increase, 
prosper) is Atmanepadi, theiefore in forming the periphrastic perfect, the verb 
|f will be also in the dtmanepada. Thus itv^N^ (he prospered). Similarly 
n^ (to appear witli great splendour) is parasmaipadi and the auxiliary fr after 
it will be parasmaipada, as yf ^ i Aj-^i r (he appeared with great splendour). 

But the other auxiliaries >T and 3«i retain their own peculiar conjuga- 
tion and are not influenced by the conjugation of their principal.* Thus ^W- 

The word dm-pratyaya of the sutra means 'that after which the affix 
im (III. I. 35 and 36. ^fCT^«H|l^[ H <T?T f^ ) comes.' Of the verb krifi, whea 
subjoined to another as an auxiliary, the termination is that of the Atmanepada 
'ike the verb that takes the affix 4m. If this sfitra enjoined a rule of injunction 
(v'dhi), then there would be the termination of the Atmanepada even in 
examples like ^ssrf'^sjrrr and 5f»TnT^IT where the fruit of the action 
accrues to the agent. This is no valid objection to the present sfltra. 
" IS to be interpreted in both ways, that is, both as a vidhi (a general injunc- 
^'on) and a niyama (a restrictive injunction). How is that to be done ? Be- 
cause the word pfirvavat of the last sfitra is to be read in the present aphorism 
*'sa. The second explanation in that case will be for the sake of establishing 
' niyama or restrictive rule. 

'l30 The Atmanepada verbs. [ Bk. I. Ch. Ill { 64 

Ik, has already been said above that the auxiliary verbs !|f,>i ^n,- 
STO are used in forming the periphrastic perfect. This is done by force ol 
the aphorism III. I. 40 ^^fr^st^^jpf f^, meaning, the verb krifi ij 
annexed in the perfect tense, to verDS that take Am. In this sutra (III. I. 40) 
the word krin is a pratyAhAra, implying the verbs ajy , H and s?^. It might 
be asked how is this pratydhdra formed? The word kri is taken from 
the fourth word of sfitra V. 4. 50, »?vgm5rr# ^»^rft?RfHf &c., and the 
letter fi is taken from sfitra V. 4. 58 ^ifrfr?fhr &c. This is the way 
in which the commentators explain how not only the verb krifi is used as 
an auxiliary in forming the periphrastic perfect, but also the verbs ij 
and HH . These three verbs denoting absolute action unmodified by any 
especial condition have in all languages been fixed upon as the best auxi- 

It must however be noted that the word krifi in this sfitra is not used 
as a pratydhdra and consequently does not include the verbs H and is(b . 

»Tnfr-m% , ( wo vio) w 

ff^. iijf ^ r^'rt-i!^ ^tr'TirTnrnFiTrf^'snrniiww'Tt >r^ 11 

64. After tho verb yuj to join, tlie Atmane- 
pada is used, when it is preceded by pra and upa except 
with reference to sacrificial vessels even when the fruit 
of the action does not accrue to the agent. 

The verb vT^ 'to join' is svaritet, and consequently by sfitra 
73 .t IS always dtmanepadi, when the fruit of the action accrues to the 
agent. Th^ present sfitra declares when this verb may take the termi- 
nations of dtmanepada, even when the fruit of the action does not accrue 
to the agent. After the verb ^ preceded by the prepositions jt and 37 
the terminations arc of the dtmanepada, when not employed in reference to 
sacrificial vessels. As R^^ ' he joins or employs' ; ^ps* 'he fits or uses.' 

Why do we say "when not employed in reference to sacrificial 
vessels?" Because there the terminations will be of the parasmaipada. As 

Vdrtika:-It shall be rather stated that the root takes the terminations 
of the dtmanepada when preceded by any preposition beginning or ending 
with a vowel. This is an important modification of the above rule. Thus 
5^5ir and fH^w^. In fact, all upasargas, with the exception of ^, ftr , and 
5?^, either begin or end with a vowel, and therefore the Vdrtika amounts 
to the inclusion of all prepositions with the above exception 

Bk, I. Ch. III. § 65-67. ] The Atmanepada verbs, 151 

With ATI., ft^and jf;^, however, the root will take parasmaipada termi- 
nations ; as ^gVf!*. 

^m «g^: u \\ n xr^tf^ 11 wm , «i^: , ( w« ^« ) « 

65. After the verb kshiiu, to sharpen, pre- 
ceded by sam, the Atmanepada is employed. 

The verb ^3 'to sharpen, whet, or grind,' is generally parasmaipadi, 
but it is dtmanepadi when it is preceded by the prefix ^ir; as ^^5^ ^RTff 
•he whets the weapon' B^gTTff 'they two whet' a^"jT% 'they all whet'. 

It might be objected, why has a separate aphorism been made of the- 
verb kshnu, when it could well have been included in the sfitra 29 ante, which 
.^iso speaks of the force of the prefix sam, when used with the verbs gam 
richchha &c. To this the answer is that, that sAtra treats of intransitive verbs, 
the word akarmaka being understood therein, while the present sutra, 
Rs is evident from the example we have given above, treats of transitive 

HitT-R^% II %% II ^^rf^ 11 "H^: , wm% , ( we xie ) ii 


GO. After the verb bhuj, the Atmanepada is 
used, except in the sense of protecting. 

The root bhuj when it does not mean to protect, is Atmanepadi. 
This root belongs to the rudhadi class and has several meanings, as, to feed, 
to cherish, to preserve, to eat, and to enjoy. As Jt^ ' he eats or enjoys ' also 
bhuujate, bhufijate &c. But qifPi; H^T^ ft?Tr 'the father cherishes the sons' 

The root bhuj belongs also to the tud.adi class, but there it has the 
sense of being curved or crooked. The bhuj belonging to the tudadi class 
IS not to be taken in this sfitra, because that bhuj has never the sense of 
protecting. Therefore frHsiflt qifw ' he bends the hand,' is in the paras- 

St?:^ iT?T^ ^ 3>T %H « «B^?n^T^ II ^(9 II q^f?r ii «»:, 
^\ ^\,^,^,^^, ^' , ^yi\ ,9?sfraiT5^ , ( we ^9 ) ii 

H^ I ^Hr«.^, «m^ T3W^?^ II 

67. After a verb ending in the affix n i (cansal) 
tile Atmanepada is employed, provided that when the 
*^^yect in the non-ni or non-cansal sense becomes the 

152 The Atmanepada verbs. [ Bk. I.. Ch. III. § g 

agent in the causal ; and when it does not mean ' to re 
member with regret;' even when the fruit of the actio; 
does not accrue to the agent. 

The causatives (Prw) are conjugated in the Atmanepadi, wIic 
they are used in the passive voice, that is to say when a word which was a 
objective case in the ordinary verb becomes nominative case in the caus; 
tive ; and the nominative case of the ordinary verbs becomes objective cas 
in the causative. In short when causatives are used in the passive voic( 
they are dtmanepadi. This round-about phraseology has been employee 
because the base of the active and the passive causatives do dot differ i 
form ; ' as s m^ j t^ ?f^?t<T5«rsr f jE^ . 

The phrase ' 4: (after the causatives) ' of this sfltra governs the fou 
succeeding sutras and is understood in them. The sfitra consists of the follow 
ing words : — 1&: ' after the causative ;' Sfnt ' in the non-causative ;' ?rw ' what; 
^ 'object;' "^ ' in the causative;' 'tfl[ 'if;' ?r: 'that;' SRrrf 'nominative ;' s^n^irR 
'except to remember.' 

In general, by sutra 74, the causative verbs take the terminations 
of the Atmanepada, when the fruit of the action accrues to the agent. The 
present sfltra applies to the case where the fruit of the action does not accrue 
to the agent. 

After the verbs that take the affix foi"^, the terminations are those of 
the Atmanepada. How ? When that which was the object when the primi- 
tive verb w:is used non-causalively, becomes also the object when the deriva- 
tive verb is used causatively ; and even that object becomes also the agent 
as well. There is exception however, in the case when the verb means to 
' remember .with regret.' As ^ndfPiT fRfrJT wf^fmSf: ' the elephant-kctpers 
mount the elephant.' Let us paraphrase this sentence by transforming the 
primitive non-causative verb ^TR^piT into a causative form. The sentence then 
will be, iJirfl^fl ffffr ?^^f 'the elephant makes itself to be mounted'. Similarly 
■iMftt-qi^rr fftn^ fR?T<T^r: 'the elephant-keepers sprinkle the elephant'; and 
5n^'q^ ???ff ?^!rt^ ' the elephant makes itself to be sprinkled ;' qTfsr^ 'JWf 
mrrJTT ' the attendants see the king' ; and ^%Trirr ?^«r^ ' the king makes 
himself to be seen.' 

Why do we say 'after the causatives'?' Because the rule of 
this sfltra will not apply, if the verb though conveying the sense of a cau- 
sal verb, is, however, not formed by the affix ftpT: Asvnttff^ ^T^^t fR'TT'n- 
Hhe elephant-keepers mount the elephant;' and srrttwmnf f^fft trtv^rtt?'* 
'the elephant that is bej^ig mounted, mounts gracefully'. Here the termina- 
tions are of the parasmaipada in the second case also. 

Bk. I- Ch. III. § 67. ] The Atmanepada verbs. 153 

Why do we say ' in the non-causalive non-ni ' ? For this rule will 
not apply, when the primitive verb itself is formed by the affix fcj^ ; 
such are the roots of the tenth class or churAdi in which the nich is 
a'lded in the self-descriptive sense, and not for a causative purpose. 
Thus the root im belongs to churddi class ; whose causative and primitive 
forms are the same. As »ri!j?ff?t *nif »lrtM*: 'the cowherd counts the herd;' 
and the causative form is irojTff^ »IT: ?q^?T 'the herd makes itself to be count- 
ed.' The terminations in both cases are those of the parasmaipada. 

Why do we say 'when the object (karma) becomes the agent.' Be- 
cause the rule will not apply, when any other kAraka or case, than the karma 
or object, of the primitive verb becomes the agent in the causative. Thus 
HTrf^ ?nrcr ' he cuts with the scythe,' rsr^^tf^ ?nr ??ra^7 ' the scythe is made to 
cut of itself.' Here the word d4lra was the instrument of the primitive verb 
which became agent in the causative, and therefore in the causative the termi- 
nations are of the parasmaipada only. 

Why do we say' if in the causative ' in the sfitra? It is for the purpose 
of indicating that the verb must be one and the same, both in the primary 
sentence and the causative sentence. Therefore the rule does not apply 
here where the causative verb ^'(Rtf^ in the second sentence was not 
used in the first sentence ; infr?^ ffl^'T fl%1M*|: ' the elephant-keepers 
mount the elephant;' and 5nfi?^ircjr f??ft>fr?tT5. *l's(fll% ^W 'the elephant 
that is being caused to mount is made to sprinkle with urine the frightened 

The word ?r: 'that' is employed in the aphorism to show that the 
objects in both sentences must be the same and not different. Therefore in 
the following example where the objects are different, the terqjinations of 
parasmaipada are only used. ^fTCf?^ ?re!T'r ?R?PTasr: 'the elephant-keepers 
mount the elephant'; and <tf r O r »j<lHf °it ??^ ^ ^rtH l t tt! < l P f T5««tnT ' the elephant, 
that is being caused to mount, makes men mount on the land.' 

Why do we use the word kart4 (agent) in the sfitra ? If the former 
ohject is not the agent in the second case, the terminations of the parasmai- 
pada only would be used. As sirrrf^ ?ft?pr ?fi?j7a[rr: ' the elephant-keepers 
mpunt the elephant ;' and ^NlO< ! <tf^ JJ^TfTT: ' the elephant-driver makes it to 

Why do we say ' except when meaning to remember with tender- 
"ess?" Observe, ^frrfJr TT^fwrw ^t^tST: 'the dove remembers, with regret, the 
forest tree ;' and ^HTtfr^t^ T^gwi; CT^T 'the forest tree i.s made to be ijcmem-. 
bcred of itself.' 

15i The Atmanepada verbs. [ Bk. F. Ch. Ilf. § 68-69. 

wo tre ) II 

G8. After the causatives of the verbs l)hi to 
fear, and smi to wondei-, eyen the fruit of the action 
acci'uos not to the agent tlie Atmanepada is employed 
when tlie fear is produced directly by the causative 

The phrase 'of the causative ending in ftr' is understood in this 
sutra and is to be supplied from the previous aphorism. This sutra is also 
restricted to cases where the fruit of the action does not accrue to the agent. 
The word I5 in the aphorism has been defined later on in sutra I. 4. 55 
( ^rP^ ^xTr ); it is the agent which is the mover of another's agent. When 
a fear is caused by a tj it is called w^^. The word ^ 'fear' in the 
aphorism is illustrative, and includes by implication f%w?r 'astonishment' 
also. As irm »ft'T!T% ' the jatila, the cock-headed frightens.' jaf, ^jh^^ 
• the munda, the shave-headed frightens '; sr^r fimm(^ ' the jatila astonishes/ 
S'^^^^Jr^'the munda astonishes' {.e. the very fact of matted-hair or 
shaven-head frightens' &c. . 

Why do we say twpf? For if the fear or astonishment is not 
the direct result caused by the agent, but arises from something else, then 
the Atmanepada will not be used. As gj%^^ >innifff 'he frightens him with 
the kunchika,'5!'n!TPRTnr«fnT' he astonishes with his form'. Here kuncliika and 
rupa are the instruments, which cause fear or astonishment, and are not the 
hetu thereof. 

• ^TVRRT!^: JTQ^^ I, ^^ „ xT^TfH II ^-w^t: . n^- 
"Ti) , ( 5t: grte tr« ) 11 ■* 


CO. After the causatives of the verbs gridh to 
covet, and vafich to go, the Atmanepada is employed, 
when used iu the sense of deceiving, even though tlic 
fruit of action does not accrue to the agent. 

The phrase ' of the causatives ending in fe' is to be supplied here from 
sQtra 67. This sfltra is also restricted to the cases where the fruit of the 
action does not accrue to the agent The word ir3«R of the sitra 
means deceiving. As m'w* n>M ' he deceives the boy,' m^ ^^^ ' ''^ 
cheats the boy,' 

BK. I. Ch. III. § 70-71. ] The Atmanepada verbs. 156 

Why do we say 'when it means deceiving.' For these verbs have 
not this meaning, their causatives take parasmaipada. As f.^ Thff^ ' he 
causes the dog to bark,' ?ffy T^^lf^ ' he avoids the serpent.' 

^WT'Il-TBra^'ft-^'CWilT: , ^ , ( 5^^ ji?5rwr% w* tie ) II 

70. After the causative of the verb 11 to melt 
or stick, the Atmanepada is employed, when used in the 
sense of showing respect, subduing and deceiving, even 
though the fruit of action does not accrue to the agent. 

The phrase ' of the causative ending in ftr' is to be supplied here from 
siltra 67. This sfitra has its scope only when the fruit of the action does not 
accrue to the agent. In the DhA.tupdtha, tliere are two roots 5ft , one is 
technically called 5fts^ and means to stick, and belongs to divadi class. The 
other sft meaning to ' melt' belongs to kryAdi class. As there is no specifi- 
cation in the sfitra what ^ is to be taken, both are therefore taken. 

The force of the word ^ in the sutra is to include the word IT«T*HT 
'to delude' of the last sfitra into the present. The word tf'^lT'T means to show 
respect. The word wrsftsfNfT^ means to subdue. As jnrrftrrsani^ ' he gets 
respect or causes respect to be shown to him through or on account of his 
matted hair.' 5;^j% ^^rjSTPnisr 'the hawk subdues the partridge', ^??^SfrT^ 
' who deceives thee.' 

The sfitra fir*im 5?hl»f: VI. I. 51 declares that the f of 5ft is optionally 
changed into vfj before certain terminations. But there is no option allowed 
when the root sft has any of the above three senses: in these cases the substitu- 
tion of ^ is necessary and not optional. For the option allowed by sfitra 
*'• 1-5' is a s^rrfeTfrfl'Hr^ and not a general f^^jm applicable every- 

Why do we say ' when it has the meaning of, to show respect &c. ' ? 
oecause otherwise there is parasmaipada. As ^rt*)jt-rt|i|<(flr. 

f^TqTR[T?f!$T>nim% II i9i 11 x(^\ff{ II f^«qT-^tirr^ra^, 
f^: ; 3?«n% , ( 5t: siTo xje ) 11 

71. Afbertho causative of the verb kj-i, the 
ftmanepada is used, when it has the -word mithya, 
iQcorreet, as an tipapada or dependent word, and is 


The Atmanepada verbs. [ Bk. I, Ca III. § ji.p, 

employed in the sense of 'repeated wrong utterance' 
even Avhon the fruit ot the action does not accrue to 
the agent. 

The phrase 'of the causative ending in fSr ' is to be supplied from 
sfitra 67. The aphorism is restricted to the cases where the fruit of the action 
does not accrue to the agent. The word abhySsa means doing again, or 
repetition ; as W Pfs-wr sirrr^ means ' he repeatedly pronounces the word 
incorrectly that is with wrong accent &c., not once but constantly'. 

Why do we say 'when the word mithyd is used as an upapada?' 
The causative of kri will take parasmaipada when it has any other upapada. 
Thus <t4 915513^ 5>rmPr ' he pronounces the word correctly.' 

Why do we say ' of the verb ^^'? Because the causative of any other 
verb used along with the word milhyA will not have atmanepada; as >t? 
fttnr wr^^ ' he repeatedly utters the word wrongly.' Here retakes parasmai- 


Why do we say ' repeatedly ' ? For if the incorrect utterance is not 
habitual, then parasmaipada will be used; as 1? ftt?lI*H.'MRi ' he pronounces 

wrongly, not always but once.' 

^-5Ufflm^ , ^T-^S ( ^: wo tie ) II 

72. Alter the verb marked with a svarita, 
(svaritet) or whicli lias an indicatory n alit), the termi- 
nations of the Atmanepada are employed, when tJic 
fruit of the action accrues to the agent. , 

The anuvritti of the phrase i&: does not go further. The word 
ftf^rnrsi is a compound, meaning 'fruit of the action.' When the principal 
object for the sake of which the action is begun, is meant for the agent indi- 
cated by the verb, there the Atmanepada is used after verbs having an 
indicatory sj or a svarita accent. As ?rsr% ' he sacrifices for himself ' V^ "^ 
cooks for himself.' Here the verb ^lr and i^ are marked with svarita accen 
in the DhdtupAtha, and therefore they take the itma-nepada terminations. 

Similarly g^Jt ' he presses the soma-juice,' aj?:?> ' he does.' Here tne 
verbs g^r and |;fsi[ have an indicatory tt. 

In all the above cases, the principal object of the action such as ge' '"» 
heaven by performance of sacrifice, eating of food &c., is meant for the agt" ■ 
That isto say, he sacrifices in order that he himself may attain heaven, 
cooks in order that he himself may eat, &c. , 

Hk. I. Ch. hi. § 73, 74- ] The Atmanepada verbs. 157 

Why do we say ' when the fruit of the action accrues to the agent'? 
Otherwise it will have parasmaipada. As IHT^'T ^HT^r: the priests sacrifice, 
(not for themselves, but for their clients)' tra^ iTf^SKT: 'the cooks cook (for 
their masters) ' ^4f5ri SRiNra; ' the meni.ils work (for their masters).' Here 
though the fees and the wages are the fruits which the agent gets, yet as that 
fruit is not the principal object for which the action was begun — the principal 
abject of the sacrifice was not that the priest should get his fee, but that the 
ijcrificer may go to heaven — the verb takes the terminations of the Parasmai- 
Kula. Here the principal fruit of the action docs not accrue to the agent ; 
)ut to a third party. 

|R% ( aTT9 t(9 ) II 

fr^T.- II ^T-prf^r?^: ^^Pfsira f^JTi'^r^ ^?n^%"Tf HfFff ii 

73. After tlic vei'b vad to tell, pi'ccedod by 
apa, when the liaiLt of tlie action accrues to tJie agent, 
the terminations are of the Atmanepada. 

The phrase "when the fruit of the action accrues to the agent, " is 
mdcrstood here. The sutra is clear. As vpT^m !=?Tnm^ff 'the wealth-seeker 
;orsakcs justice, that is to say, he wishes to acquire wealth at the sacrifice of 
iu-,ticc. But when the fruit of the action does not accrue to the agent, the 
jarasmaipada is employed. As sfr^ft'. 

f^^g (I i»8 a ^v^ " ^^' . '' I ( ^^f«nT^ f^TT^% 

3»T« ^0 ) II 

TfrT: II ra'5t;frrfr?'r%s?f ^r^nr ^kU^r^ mwm ii 

74. After a vei-1) ending- in affix ni. (cansal) 
when tJie ii-iiit of the acti(jn accrues to the agent, the 
Atmanepada is employed. 

The phrase " when the fruit of the action accrues to the agent" is to 
bc' supplied from sAtra 73. The verbs that take the affix f8Tr=5r nich are gene- 
f'llly causatives. As ^ afrrc^^ ' he causes the mat to be made for himself ^^ 
Tf'RT^ ' he causes the food to be cooked for him...elf. When the fruit of the ac- 
tiou does not accrue to the agent, the parasmaipada is used. As mi qtlflf^ 
'^^T he causes anothers ' mat to be made. * 

'ag^T^Srwit 'R'fr iW^ II (9H II ■^^f^ II ^'»J;-^3;-3»TT^: , 
IT: , ^X(^ ( ^s^fflBT^ W* ) II 

frrr: II ^j JTf ^rrs' i^vk "J3t«r%: ^%FfJ?ra f^^ir^t ?m'm? >i^ T^rf^- 
^''^?!t%fR>i^r?ni ' 

158 The Atmanepada verbs. [ Bk. I. Ch. III. § 75, ^o, 

Y5. After the V(;rl) yam to strive, preceded by 
sam, lit and an, wlion it does not refer to a book, the 
Atraanepadaiscmj)loyed, Avlien tlie fruit of tlie action 
accrues to the agent. 

The phrase 'when the fruit of the action accrues to the agent ' is 
read into this aphorism liy anuvritli from sutra 72. As ^r^ ^RpSa^ ' he 
gathers rice ' iIRTT^T^afr 'he lifts up the load' ^^TTl^TSa^ 'lie draws out the cloth.' 
The root yam preceded by the preposition ^fw takes the terminations of 
the Atmanepada by virtue of aphorism 28 ante ; but in that aphorism the verb 
was intransitive, here it is transitive, and this explains the necessity of makiiiij 
two different sutras for one compound verb ^rTT'T . 

Why do we say ' when it docs not refer to a book.' For otherwise 
the verb will take the terminations of the parasmaipada. As T^T'^U^ f^r%<gf 
tq-: 'the pliysician studies diligently the medicine. 

When however the fruit of the action does not accrue to the aj^ent 
the above compound verbs are parasmaipadi. As H^^ETsfrT, ^W^f^, STR^fflf. 

orre ^e ) 11 

f FtT: II ^fTWnfwRT^: ^^fw^ f3f^rF# ^m'WTt H^fff n 

T<). Aftei- tlie A'tii'h jila wIkui not preceded by 
any upasaro'a, the terminations are of tlie Atniaiie- 
inida, wlien tJie fruit of the action a-ccrucs to tluj agent. 

The phrase ' when tin; fruit of the action accrues to the agent ' is 
understood, in tliis siitra also. I'lius Jir Jft^th ' he recognises the cow as his 
own' ; ?fX^ jrrjft^ ' he recognises the horse as his own,' 

Why do we say when not preceded by any npasarga ? For when 
compounded with prepositions, it may take the Atmanepada terminations ; as 
^^'i'fflr* T snTRTM T^. ' the fool does not know the heavenly regions.' 

When however, the fruit of the action does not accrue to the agent, 
the simple root ^rr takes parasmaipada terminations. Jq'ftl'Rl irf ■srfSfrR ' '"^ 
recognises Devadatta's cow.' 

fat<Hi^TqtI^5T Ucftq^i^ II Isl9 W TT^f?r II f^flmi , ^^^^^' 

v^^■^^\^ ( ^^fne 3tt« xre ) 11 

^T^T? »T^r« II 

Bk. I. Ch. 111. § 77, 78. ] The Parasmaipada verbs. 1.59 

77. The Atmaaicixida is optional]^ used, wlieu 
the fact of tlio fruit of the actioix accruing' to the ag-ent 
is indicted by an iix^apada i.c.^ by a word used along- with 
tlic verb. 

By the preceding five sutras 72 to 76, Atmancpada terminations were 
ordained to come after verbs wliich implied the accrual of the fruit of the 
action to the agent, tliat is to say, where the verb by itself denoted this. But 
when the same idea, instead of bi-ing inherent in the verb, is expressed by 
an iipapada, that is by a word governed l)y tlie verb, the necessity of using 
tlic Atmancpada affixes, to denote the same idea, is oliviously removed, and 
in such a case it is optional whether we use the Atmancpada or the Paras- 
maipada terminations. As ?# HTjt ^Trf% or sc^ ' he sacrifices for his own 
yajna' spf !F? ^pfirf^ or ^^% ' he makes his own cot.' ?^ !f^R7^^ or 3l<nf^, 
^'fff'T qr^q'^ or qr^TT^ &c. So on with all the above five sutras. 

Ir^Tcf^af^ TT^^q^ II 3C II TT^lf^ || i^qirT^, ^^ft , 
qi^^XT^^t^, II 

78. After tlio rest ?'.t'., after all those vcn-bs not 
Jailing under any one of the pi-evious provisions, tlie 
terminations of the Parasinaii)ada arc euiploycd, in 
iiiarlviug tltc agent {i.e., in the active voie(i). 

The rules of Atmancpada have been declared in the preceding 66 
sutras, 12 to 77. The terminations of the Parasmaipada, which are the 
general verbal terminations, will come everywhere else that is to say where 
its oper.ation is not debarred by any one of the preceding aphorisms. The 
present sutra declares this universal rule. The word scsha or the rest, means 
^liat which is the residue after the application of all the previous restrictive 
rules. Thus it was declared by sutra 12 ante that a root having an Anuddtta 
vowel or a r as it, will take Atmancpada terminations. As str^. ^^ . The 
-Onverse of this will take parasmaipada terminations, namely all verbs which 
JO not have an anuddtta accent or a ? as it. Thus ^n^ ' he goes,' ^tft ' it 
Jlows.' It has been declared by sfitra 1 7 that the root f^ when preceded by 

f takes Atmanepada termination, as Mf%?r#. When not preceded by fq- but 
ixy other preposition it will take the parasmaipada termination. As ?!7rft?rfff, 

Why do we say "when marking the agent"? For when used in the 
massive voice, the root will take the Atmancpada termination. AsTe^'it 
« cooked' *F?jt'it is gone.' 


The Parasmaifada verbs. [Bk. I. Ch. III. § 79, So. 

Why is not parasmaipada used when the verb is employed reflexively? 
As in the following example :— <r=^ ^R^: ?7trtf ' the food cooks of itself.' 
Because in the present &ulra, the word ^ft of sutra 14 ante is to be read in 
by anuvritti, so that, in fact there arc two ^R in this aphorism which thus 
means " when the agent of the verb is an agent pure and simple then paras- 
maipada is employed." While \\hen a verb is used reflexively (5r>4^«ft) the 
a<Tenl of the verb is also, in one asjiect, the object of the verb; and it is there- 
fore that in reflexive verbs the Almanepaila terminations are employed. 

g^gq^rfqi^sj: 11 (s<J II TT^tf^ II ar^-TT^T^IT^ I irei: I 
( rR^ttr^flJ II 

70. After tlio verl) kri to make, ]mjco(lo(l hy 
anil and para, parasjuaipada is o]n])l()3'C(l, cvoii when l\w. 
fruit oi' t]]e action goes to tlio agent, and wlicu tlic seiisu 
is that of "di\ailging" iV:e. 

By aphorism 32 ante, the root fT took the terminations of the Atmanc- 
pada when the sense denoted was that of "divulging, reviling" &e., and it 
also took Almanepada termination when the fruit of the action accrued to the 
agent by virtue of sfitra 72, because the root ^»7 has an indicatory sj. The 
present sutra makes an exception to those rules, and ordains parasmaipadn. 
Thus ssTJ^rf?! he imitates, TTF^irfrf^ he does well. 

3Tf«H?lf?l'^: feti: II <'0 II tf^TfH II giTf^-Ilf?r-3Tf?J«i: I 
^tf'. II (ijovio ) II 

ffw: II ?rPraRr ^Rlf^iff 'J^Hf^T: "I^W »T^ " 

80. After tlie verb kship, to throw, cojiiing 
after ahhi, pi'ati and ati, parasmaipada is used, even 
thongli tlic fruit of the action goes to tlie agent. 

The root fm to throw, is svaritcta therefore by sfitra 72 ante it would 
have taken Atmanepada termination, when the fruit of the action accrued to 
the agent ; this aphorism ordains parasmaipada instead. As srfHRnfPf "^ 
throws on' sjftftrrfJl ' he turns away or rejects,' ^nf^ffmf^ ' he throws beyond. 

Why do we say "when coming after abhi, prati, and ati"? Because 
when compounded with any other preposition, it will not take parasmai- 
pada, but will be governed by sutra 72. As ^ffftT'T^ ' he throws down.' 

The second ^if of sutra 14 is also understood here, so that when the 
verb is used reflexively, the agent not being purely an agent, the prcse" 
sfitra will not apply. As ^rP tf^ i -od ?Ji*«r ' it is thrown on of itself.' 

PK. I. Ch. hi. § 81-83. ] The Parasmaipada verbs. 161 

nrjf , « c-^ II ^^ u inf I BTf : ( ^ko tts ) 11 

81. After the vei-b vah to hear, comings after 
pra, parasmaipada is used, even tliougli tlie fi-uit of the 
action accrnes to the agent. 

The root ?ry to carry is svaritct, and by sutra 72 it would have taken 
tlic Atmancpada termination when the fruit of the action accrued to the agent. 
Uul the present s6tta ordains parasmaipada instead. As Jm?f% 'it flows.' 

Why do we say " when coming after pra"? Because after any other 
preposition it will not take parasmaipada as gjra?^ 'he brings.' 

M\jit(: tl e,^ II ti^T^T II ^^: I ^^: I ( ^WO no ) II 

fr%: II TrT'j?r5,?'^''^- "T'T^'fT? "^^^ " 

82. After tlie verb mrish to bear, preceded 
l)y pari, parasmaipada is nsed, even wlien the fruit of 
the action accrues to tlie agent. 

The root tj^ " to sufTer" is svaritet, and by sutra 72 it would have 
aken Atmanepada termination when the fruit of the action accrued to the 
agent. This ordains parasmaipada instead. As Tmsiif^ he ' endures or he 
jfcomos angry.' When not preceded by this preposition, it takes Atmanepada 
x-rmination. As STPji^jit . 

According to some authors, the root g? of the last aphorism is said to 
bo understood in this, so that ?r? preceded by fR will also take parasmaipada 
terminations ; as qf^qffs . 

[ ^10 rje ) U 

83. After the verb ram to sport, preceded by 
v^i and to, parasmaipada is used. 

The verb ?tt^ means ' to sport.' It is anuddttct and therefore by sfttra 
•2 it would have taken Atmanepada terminations ; the present sfitra ordains 
parasmaipada instead, as f^X'J^ ' he takes rest '; SHTT^ ' he delights in/ trftnrf?* 
' ''e sports.' 

With other prepositions than these, it will take Atmanepada termina- 
"°"- As -sifStt^ , 

162 The Par,\smmpada verbs. [ Bk. I. Ch. III. § 84-85. 

gqii II 6« II Tj^ II gxnti I ^ I ( t:*r: n?:^%q^^^) « 

ffrT: II T7"JTrft»r^: "Tt^M H¥r% II 

84. And also after iipa, the vorb mm takes 
the aIllxo>s oftlic parasinaipacla. 

As^^^TTHTT^f^ 'lie causes Devadatta to refrain.' The sense of the 
verb uparamati is causative here, as if it was <n<H*(ft • Tins is an example 
of a verb involving in it the force of the causative affix foRT . 

It miglit be asked why was not the preposition 37 read along with tlip 
other preposition in the last aphorism, instead of making this a .separate siitra. 

The answer is liiat the necessity of making a separate siilra with the prcposi- 
lion upa arose from the exigelicies of sulra making. It is desired, that llie 
next sutra 85 should apjily only to the root upa-ram, and not to other com- 
pounds of ram ; and this could only be done by making these two dislincl 

farviT^i^^5BT?J, II Ct^ II •Cr^TR II f^flim I 37^^^.!?^ ( W 

xixo ere ) II 

fpf- II a'T'j^f^rT^r^Ff'i'jrnt'Trsfr <rr?W ^^Ri 11 

85. Ai't(>r the vcrl:) ram i^receded by iipa, 
parasmaipada is optionally iiHcd, when employed intrau- 

The last aphorism ordained parasmaipada absolutely, this declarfs 
an option under certain circumstances. As Jrr^¥'?fr*<MiH^ or smfW^ lie 
desisted from or was quiet while it was eaten. 

W^-iJ.j-^vq: I ^: I ( qe ITS ) II 

8G. Alter the verbs biidh to l<no\v, .yiulli to 
fight, naf^to destroy, j'ana to be born, in to go, piai tomovi', 
dm to rim, and srn to flow, ending in tlic affix ni {'■('■> 
when used in the causative), parasmaipada is employed, 
even when tlie fniit of the action goes to the agent. 

By sutra 74 ante, causatives took the 4tmanepada termination when 
the fruit of the action accrued to the agent. This makes an exception to 
that and ordains parasmaipada. As ^hT^ he expands ^rvraft he causes to 
fight ; Hinnrri he causes 'destruction, 3i5pi(% he begets ; ^ji^flTO^ he teaches; 
sfmif?! he causes to obtain ; WT^ he causes to melt ; sn^raft he causes to 

Bk I. Cii- III- § S7. ] The Parasmaipada verbs. 163 

Of the above eight roots, those which are intransitive would have 
tiken the parasmaipada terminations under the conditions mentioned in sutnv 
88 iub, that is to say, when the agent is a being endowed with a reason. The 
nrcsent aphorism in the case of such intransitive verbs makes this additional 
statement, that those intransitive verbs will take parasmaipada, even when the 
a<r<nt is not a being endowed with a reason. As g'RT^ TJr'T he makes the 
lotus to expand, ^^vpirffr mutfk lie makes the woods to strike each other, jtRT- 
?jf^5?g«he destroys the sorrow, ipprfn 3<JI^ he produces pleasure. 

Again of the above eight roots, those that have ordinarily the sense of 
"moving" will get parasmaipada by sutra 87. The present sutra, in their case 
makes this additional statement, that they will take parasmaipada termina- 
tions even when the sense is not that of moving. Thus sr, means both 'to move,' 
and 'to obtain,' ?r means ' to run' as well as ' to melt,' and W, means ' to flow' 
as well as to ' to^tiicklc.' As m^ he obtains; ^^rs^fff the iron melts ; ^Pnr^f 
H#T llie w.iter-vesscls drip. The examples in the lirst paragraph have there- 
fore been thus translated. 

The root 55= is always comjiounded with 'iifij . 

f%»i^^^^5!T^«ig II ^3 II ^^^\^ M OfiT^i-^^^T-ar^^i: ! 

■^ I ( 5t: nn:^^q?f^ ) II 

^rffT^fr^ II ^1: irr%w^=fFsi: n 

BY. And unor tJic catisativcs of verbs wliieh 
have tlie sense of the 'eatiu^' ov swallowing'' and ' shak- 
in.i^- or moving' ])arasniaii)ada is emT)]o3^ed, even when 
tlic friut of file action goes to tlie agent. 

The phrase ' when used in the causative (ijr:) of the last sutra is to 
I'e read into this also, 'fhe parasmaipada is ordained as an exteption to 
Mitra 74 by which almanepada was ordained when the fruit of the action 
accrued to the agent. The word fqirrCT means ' eating,' and '^m^ ' means' 
'moving,' ' shaking.' As f^qrrtffrf he causes to swallow ; ^^raf^ he causes to 
•^^t' HRprfH he feasts. =^»Rrf?r he moves ; ^PTuf^f , ^»^^ he shakens. This 
apliorism applies to transitive verbs, and to verbs whose agents in non-causa- 
've state arc inanimate objects /.c, not possessed with reason. 

Vai-i : — The prohibition of the root ^sjs to eat, must be mentioned. 
' »c causative of ?!i^ to eat, takes Atmanepada. Thus STfrf ^^tT: Devadatta 
•^^ts; gjr?q^ |q-^%;r lie is made to by Devadatta. 

a7^^^,*^^Tf%^^?T^^'^^T?T^II <•«- H ^V^ " ^''^ ' ^'^' 
'^^t?T I f^xf^H I ^Tf^rr ( ^i^^X9 ^9") II 

104 The Parasmaipada verbs. [ Bk. I. Ch. III. § sg. 


88. The affixes of the pai-asmaipada are em- 
ployed after the causal of that verb, wliich iu its non- 
causal state was intransitive and had a being endowed 
with I'cason for its agent; even when tlie fruit of tlu; 
action accrues to tlic agent. 

The phrase cr: is understood here also. |The Atmancpada was 
ordained by siitra 74 when the fruit of the action accrued to the agent. 
Tliis aphorism is an exception to that, and ordains parasmaipada. As sji^S 
If^W: Dtvadatta sits: m^f^ ?^^ '>e makes Dcvad.alta to sit. ?f^ ?^^: 
Devadatta sleeps, < [ m<|f?< ?qf^ he causes Dovadatla to lie down. 

Why do we say ' in its non-causal state'? For if the causative root is 
from another causative root, and not from a simple non-causative root, 
the parasmaipada will not be employed. Thus 'if one person such as Dcmi- 
datta, causes another person Y.ijnadatta, to cause a third person Ramadall.i, 
to do an act denoted by an intransitive root, as ' mounting ' for instance, 
thou<'li Ramadatta mounts for his own benefit, the verb to be used in sucli .i 
case is !5ircr?^'^ in the Atmanepada, from the root ?TRr? to mount; and not 
^frfrf'rf^.' (lengar's Guide to I'anini). 

Why do we s.ay ' which was intransitive"? Tliis rule will not apply 
if the verb in its non-causative stale was transitive. Thus from i^rR tin; 
causative from fr, if the person caused to do the act denoted by the verb docs 
it for his own use, comes only gfRTi^ though the person has a will ; for llie 
oiiginal root ^ though a non-causative root, is not an intransitive root.' 

{/in/). . 

Why do we say 'having a being endowed with reason for, its agent'? 
For if the Igcnt is a non-sentient object, the verb will be Atmanepadi. llius 
from rfrf^ the causative from ?inr to dry' if that which dries is a thing not 
possessed of a will as 5ff?7j: ' paddy,' for instance, though the fruit of w' 
action i.e., the drying, affects only the paddy itself, comes wl'T^I'S in uk 
dtmanepadi, though ' to dry ' is an intransitive root ; c. g., ^llW?ft ^fifNf'' 
the sun-shine causes the paddy to dry.' [Ibid). 

1 ^"^ II 

Bk. I. Ch. II. § 89-01. ] The Parasmaipada verbs. 165 

89. But tho affixes of tlie parasmaipada ai'c 
not used after the causals of the verbs pa to drink, dara 
to tanre, ayani to extend, fijas to exert oneself, pariniuh 
to be bewildereilj rnc]i to shine, nrit to danee, vad to 
speak; and vas to d well. 

The last two aphorisms had ordained parasmaipada instead of Atmane- 
p.ida, even when the fruit of the action accrued to tlie agent, thus debarring 
the iatter's action which would otherwise have taken place by virtue of sfitra 
74. This sfitra proiiibits the last two sutras, and re-instates Atmanepada of 
sutra 74. Thus root qT to drink, has the sense of nigarana or swallowing, 
the roots ^^ &c., have sentient beings as their agent; the root sTfr to dance has 
the sense of ^?PT or moving, but still these verbs have Atmanepada affixes, 
and do not take parasmaipada in the causative. As TRI^rt he causes to drink, 
^^ ho causes to be tame, ^r^r»Rf# he lengthens, fSTPSTRf^^ he troubles, 
iWrj^t ho entices, fr^Zf^ he makes agreeable, q-^^j^ he causes to dance, 
gr^^iH he makes to speak, ^Wiia' he causes to dwell. 

Vart : — The root vjr should be enumerated along with qr &c. Thus 
'Trra'^ f^T3J^?5i ?I»l)'=#. The doe suckles a young infant. 

gT^^: II %e II q^lf^ II ^T I ^^: I ( ^^^q^^T ) II 

90. The affixes of the x^arasmaipada are used 
optionally ailei' the denominative verbs emUii^- in tlie 
affix kyasli. 

The affix grefi? is ordained by sutra III. i. 12 ^?rr^>^ ^rs^ tsfrrv ?»r: 
after the words f?ry%rT &c. These root take optional))'' parasmaipada. As 
<'r^Rrf% or ^ he reddens. Tsq^r^qfrT or # he makes pat pat. 

^^«ft5% II CI II tr^rfsr ll ^^*q: l ^f^: I ( ^T ti?:^^- 

"^^ ) II " 

fm: II in?Trft»-^ g% m snr?l"Tf >T?rf% 11 

91. After the verbs dyut to shine &e. the 
terminations of the I'arasmaipada are optionttlly em- 
I'loyed, wlien the affixes of liin (aorist) follow. 

The Dyutddi verbs are 22 in number, to be found in DhdtupAiha in 

e Bhuadi class. By the use of the word ^<r: in the plural in the sutra, 

■■ce IS that of &c. These verbs are anudatta and so by sutra 12 they 

liave been invariably dlmanepadi, this aphorism makes them optionally 

jgg The Parasmaipada verbs. [ Bk. I. Ch. III. § 92,93 

so in the aorist. Thus ^fffnjr or ^rw^ff he shone. In other tenses than the 
aorist ( ?ra=) these verbs are invariably Atmanepadi. As wr?f^ he shines. 
For a list of Dyul^di verbs see Dhatupatha. 

,|^wj: ^1^1: II %?. II ^^Tf^ l> ^f«»5 » W-n^i I ( Wl 

^K^^^O ) II ... 

f f^: II ^, ^ ?j>j ?^?^"i t "C^^r ^ry-^: ^^raPr -^ "Tr?Tr Tr Tt^^^? htF^ 11 

92. After the verbs vrit to exist &c., Parasmai- 
pada is optionally employed when the affixes sya (Fu- 
ture and conditional) and san (De.sidorative) follow. 

Tlie f trrr^ verbs are five in number and are included in the ^srrf^ sub- 
class. They are frT to be, fvr to grow, ^j to fart or break -wind; ^?i?j to ooze, 
andfrjto be able. As ist Future q-?'??rffr or itf%wrfr, it will be, conditional 
«rf?^JI?I or ^•fffTSsr?!. Desiderativc ff f??IpT or ffTTfTT^ &c. 

^ In other tenses than the above, they are always Atmanepadi. As 
tr^ it is. 

^fNsgT: n ^^ II ^^f^ II ^e I ^ I ^j > ( '?re'(' ^ 

93. After the verb klip to be fit, Parasmai- 
pada is optionally employed, when hit (1st Future) is 
affixed, as well as when sya and san arc affixed. 

The verb ^^ is one of the five verbs of the sub-class, ^nr^ of the last 
aphorism. .Therefore it will take both parasmaipada and Atmanepada, when 
the affixes ^ or ^^ follow. The present sfitra makes the additional declar- 
ation in the case 'of ist Future or H?. Thus in Lut we have:— gf^mt or 
^i^TTf^ thou wilt be; in ist Future we have : — ^T^Ts^^ or ^?c??rfH he will be; 
in the Desiderative we have :— r'%||;^'^ or f^^<l<il^ ; in the conditional we 
have;— ^r^'^^fflf.or ^?lftF<l'wrT. 

II ^r^ n^iiipziTq^ ^a^: m^x (I 

Chapter IV. 

W^^TTT^SFT ^'UT II 1 II ^f^ II W ^^TTT^, ^^-^T U 

1. From this sutra up to the aphorism Kacla- 
rah Karmadharaye (II. 2. 38) only one name of each 
thhig named is to l)e nndcrstood. 

What is that name then ? That which comes last, where the claims 
arc otherwise equal (I. 4. 2.) and that which were its claim disallowed, would 
have no other opportunity of conducing to any result, would be the recognised 
name. Asa short vowel is called 'light' by I. 4. 10, and it is also called 'heavy' 
when it precedes a conjunct consonant ( 1. 4. 1 1 .) Thus a short vowel has two 
names ' light' and ' heavy.' But it will not be called ' light ' when it precedes 
a conjunct consonant, but will have only one name, i.e., ' heavy.' Thus in 
ft? to divide fe? to split, the ^ is ' light' while the same letter is 'heavy 'in 
%ffr teaching RW begging. 

Thus in the root ?Ri| the m is ' heavy ' and therefore in forming its 
aorist we have the form ^^raWH . Similarly grctSfH . The rule VH. 4. 93 not 
applying here as that rille is applicable to laghu vowels only. 


2. When rules of equal force prohibit each 
other, then the last in the order herein given is to take 

The word f%J?^iKt»T means ' opposition of rules of equal force.' When ., 
two topics having different objects in view find scope of action simuU»n(!f- 5ft 
°"^*^'y in one particular case, that opposition of eq^s^ ,fotte&;i#4 Cftlted - 

I '^ ' 


jgg Nadi defined. I Bk. Iv Ch. IV. § 3. 

vipralishcdha. A general rule (iitsarga) and its exception (upavAda), or an in. 
variable (iiit>a) and an optional (aiiityy) rule, or an anlaranga and abaliiranga 
rule, are not rules of equal force. There the stronger prevails against the weaker. 
As an exiunplo of rules of equal force, see VII. 3. 103. and VII. 3. 103. T|,e 
llrst rule declares, 'when a case-afTix beginning with a letter of yafipratj Ahara 
follows, the long vowel is substituted lor the final of an inflective base enihng 
in a short ^.' As Vrikblia + bhyani= Vfikshabhyain. The next rule de- 
clares :— ' When a [)lural case-affix beginning with a letter of jhal pratjaiulra 
follows, JT is (he substitute for the final short ^ of an inflective base.' As 
Vriksha + su^ Vriksheshu. Cut when tlie plural casc-alfix bhyah follows, wli,Ht 
rule arc we to apply ? For the letter blia belongs both to the [>rat)aharas yafi 
and jhal. Are we to lengthen ihe shorty, or substitute^? The present 
sutra gives the reply, ? is to be substituted because VII. 3. 103 ordaining ii 
follows next to VII. 3. 102. Tlius Vriksha + bhyah =■ Vrikshebhyah. 

;5. Word-lbrni.s ciidiiifj: ill long- 1 and u being 
names of leiiiak's afo calJed Nadi. 

The word w is compound of f 4- 37. The word stryakh3a means tlwt 
which by itself denotes the name of a female. These words must be always 
feminine, having no masculine of the same form, as the word graniani has. 
As the words ^<TrO Kuindri a virgin, ^fr*'' yavaguh rice gruel. The declen- 
sion of nouns of nadi class is somewhat peculiar which will be treated of 
later. As see Rule VII. 3. 112 ^r? is the augment of the ease-affixes laving 
an indicatory 5= when they come after a word ending with a Nadi. 

Why do we say ending in f and 3: ? Because feminine nouns not 
ending in tfiese vowels will not be declined like Nadi words. Thus while the 
dative of cBJTrtI' will be ^mtn , the dative of sftif will besf?^ . 

Why do wc say 'which are feminine'? Because if they are names ot 
males, they w ill not be called Nadi. As Jrcroft: leader of a village ; dTTlt 
leader of an army; JsIWT: a sweeper; their dative being IJRO^ , ^TT?^ '33':J • 

Why have we used the word Akhy-a ' name ' in the text ? Because 
feminine gender must be denoted by the word itself and not by any other 
epithet used along with the word. Thus if the head-borough or the sweeper 
should be of the female sex, the Dative Singular would still be mwil f^ 
and ^si"^ m^ . 

% WSI^IF^T?!!?! «8^ II 8 H xj^lf^ II ST, ft?T^7^-^'^' 

Bk. I. Ch. IV. § 4-6 ] Nadi defined. 1C9 

4. Feminine woi-ds ending in i and u which 
aihnit tlie sul)stitute (y^rr ) ly-in and ( 3^r) iivan (VT. 4. 77) 
arc not callod Jsadl; exc^ept the word ytil, (\v]u(;Ji is called 
uadi notwithstanding its snlistitnting i.yan). 

The <k'lii'n'lion of Nadt given in the last siitra was lather too wide, 
this limits the scope. Thus ilf. happiness, ^ brow, adini't the substitutes 
i\.-»''i and uvari respectively, and are not nadi. Th(>ir vocative singular is 
f lit; , t ^|_ &c., while the vocative singular of stri is ^ f^. 

wfssm II << II ti^tOt II ^T, <3Ttf5r, (^q^sr^^-f-H^) ii 

5. Feminine ^vords ending in i and fi, tliongh 
iidiiiitting iyafi and iivan snbstitntes, are optionally 
tcitned Nadi, when tlie affix am (Gen PI.) follows, hnt 
not so the word stri, whieli is always Nadi. 

■sit -1- sff'T -- lit f^r + ^fir = Pn^rnr ; ^ + ^rw = ^^nr ; or Mt 4- vri, 
= iit + 5? + 3Tr5,(VH. I. 54.) = litiirnr; ^ + ^rff = ^ITfr. 15ut stri is always 
nadi, and we have ?^tCTr*r strin4m. 

To the absolute prohibition enjoined by the last sutra, this allows an 
option in the case of Genitive Plural. 

f5:m f i^^g u \ II tr^fn u f|:f?r (^-?ffi) f ^: , ^ , 

^f%: II feffl TtJTt yt^V cff; ?IT^;vft iqf: ^531^4^ f^f^S^Wpft '^ \ ^ 

G. Wlnni a ease-affix having an ividicatory 
H ('"»it) follows, tln^n feminine woi'ds (hiding in sliort i 
niid u are optionally termed Nadi, as well as feminine 
uouns in lo)tg 1 and u which admit of iyan and it van ; hut 
not .so the word stri, which is always Nadi. 

Feminine words in long i and ii have been defined as nadt, words in 
> ort vowels can never be termed nadi, while even some words in long vowels 
'*ve also been excluded from the scope of the detinition if they take lyari and 

3''- The present sfitra declares an option in the case of all the above words, 
'^ >«» a case-affix having an indicatory r follows. . 

^ The case-affixes having an indicatory rt .arc. tlje ,|!^Ve,v ASfeti'^ei, , j 

"' 've and Locative singulars. Tims we have ;r* . . -' •;' ;- - - ^ 


GHI DEFINED. [ BK. I. Ch. IV. § 7.9. 

Dative Tift or ^^ ^T? or ^?| firS or f^tt ; Ablative Genitive .j^-. 
or ^: ^ or ^: f^W- or fi^HT: ; Locative ^W .T?«rr9:^»ft or ^f f^ or 
Pt^f , So also ^1 or ^t &c. But strl is always f^ &c. 

aSt^T ^2ref^ II 9 " ^V^ u ^t , f^, 3?i%, im) II 
aft: II Tf^ s^ f^mt >T^ «fe:(T5? ^^fiPff I ^ V ?hr: ? ??^7^rf wff- 

7. Tlic I'cst of the words tliat end in slioi^t ? and 
5 are called glii with tlic exception of the word saklii. 

This defines the word ghi. The peculiarity of the declension of ghi 
words will be treated later on. The word hrasva is understood in this siitra. 
The word ^esha or 'the rest' implies 'the words ending in short ? or 5 
which are not the names of females, or if tlicy are feminine names, they arc not 

nadi words.' 

As hPt fire. Before case-afTixcs having an indicatory li, the ghi 
nouns gunate their vowel VII. 3. in. As 8#t + # = ^'# + K^'^^ to the 
fire. So also ^W x #= i?Rrl to the wind. But the declension of saklii in 
these cases is :— «^?rr W'st 3^: and ^^ . 

ufa: ^^\^ ^^ ii ^ ii ^^}^ " ^^^ . ^tt%, J^n, (f^) h 

q-ft: II T^^f. ^mm ^ f§r«3t >rt% h 

8. The word pati is called ghi only when it 

is in a compound. 

The word pati would have been ghi by the last sfitra ; the present 
sutra is therefore a niyama rule, restricting the use of ghi in the case of pali to 
its occurring in composition. The word eva ' only ' is used in a restnclnc 


As q?Jrr by the lord but nmOi Hf by the lord of creatures. So also 
<l?§ and Jlirrrat ; -Tcf: and Jnrr>lt: , q?^ and n^m^ &c. When q^ is g'"/ 
there is guna of the vowel before the four fl^ affixes by VII. 3. 1 1 1- 

^ta^ fffisc^^^fg mil ^u W^ " ^^-grR:, s*?ft. 

9. The word pati when used in connecttoi 
with a noun ending in the sixth or genitive case, is S '^' 
optionally, in the Chhandas (veda). ^^1 

^, . |bg woid pati is understood in this sfitra. By the last sfltra, P*^ 
HiSSl^W^ifciy^' when not in composiUon. This sfltra makes a 

I3K.I- Ch. IV. § 10-12. ] Laghu and Guru. 171 

ai<44{|Ht "1^ or I^^iit: salutation to the lord of the Kulundias. 
Why do we say 'when used in connection with a noun in the geni- 
tive case ' ? Observe ^m qf^ ^reff?[^«Tr?r: . 

Why do we say ' in the Chhandas 7 Observe im^ 7?$ . 

%f^: II mVt)Kt P!%^ >rffn II 

10. A short vowel is called ' liglit ' (laghu). 

This defines the word Laghu. A hrasva vowel which has already 
been defined (I. 2. 27), is under certain circumstances called laghu or ' light ' ; 
thus the i of f>l^ to break, is laghu; and by being laghu it is gunated before 
thcalfix rTT + ^ , as j^tTT he will break, by virtue of the rule VII. 3. 86, which 
tlccl.ires that a laghu penultimate vowel is gunated before a Sarvadhatuka or 
an ardhadhatuka affix. So also arft , 3T^f^«or and STsfl^r^ , 

^litj^ 11 13 II i»^Tf% II ^^it, 5^, (f^lj II 

11. Wlioii a conjunct consonant follows, a 
blioi't vowel is termed ' heavy ' (Guru). 

A hrasva vowel however is not to be called ' light' when it is followed 
by a conjunct consonant. As the i offif^r 'learning' is a heavy vowel. Thus 
fif«Tr is derived from fffw + sf (III. 3. 103, let the affix a? come after that verb 
which has a heavy vowel and ends in a consonant when the word to be 
formed is feminine). So also «<^ and ftwr . 

^^ II ^^ II n^Tfil II ^^H , 5EJ , (5^) U 
^: II if^^lWC^l^t >Prf^ II 

12. And a long vowel is also termed heavy, 

This is clear the anuvritti of the word conjunct is not understood in this 
sulra. As i of f^f?$ he endeavoured, fwf^W he saw. Here the letter f is 
guru, and because of its being called guru, the rule III. i. 36 is applied in 
fortnuig the perfect tense by the addition of the augment a»t\. Thus all long 
Vowels, and short vowels followed by conjunct consonants are guru or heavy. 
All other short vowels are laghu. 

if^M I vm^^ m^^ fiNt^f* viKfRf urfSr^wfr n^ ^ 



Anga defineb. ^ [ Bk. I. Cii. IV. § 

13. After wluitsoevei' tlicre is fin affix enjoin- 
(!(1, wlicthcr verbal root or crudo-form, that whicli \x)<>;[nH 
tlierewitli in the foi'in in wliicli it ap])oars wlieii the 
atllx follows it, is called an Inflcetivc haso (anga). 

The words of this sutra require sonic explan.ition. Yasmat after 
whatsoever; pratyaya-vidhih compound of praty.iya meaning ai> (iflix and 
vidhih, a precept, i.e. a rule enjoying an affix ; tada li, i. S. that which begins 
therewith ; pr.atyayc 7. S. = in a pralyaya i.e. when a pratyaya follows ([. i.) is 
called a base. 

After whatsoever there is an alTix enjoined, whether it be a verl«l 
root (Dlu'itu) or a nominal base (pratipadika), the word-form having that ;is 
its beginning, is called an antfa, with regard to the affix that follows. The 
word yasmat is used in the aphorism to point out the thing named, as anjj.i; 
because the word tad.'ldi follows it. Tiiis defines the word aiiga. The 
word ' base ' is thus a relative term with rega'rd to its affix. Thus ^ + «r ^ 
s^rrf he will do f rf? he will lose. ^Rs^f^ , fJT^ffr Here because the root 
^ ,ind f gets the name ^tj they are gunated by (VII. 3. 84) similarly because 
g-TT &c. set the na iie Anga, their vowel is vriddhied in sftTI?: &e. 

The words kri hri are anga with regard to the affix i.l&c. 3<nT + 
Sfof = ;ji^iTJTf: I ^fRTT: • Mere upagu and kajjatu are anga with reganl to an. 
Similarly ^ + ^if + T. '^ ^^ + T- = ^RK'^t^: . Here the whole word- 
form rCarishya is regarded .as anga, and as such the short a is lengtliened by 
VII. 3. tor ; because though the affix vali is enjoine<l after the word kri, tlu' form 
which begins with kri i.e. karishya will^also be called anga wdien the affix is 
to be .added. The word tadAdi, therefore, has been used in the siitra, lo 
make the definition of Anga applicable to the forms which a word ni.ay as- 
sume after laking the intermediate affixes like sya &c., or ^H before llif 
final affixes. Thus s^ -h 7iT -I- ? = ^"^X + f = ^■?rfir (VH. i. 72 and 
VI. 4. 8) kunda + num -1- i == kuiulan -1- t = kundftni, bowls. Here the 
whole form kundan is called anga, and as such it lengthens its vowel before 
the case-affix i by VI. 4. 8. 

Why have we used the word pratyaya? Without it the rule woukl 
fiave run thus : — 'After whatever there is anything enjoined &c., is called 
Anga.' Then in ^ -(■ f7i^ = ??^r?ft . Here sandhi of vowels is enjoined 
between f -t- f = t • If f^ was here an Anga, then its last vowel vvoult. 
have been replaced by fSiW (VI. 4. 77), the form being ft^rf^PfPf • 

Why have we used the word f%f^ ? Had we omitted it the rule wouw 
Jj^av^ rua Jlnpis j-7»/(.After whatsoever there is an affix, whether root or praf- 
"^^"QifhjBRtin ^ »rwr , though the affix adhund is placed aftet 


I. Ch IV. § 14, ^5- ] Pada defined. 173 

the worti dadhi, it is not enjoined by any rule ; and the word ?f^ is not called 
an".!. Had it been so called, then the f of dadhi should have been elided 
by rule VI. 4. 148- 

The word pratyaya has been repeated twice in this sfitra in order to 
>,lio\v that when an afffx is elided, the term anga will not apply to what stood 
before it. Thus in the compound word Ra^ + ^J^ = ^if'i for the sake of 
the woman. Here in forming the Tat purusha compound the dative case-affix 
after ihe word ?^f has been elided, for as a general rule case-affixes are 
fbileil ill forming compounds. If the word t^ff after its affix had been elided, 
slill retained its old designation of Anga, the ?4^l" + ^pj would have been 
^inrif , the augment iyaii being added by the rule already referred to above. 

ff^: II ?jq^ft f^f^ "^ vz^^ Tf€ir >nrF?r 11 

' 1-i. Tli;it wJik'Ji omls ill sup ( canc-ailix ) 
rV. 1. 2; or in tin III. 4. 78 (tcnso-afflx), is ciilletl a x>aila 
or iiillcctt'd woi'd. 

The bup or case-affixes are those by which nouns are declined ; and 
tin are ti'iise-allixes by which verbs are conjugated. They have already 
liocii given before. Tlius jirsraj + iTW = Jrrstnif : the Brahmanas i^ffrf they cook. 

It might be a.-^ked by a caviller why the word H!=tr has been used in 
the aphorism, for by the rule of tadunta given in Sulra I. i. 72 a rule relating 
tOMip will mean and include also that which ended with a sup-alTix. To this 
«e reply, that the very fact that the word anta is used in this sutra, indicates 
I'v implication (jn.apaka) that the Tadanta rule of Sutra 72 Chapter I does 
iiol apply to rules of sanjna (definition) made with regard to affixes. Thus 
lirap aiul tamap affixes are called gha by Sutra I. i. 22. The tadanta-vidhi 
will not ap|)ly here ; words ending with these affixes will not be called gha. 
' !"■« 5rrgTft!jrJ»:r will not be called gha, for had it been so called, the long f 
"ill he sliortened in ifr^'l" Jirsrfefirr . In short, ' an allix when employed in a 
^^'^'' which teaches the meaning of a technical term (sanjna) does not 
«cnotc a word-form ending with the affix.' 

H: ^ H 1 11 ti^TfH n ?i: , ^ , ( ^^^) II 

15. The word-lurm oiiding in n, is called 
Pada, when kya follows (i.e., the affixes kyacli, kyau 
^^^*^ kyash). 

these are affixes by which denominative verbs are formed from 

ns. Sge j[j J g^ j^ ^^^^ ^^ ^ word ending in Jf is called pada, when 

'«^c affixes follow. Thus Kf^^ + ^^'\ -- KX^i^ . it^'-^'^t^ ''^M^I^i^^M 

jy^ Pada defined. [ Bk. I. Ch. rv. § i6, 17. 

behaves like a king. So also n^TT + «W^=nirra« (VII. 4- 25.) ^^^ + ^, 
■sprfjT^ or -twhl^ ■ The result of its being called pada is that the sr of nsn^ , 
nfl^ &c., is elided by Satra VlII. 2. 7. (there is elision of !T final in a pada 
which is'entitled to the designation of prAtipadika). Thus ri^r^r + ^ , 

TTJT + ^ = rrahf (VII. 4- 33)- ' . „ ^ 

These three affixes ^^ &c., come after case-mflected words (/>, 
words ending in sup), and though, before these affixes, the case terminations 
are elided, still by Sfllra I. I. 62 such words would have retained the name of 
pada which they got by Rule 14 of this Chapter. The present sfitra however 
makes a restriction (i.iyama). Il declares that only words ending in sr retain 
the name of pada ; while all other case-inflected words before these affixes 
do not retain that designation. Thus the words srr^ speech, f^ a ladle are 
not treated as pada and we h.ivc ^r«r^ and 5=5^ . Had they been pacta, 
the "^ would have been changed into ^ by VIII. 2. 30. 

ftf^ ^ II ^ II ^-^^^ tl ^-Tftf, f(, (^ij 

ff%: II r^r( Slc^r^ Tt?r: "J f^^t Tfi% n . -, . ^ 

IG. Whon an affix having an mdicatoiy « 
follows then that wlucli precedes it is called pada. 

The sutra 18 of this chapter teaches that before certain affixes, the 
preceding word is called bha. This sutra declares an exception to that by 
anticipation. Thus Rule IV. 2. 115 declares :—" Affixes strand aa; come 
after the vriddha (I. i. 74) word vmj' Here the affix g[?(_has an indicatory 
q; , therefore the word v{^, standing before it, will be called pada. 'Hms 
H^ + sa = >mk: VII. 1.^2. belonging to you. The result of being pada is 
that wis changed into ? (VlII. 2. 39). Similarly JET is f?^ m ^^ (Alter llic 
word urna there is yus V. 2. 123). Thus annfw : ; so also qf^V. i. 106, Iws 
^as indicatory. Thus gjft^: There is no guna because of its being pada. 

n. " When the affixes beginning with § 
(lY. 1. 2) and ending in ^ (V. 4. 151.) follow, not Itcing 
Sarvanamasthana (1. 1. 43) then that which precedes i^ 
called pada. 

The affixes beginning with su and ending with kap arc meant by 
above sutra. Thus the case-affix i-Tirij; (ins Dual) is an affix included m 

above. Thus cr?r^ + "-^pr = nw-Wj;, nifPl: . H^Tf? , CHPir, xm^'-i '^^^^' 

BK. I. Cm. IV. 5 .18, 19. ] Bha defined. 175 

Why do we say ' when not' a Sarvanimsthina '? Observe il»i<l + W 
3 jXj(t4t two kings. CTStPT: kings. The ^ is not elided. 

irRr I'm it i^ u tr^f^ u ii-3rf«r , ot , (^nrf^wwo) 
«iiRi**^ II spftif^.MH^^ n«a"iti««iHi; 1 1 

^IpScRW II ^«|U'.|4H|^4^|: II 

18; And when an affix, with an initial y oi" an 
initial vowel, being one of the affixes, beginning witli 
su and ending ink, f(^llovvs, not being Sarvanainasthana, 
tilicu wliat precedes, is called Bha. 

This debars the application of pada. Thus ^ + ?I3? (IV. I. 105) 
ijTTi: a grandson of Garga. Si> also ^rw^: . The affix yafi begins with a 
ya and the word garga being treated as Bha its final ?r is elided before the 
affix by VI. 4. 148. 

So also frf + fST == ?i%: (IV. i. 95) grandson of Daksha 51%: . 
Here the affix ^ begins with a vowel the word standing before it being 
Bha, it causes elision of the final H of daksha. 

The word ^rf^ is in the 7th case meaning when v or ^"^ follow; and 
by the last Vart of Sutra I. i. 72, it means ' when an affix beginning with 
ya or ach follow.' 

Vari: — The words !H«r , ?fQpr^ and jt^bt should be treated as Bha 
when the affix ^ follows. Thus ;ni^ like the sky. ^Q|.«:^rt like the 
Angiras. ip[c^pr like the man. By being Bha, the ?J is not changed into^ , 
which it would have been, had it been a pada (VIII. 2. 66). 

Vari : — The words ^sr^^ is treated as Bha in the vedas vifhen the 
words ^ and ^>g follow. Thus ?«r^: ; ^^jrpq^ §# . Here had the word 
vfishan been treated as pada, the sr would not have been changed into OJ 
(See Rule VIII. 4. 37) ; and this ^ would have been dropped before the affix 
vasuby VIII.2. 7. 

?I%T man 11 %% « ^V^ " '^"^T, TH-3?^, ( "H^^) H 

^f%: II ?i^nTi*?f ^^fiTFfi ^«?^ vmvt jjnfw tr^ >rait *Rf^ u 

19. The Avord-tbrm ending in t or in s is 
called Bha when an affix with the force of matup ('whose 
is it,' ' or in whom it is ' V. 2. 94) follows. 

The word Bha is understood in this sOtra. Thus is the word 
'^f'l'^ having butter milk Norn. Sing. 3^WT «fl^: the herdsman having 
''""er milk, ft^wtR^fsnf^: the cloud full of thundej/ 'Sfe'iitsfi ^f#^|mous ; 

jyg Bha Cases. [ Bk. I. Ch. IV. § 20, 21. 

7,^ full of milk. Thus 3Tf^, + ^ = 5?f*j?«pr , ^rcr^ + fifSKV. 2. 12,) 

^ ,^^ By making these Bha, the operation of pada rule is 
debarred in their That is to say the final 5T of uda^vit &c., and the «^ 
of yaias &c., are not changed into T and T respectively, which had they been 
pada words would have been the case by the action of Sfitra VIII. 2. 39, 
and VIII. 2. 66. vh., :j?Pjf?Tand jRJJft^^ which are incorrect. 

^fM: II ^ii^o r jtf) gjsf^mftr ^55^ f%«r3 ^nifqr w^ 11 

20. Wonls like ayasmaya &c., arc valid forn-vs 
in tlic cliliandas (vcda). 

These words being taught here in the topic relating to pada and 
Bha, show that they have been properly formed in the chhandas by the ap- 
plication of the rules of Rha and pada. Thus 31^ + »ni = ^mw^T made of 
iron. Here the word M^ is treated as Bha and hence the ^ is not changed 
into r • Thus 4j^^<|«i ^ iron-made coat of mail. siZRTSJlf^ Hiiifii iron 
vessels. The present form of this word is M^M • In some places both 
these pada and Bha apply simultaneously. Thus in the word gjfRT formed 
by m'^ + f<![ I •■''<= i; '-^ f"""* ciiangcd into ^by treating the word rich as a 
pada. Then the word ^ar is treated as bha, and therefore the ^i^ not 
changed into »]; before ^r( . For had it been pada, the form would have been 
^p^wRigvat. These irregularly formed words occur only in the chhandas 
or Vedic literature. Thus ^ f THT^ WSmr ""fiT . 

"13 ^1^^^" '?'} '< ^^"^ " "51' '»5-^^'f\'> 

^f^. II ^^g^T^^Hffw I' 

21. In expressing multeity, a Plural case 
affix is employed. 

When it is intended to denote multeity those affixes should be 
employed after nouns and verbs, which denote plural number. Thus W» 
mP<| The Brahmins read. 

This rule applies to words which are cnpable of expressing numbers. 
Indeclinables (.\vyaya) do not admit of numbers, and consequently they * 
always in singular number which is the general form. 

■^^ fjT^^^g'^ II ^;? II if^Tf^ II fj-^^T: , fl^^' 

Tj^iW^ II 

J5K. I. Cii. IV. § 22-24. ] Numbers Karaka. ify 

22. The dual and singular case-affixes ai-e 
employed severally in the sense of duality and unity. 

This is also clear. When duality is to be expressed, a dual case- 
affix should be employed, and in the case of unit, the singular case-aflRx. 
Thus ^IfWSt f^'- the two Brahmins cook. jjnSPl: 1"^ the Brahmin cooks. 

^flSTJfl II 

23. Tlie phrase 'karaka' (meaning- 'in the 
.special relation to a word exi^ressing an action ') is to he 
understood in the following apliorisms. 

Any thing that helps towards the accomplishment of an action is a 
kiraka. Thus in 'cooking,' the fire, the furnace, the vessel, the cook are all 
helpers in the accomplishment of the acton. Thus ' llama cooks food in a 
vessel, by the fire from the furnace for his master.' Here Rama is agent 
karaka; 'food' is object kAraka; 'vessel' is a locative kAraka, fire is an ins- 
trumental kAraka, 'furnace' is the ablative kdraka and 'master' is the dative 


The word ' karaka' thus is synonymous with the word cause (hetu) 

and occasion (nimitta). All the various causes and occasions that are re- 
quired to complete an action will be kdrakas. Out of the seven cases in 
which a Sanskrit noun is declined, six represent such relation with an action. 
The Genitive or the sixth case can never be directly related with an action, 
and thus can never stand in the relation of a kAraka to a verb. 

^?r»T^T^ jtn^T5iH II ;^« ii q^f?T ii h^w, ^STm^, argt^T- 

'»*T^('BR%) II 

^rfr?^ II iJ<Ji.*»lf^i(H4HI^I«?W^4+l«<(M'( 11 

24. A noun whose i-elation to an action is 
that of a fixed p)oint from which departure takes place 
is called apadana or ahlation. 

This defines the Ablation or Apaddna kAraka. Thus q'Rr^Pnssf^ he 
■monies from the village. tRcrr^f^tf^ he descends from the mountain. ?iTOrS'»T: 
'osl his object. r«n^<Tfrr»t: fallen from chariot. The ApadAna takes the 5th 
•^^se-affix (II. 3. 28) and the above examples show this. When therefore 
•"s relation is to be expressed, ' the fixed point (like grima, parvata &c., in 
« above) which is the limit denoted by a word dependent on a verb, is 
«lled ablation.' . •wv.ia A , uf*- 

178 The Ablation. [ Bk. I. Ch. IV. § 25.3^ 

Vari : — The objects of verbs denoting ' aversion,' ' cessation ' and 
' negligf nee' are also called ablation. Thus: — ?rv)*jf*wiH)3 he dislikes in- 
justice; ^pjJjffi^THft he ceases from injustice. tjJifwjmfir he neglects justice, 

I5: , ( 1!K% 3Tm^5(^) II 

»r^ II 

25. In case of words imxjlying 'fear' and 

^protection from dan<j:er' that from wluch the danger 
or fear precedes is called Apadana kai-aka. 

The verbs signifying 'fear' or ' protection' govern the object feared 
of, or the danger to be protected from, in the ablative case. Thus ^t?»^ 
f%^ he is afraid of thieves, =^ltVur gftil^ he is agitated because of the thieves. 
'^ff'-^ i^m^ or TOf^ • He protects or saves from the thieves. 

Why do we say ' the cause of fear (bhaya-hetu) is put in the ablative 
case'? Observe ^tvv ft^ft or ^\n^ he fears or protects in the forest. 

T^it ^%T3: II ^^ II tr^lfn II tmit: , 5iT%T5: , (w 
ORtn^TW ) II 

2G. In the case of tlie verh par^ji, 'to "be 
tired or weary of,' that wliich hecomes uiibearahle, is 
called Apadana kdnika. 

When the verb fir to conquer, with the preposition pari has the 
sense of 'tjecoming tired or unbearable' it governs ablative case of the thing 
become unbearable. As ai«itr!TnT "ftTsnt^ he finds study unbearable. 

Why do we say 'that which becomes unbearable.' Observe ^I^ 
"ItnnjS he defeats the enemies. 

W^i^'srt'n »ftft^?f: II ^ II TJ^flT II UTTf-^ll^^' 

^fpOT: (^TO gpRT^e) II 

27. In case of verbs having th? sense of ' pi'^" 
ventiiig, the desired object from which one is prevented 
or warded off is called Ablation or ApMana karaka. 

The obstruction to one's natural inclination is called vSrana or pre- 
vention. As nt*^ Tr ^ilft or fw^*^ he wards off or withholds the cow 

Bk. l Ch. IV. § 28-30.] The Ablation. 179 

Why do we say 'the object desired' is put in the ablative case ' ? 
Observe »rf ^K^tft' %»r he wards off the cow in the field. 

28. When coTicoiilineiit is indicated, the per- 
son whose sight one wishes to avoid, is called Apadana 

Thus 3'n».?n'?IT^?fJ^ or ftsftT^ he conceals or hides from the teacher; 
so that the teacher may not find him out or see Iiim. 

Why do we say 'when concealment is indicated'? Observe ^nf 
if^f^T^he does not wish to see the thieves. Here the term chauran is in 
the accusative case. 

Why has the word ichclihati been used in the text ? The ap4d4na 
kAraka is to be used there only, where one desires that he should not be 
seen, yet he shows himself. 

SinW^TtliU^ II ^^ II q^Tfil II 5RT-^mT, ^?ra-^T5>, 

(^0 anw) II 

^frf: II s'ranf ^1^^ ?f sTre^rnrr ti<'*H'*H4hH*iif >Rrft 11 , 

29. TJie nonn denoting the teacher is called 
Apadana oi* ahlation. in relatioii to the action signiijing 
formal teaching. 

The word ^iRf^nrtT means teacher, and m|m4)'I means acquiring know- 
ledge in the regular way. Thus j ' jHOM r i ^fl'^ or smm^tfw he learns from the 

Why do we say 'when meaning to learn'? Observe sj;^ ^ptft he 
hears the player. 

Wf5|«^: H^: II 3« II ^«TfH II 'srfsf-SB^:, Pisft: , 

(%ro ^snjo) It 

^Rf: II 3|a.<|tJt4HW|H: Ifrfr JIH<IM: 'WiT'lf ^iff^'- 'KIT'f ifff: fnWTnKTnfT^- 
^?f»Rfit II 

30. The prime cause of the agent of the verb 
Jan to be born, is called Apadana. 

That which is the Agent ( ^ni ) of the verb jan, is called lufipSfH : 
^^^ which is the prime-cause ( Jifrf^ ) of the agent ^(or pr<»duet)'6ftb| foot jto ^ 

180 The Dative. [ Bk. I. Ch. IV. § 31,3, 

is put in the ablative case. As ijjp^Str •smut , the arrow is produced from 
horn »f|fiI?rr?^^f»^'Trat the scorpion is produced from cowdung. 

^: uflat: II %% II ^^rfn II ig^i? , wra: , {^9 srme) 11 

31. The sotii'co of the agent of the verb bhii, 
to become, is called Apadaiia. 

The phrase ' of the agent (kartuh,) is understood here. The word 
JWT means the source or that from which anything ariso.=.. As ftJIT^niT 
llH^ the Ganges has its source in the Himalayas, asnc^tt*-^ ftiRftr sPRft. 
The Hydaspes has its source in Cashmere. 

^gWKj Tjirfflnf^f w ^n?[R»» 11 ^^ II q^f?! II ^vH^T, ^^, 
srfflSfar , W' , ^Ti^^^^, (^To) II 

^^: II *A«iJI , ^vnUW^ 5fTlt ?nTf>lJ>f% ?R?iR* ^W^H*i|f >nftf II 
1lfii«hH II fihiirM^UJ ift SB-rtl^lH II 

^tRNpt II 'skv!: <*<i!j*iirr Trfinrr ^wt^ '^ crwht 11 

32. The person whom one wishes to connect 
with the object of giving, is called Sampradaua or re- 

Though the word aK^orr in the siitra is indefinitely used, meaning 
' with the object' yet it is not every object of any verb. The object must bn 
of the verb ' to give.' 

As ^r^^f^stra it ^jfrf he gives the cow to the teacher. ini!J4<hM f^^ 
<(^(fif he gives alms to the boy. Here the words ' cow' and ' alms' are the 
object of the verb 'give'; the persons connected with this object are the 
teacher and the boy respectively. These latter are in the Dativ6 case aiui 
take the 4th case-affix. 

Vai-t : — The person whom one wishes to connect with the action 
should also be called recipient. As VFfnt f^T^^ he censures for the sake 
of Sraddha. jpjRl fllHJ^ he prepares for battle. <f?d jft she sleeps for her 

Vart : — 2. After some verbs (especially to sacrifice), the object 
(karma) gets the name of Instrument (karana) and the recipient (Sara- 
praddna) is called object (karma). 

Thus <i^ 5t ?nj# or <r§ WW <RTfir he sacrifices with an animal to 
Rudra, which is equivalent to, ' he gives an animal to Rudra.' 

^'"*'" ' '^^^^P^'^'^^'^ "^^ *wn!j|r nts^ fwijRKrr* «iwmif »w<* •' 

BK. I. Ch. IV. § 33-35 ] The Dative. 181 

33. In case of verbs having the signification 
of the root ruch 'to like,' tlie person or thing that is 
pleased or satisfied, is called Sampi-adana or i-ecepient. 

The verbs having similar meaning (artha) as the word ruchi or 
'liking' are ^'^pJ . A desire or longing caused by something else, is called 
ruchi- As IqTTTJT rf^W ^5V: the sweet meat pleases Devadatta. JRIT'TW 
^^ if^'- Yajnadatta likes Apupa. Here modaka is the agent that draws 
out the longing which is latent in Devadatta. 

Why do we say ' the person pleased '? Observe l^^rnr rf^ <ft <t s K: 
ifftf . Devadatta likes modak in the way. The word pathi being in the 
7th case. 

«:snj55^5!naitrt Tftt^^rm: 11 ^« 11 ti^rf^ 11 sf^^-vj^- 

34. In case of verbs slagh to praise, hnu to 
tak(! away, stbd to stand, and s^aj) to cnrse, the person 
whom it is intended to inform of or persuade by, these 
fictions, is called Sampradana. 

The word jfttflipTPT means whom it is desired to make known or in- 
form. As $4^t1|«| ^^hT^^ he praises Devadatta, i.e., while praising Devadatta, 
lie wishes that he should know this praise. So also with other verbs. As 
Wrra SP^ he hides from (wishing that Devadatta should know of it) Deva- 
datta. ^^^rTTir f^8^ she offers herself to Devadatta for (sexual embrace, 
wishing that he should know of it). $'»fTTrT V^ he reviles Devadatta. 

Why do we say 'the person whom it is intended to inform'?. Observe 
^'TTRt ![5?nTf?r Tfif . Here pathi is in the Locative case. 

No iv^o) II 

35. lu the case of the verb dhari ' to owe,' 
the creditor is called Sampradana. 

The word g^Jf"^ is compounded of two words gTPT best and ^ej debt 
leaning (whose debt is best) creditor, as opposed to ^JV^cS debtor. As 
''"^f V^ ^trtffrf he owes hundred to Devadatta. 

Why do we say ' the creditor is called Recepient'? Observe ^^R'^nT 
"•^l^int he owes hundred to Devadatta in the village. Here village .j% 
" ""e Locative case. ■ »» i*#>W5; ' 


The Dative. [ Bk. I. Ch. IV. § 36-38. 

{mo ^T9) n 

^jt>wmii ^^^^ In the case of the verh sprih to desire, 
the thins- desired is called Sampradana karaka. 

The verb CTf to desire, belongs to the churAdi class. The word 
governed by this verb takes the Dative case. As 3^^: ?»f^ he des.res 
flowers, T^^; ^-J^tfft he desires fruits. a „™^ , 

Why do we say "the thing desired.' Observe 5^^ ^# fl«Jfi.ft he 
desires flowers in the forest. Here ^ is in the Locative case. 

fif^: II i^vrrewkf sOT^ V sj^sRtTOTrqat* tiH^H+i^pprffr ii 

37. Inthecascofthevorhs having the sense 
ofkmdhtobeangry, dnih to injnre, irshya to envy 
asiiya to detract; the person against whom the feeling oi 
anger &c., is directed is called fc^ampradana. 

Krudh means non-tolerance, droha means doing wrong or hurl, 
irshya jealousy; and asflya means to find out the faults of another. The 
^•ordkopa includes all the above four sorts of agtions. Asm^^^' 
5Wm-|^or^^heisangry upon, (....with) or bears mahce to, or s 
jSun, or fin-ds out the faults of Devadatta. Here Devadatta ,s ,n 

'''why r we say • against whom the feeling of anger is directed.' 
Because if there be no feeling of anger, then these verbs will "ot govern k 
live case, but the accusative. Thus HT^^ he is Jea ous of h.s w ^^ 
,-..., does not wish her to be seen by others. Here the word bhArya -s m 
accusative case. 

^J^ ^:<W^V. ^^ U \^ U q^ II ^-IfT- 

38.' But in the case of the verhs knidh aiw 
druh, when preceded by prepositions, the Person «g^"^, 
^^ .. , . whoro %)^ feeling of anger &c., is directed is callea j^^ 

k i"i,ir;;iiiiiiiii ■' ' ■''•''■'■'■■-■ 

Bk. I- Ch. IV. § 39, 40. ] Sampradana Karaka. 183 

This aphorism is a proviso to tho hist, ixnd enjoins accusative case, 
where by the last, there would have been dative. The word upasrishta 
means having upasarga or preposition. As ?^^nfiirfw.irfff ^!lf^|Wf^ . When 
used simply, those verbs of course govern the Dative case by the last 
aphorism. As J^^rftRr 5|«r^ . 

?:TVT^?Tjt4^V fsm^t II |«! II TT^m II ^Tfvt-'|!j^T: , t|^ , 

xkvps: , i^^o mxr^je) 11 

fl ^^ H^ ^f^ ^^^ JS*!^ II 

3!). ill the en so ol" tlie verbs nidh, to proxii- 
tialo^ and iksli. to look to, the person al)ont whose f^ood 
or bad Ibrtuiae qnestions are is called Sampradana. 

The word vipraina means literally asking various questions ; and 
denotes questioning about the good or bad luck of another. Thus t^^prlT^J 
rR?rffir-f7T^ ffiT: Garga is favorable to or looks to Devadatta, the sense is that 
being casually asked by Devadatta, he reflects upon the good or bad fortune 
of Devadatta. 

Another explanation of this sulra is, the agent that puts various ques- 
tions is put in the dative case. -A-s firs^tTJT rraTRr or ffrt m r^^- meaning, the 
pupil asks the teacher various questions to resolve his doubts, and the teacher 
answers those questions to the pupil. 

*V v^ ©^ • \ *s.' 

5^: , ^m , ^'ff} i^O ^JIc[T9) II 

^Itt: II Rf?rsfl?;??$9f '^rji^ ^iTfr^: ^PR* ^iifR-^rsf H^ aftf?f t^^ ^^ 11 

40. In tho ease of tlie verb Sru pvee(Tded by 

ttro prepositions prati and an ; and meanint^ ' to j)roniisc,' 

the person to whom iiromise is made (lit: the x^erson who 

Was tlie agent of the former v(3rb) is called Samx)radana. 

The compound verb Jjfipii and STW means to promise. A promise is 
"lade on the motion or at the instance of another. The person so proposing 
w'lo was the agent of the former action becomes the recipient of the promise 
'" the latter case. As t^^R Tf TiWIfJ'Trf^ — STPqcfrf^ he promises a cow to 

*^W ^^^ ,5^) y 

184 ^ Instrument Karaka. [ Bk. I. Ch. IV. § 41.43. 

41. In the case of the verb gri, preceded by 
ana and prati, and meaning '■to onconrage by repeatmg,' 
the pei'sou Avho was the agent of the prior action; which 
is repeated, is called Sainjiradana. 

The phrase purva.sya kartA of the last is to be read into this aphorism. 
As jtT J5»JCjr^ • They encourage the Hotri, i.e., the Hotri priest invokes 
first, the others then follow him in invocation and by so doing encourage him. 
The word M5IT; and vtfrfm: mean encouraging the invoker, 

42. That whicli is esxiecially anxlliaxy in tin- 
accomplishment of tlie action is called tJie Instrument 
or karana kPiraka. 

As (frWd WrrfcT he cuts with the sickle. TK^t fsTpT he divides by the 
axe. The instrument '4iK4i takes the third-case atti.x. 

Why do we say 'especially? Because in the case of the other 
k4rakas, the non-mention of the word 'especially' makes it possible for ii< 
to use those cases, in not their strict sense. Thus though the locative cnse 
should be used where strictly a thing is located in another, yet we may say 
*\^l*\i «fK: the herdsman in the Ganges, not strictly in, but on the banks of, 
the Ganges, a^iri^j^ the family of frogs in the well, /.c. on the sides of 
the well. 

^f^: II ^: trr>i^r?T*f ^grrt^ ?R^;^?f5f >TfPr "sratm^r cFntRrif '^ 11 

43. That which is especially auxiliary in tlio 
accomplishment of the action, of the verb div to play, is 
called karma object, as well as karaiia, Instrument. 

Tiie present sutra ordains accusative case, where by the operation 
of the last aphorism there ought to have been Instrumental case. The force 
of IT in the sfitra is to indicate that karana is also to be read into this. A."; 
»^«r^^ #WJ^ or 5p| ^fs^ he plays the dice or with the dice. 

^rf^T^ ^"n^H^T^m^tim ii 88 ii Tj^if^ it trft^'T'^' 

Bk. I. Ch IV. § 44-47. ] Adhikarana Karaka. 185 

44. Ill the case of hiring on wages, that 
wliich is espociull.y atixillaiy in the accomplishment of 
tlic action of the verb parikii, ' employing on stipnlatecl 
wages,' is oi)tionally called Sarapradana. or reciinent. 

This ordains dative case, where there would otherwise have been 
Instrumental case. The word TR'SfT^T'T means to engage tor a limited period 
oil payment of wages, and not absolute purchase for all lime. As ^PTni 

fR^r j^Tifff or yj^^ Tft-^hfr J^srT? ■ 


w^Tftif^gRT<w II «t^ II tr^i% II 3TTvrT<:, a?f^- 
'^vn\, (^Tff) II 

flir»Twf« II 

45. That which is related to tlie a.ction as the 
sit(j where the action is porlbrmed l^y reason of the agent 
or the object being in lliat place is called Adhikarai.ia 
or the Lo(;ation. 

That in which the action is supported or located is called Adhdra. 
As ^> sjf^^ he is seated on the mat. cK? jf^ he is sleeping on the mat. fliirt^r 
l'^ he cooks in the pot. The Adhikarana takes the 7th case-affix. 

sifvrTift^^'wreT m^ ii ^% ii tr^ifn ii arf^-sf^-^x- 

vfrf: II ^rRrTtWf ■sjtiF ^^f srra fc^tqr tjt^jra^^^mr^ 5fir4^?f t^ ii 

4G. That which is tlie site of the verb's si to 
lie down, stha to stand, as to sit, wheti pi-ecoded by the 
proposition adhi, is howevtu- called karma karaka or 

This ordains accusative case, where otherwise by the last sfitra there 
would have been the Locative case. As iTWTfJrjft ^rfJrfttffR^ or ^^!ire?f he 
Its down, occupies or lies in the village. 

''. (^0 3Tivn^;: ^^) II 

^: II '^if¥>r^^ R?j^rrvTrff ?r?fj?^rtaif air^aif h^ ii 

47. That which is the site of tlie verb abhi- 
^■"ivii^ to enter, is also called karina-karaka. -.^IV iftl'.j 



Karma Karaka. [ Bk. I. Cn. IV. § 48, 49. 

As irrmrf^iftft^ lie resorts lo tlie village. This is an optional rule, 
as the word " option " of sutra 44 should be read into it. Thus we have the 
following forms also -n^jprf^t^r: resorting to sin. «jf??ip5ljftfttl[r: resorting to 
good. The rule here is that of vyavasthita vibhAsa, 

^f%: II OT ^1 ^Pj '^r? ff§^ i7?iT g^trrmft jt^st^^k* ^^^jt h^ n 

48. That wliu'h is the ^Itv. oftlio verl) vas t(. 
dwell, when preceded 1).y upa, aim, a,dhi, and ah, is call(?(l 

As iTPmi^^jfir t^r the army dwells in the village <T^?r;7^^-815?«ffl- 

^rf^TTHpT or W^^fff. 

7^;.; ;_Prohibition must be slated when the verb ^ means "fast- 
ing," or does not denote lying in a locality. As ott ^T^ra he fasts in 
the village. Here the verb upavasati governs the locative case and not 

the accusative. 


49. That wliich it is intended should he most 
affected hy the act of the agent is called the object 
or karma. 

That which is especially desired by the agent to be accomplish«l 
by the action is called karma. As ^ ^'rf% He makes the mat. wi T=5f« 
he goes to the village. Why do we say " desired by the agent" ? Obscru 
n^^ swrm he ties the horse in the gram held. Here gram is no dou^ 
most desired by the horse, but as horse is not the agent of the verb, it 
word m takes the locative case. Why do we use the word " most ■ 
Observe r^m%^ 5?.# be eats the food along wilhthe milk. Here milk -^^^^ 
doubt desired by the agent, but not being the principal object desired, ta 
the Instrumental case. , ^^ 

Though the word ^ was understood in this s6tra by anuvntu ^^^ 
the last sfitra, the repetition of this word here is to indicate that the a ^^ 
vritti of the word adhdra does not extend to this sfitra, because ^^ '^^ j,,^ 
not take ^ anuy|itti of the word karma into this sfitra, we do not a 

Bk. I. Ch. IV. § 5o> 5'- ] Karma Karaka. 187 

anuvritti of any word of the previous sfitra into tiiis. Had we taken the 
anuvritti of the word karma from the last sfitra, then we could use the accu- 
sative case in those limited instances, where the word is capable of taking 
the Locative case also, but not in other cases. Thus while we could very 
well say ir? 'jfi'^J^ he enters the house, we could not say srf^sf Tsf^ he cooks 
the food, ?r^ fWrf he drinks saktu. By repeating the word karma in this 
iiitra, such examples become valid everywhere. The karma-karak, takes 
the second case-affix. 

50. If tltat which js not mteiided to bo most 
afTcctcd hy the act l:)ecom(;s however similiarly con- 
nected with tlie action it also is called karma. 

That which is not desired by the agent is anipsita or object of 
aversion. Thus ^ vt^^rf^ he cats poison, "^frTtr^aif^ He sees the thieves. 
3R^»T«ai; ^'^T'Wr WTO'Tf^ going to the village, he plucks the roots of the 


^r%: II ^^fforf ^ ?r«»^nra> ?R^4?r?f >t^ ii 

51, And that lolraka wJiich is not spoken 
of as coming under any of the special relations of abla- 
tion &e., is also called karjna. 

There are some verbs in Sanskrit which take what is called an 
aliathita object, in addition to their usual direct one. As its name indicates. 
It IS that object which is not otherwise kathita or mentioned by way of any 
of the other case relations, such as HTT^TT 'STf^aRT'l &c. and is, therefore 
optional. If the noun capable of taking this akathita object be not intended 
or any other case, it is put in the Accusative case with such verbs ; as, ^j 
W^ <nf: he milks the cow (her milkj t<imq ypif% irf ' he confines the cow to 
"t fold.' Here ^ and jur are akathita or optional objects. If the speaker 
<oes not intend to have this object, the words will be put in their natural 
"-■ases ; as, ^?^: (ablative) TiTtllrf^T, wt (locative) 8nFJ!J% »Tf. 

The roots that are capable of governing two accusatives are mentioned 
'" the following kirikA .—wmm f^ WS ^f^ i?fe3 f^ S ffm f^ Rwi fUPt 11 tK^irar 

188 Karma Karaka. [ Bk. I. Ch. IV. § 52, 

In the case of the roots ?g^ ' to milk ' SfT^ ' to beg,' tw ' to cook ' 
^tjT^ 'to punish,' ^tj ' to obstruct or confine' ipsg; ' to ask,'f^r'to collect' 
^to tell sjr^ 'to instruct' fsr 'to win' (as a prize of wager) jj^j 
' to churn ' «t^ ' to steal,' and also in the case of sff, f , fif, and ^f^ all mean- 
ing ' to take or carry ' and others having the same signification, that noun 
which, besides the direct object, is affected by the verb, is put in the Accusa- 
tive case ; as, Jit %{N t'^- (S. K.) ' he milks the cow ' ; ^ VTf^ ^v^f. 

'He begs the earth of Bali' ; similarly «'^<HIfff?!T T«rf%, nJlfsi JpH ?irj?rf|, 

snrf^ m^, %<-Ji \{t<Pi\v i^fnf^, ^w^spi j'sorrf^; wmmi ^^- ^rfsr-aF^-^. 

^ are examples of the other roots in order. 'trcnF'irv^HI'r^ qfi?: ^f, ^- 
^^i Prtr^, wf ^^WK'n^ffjH ^r^trft f^mm\ are instances of this kind of 
object, because >iri or m'^ and ftif^ or ^ have the same meaning as ^ and 
?rPI, the roots given in the kasikA. 

Obs.— The roots f^, JT, <m Jiu , ^r^I., fsr, yi; P and ever ?rf^ arc of 
alVery rare occurrence as governing two accusatives, in classical literature, 
though given in the above list. 

•The roots mentioned above and others having the same sejiw, 
take two objects. One of them is principal, and the other, secondary. In 
the case of the first twelve roots from j? to 5^, the nouns Tif : , W^r , "FBlf^, 
wvrr, &c. are principal objects, and irf, ^, ^t^, ^ftrf^fir &c. are secondary 
objects, for they can, according to the speaker's volition, be put in other 
cases. And in the case of the last four roots ^jfT, i.^ the principal oI)jecl 
and iipf the secondary. Thus that which is necessarily put in the acuiw- 
tive case in order to complete the idea of the verb, is the principal object, 
and that which may be put in the Accus.itive case, depending upon ihe 
speaker's'vvill, is called the secondary object. 

xT^fn 11 nr%-5f|-iic!i«r'9T5i-3T^-8j??[5R^^!B^i!Ttin*r^, ^sif^W, ^•, 

^fM: II »n?rakf ^fEwW ifni^gpirnkt ^ trmsrf mm^ ^f^sKPW 'rr^'TI 

flif*?*M II tmph ift srwiT: trft$»ir ^^f^-. 11 
mf^'^Pl.ii ^tr Rraff *<l*tiinf ^qis^JT II 
*rif^*« 11 ^1^ «3nJt: Jtflrqnr i^wnr: 11 
irrf^mi^ im«fr fikRh^r u^iij q^K^n: II 

52. Of the verbs having the sense of 'mo- 
pn " kijowledge or information' and 'eating,' and ot 

BK I. Ch. IV. § 52, ] Karma Karaka. 189 

verbs that have some literary work; for their object, and 
of intransitive verbs, that which was the agent of the 
yorb in its primitive (non-ni or non-causal state), is 
called the object (karma) in its causative state (when tiie 
verb takes the affix (ni). 

In the case of roots that imply ' motion,' ' knowledge ' or 'informa- 
tinii' or sonic kind of 'eating,' and other roots having a similar sense ; also 
ol roots that have some literary work for their object, and of intransitive 
roots, that which is the subject of the verb in its primitive sense is put in the 
Accusative case in the causal, the object remaining unchanged ; e. g. 

Primitive. Causal. 

Rut in mf^ CRT »ftf^T (Rama makes Govind go) if some body else 
(fir^°r f^) prompts Rima to do this, we shall have to say f^s^ftiflr o^CT 
ifrf^fjipraf^ 'Vishnu mitra prompts Rdma to cause Govind to go.' Here 
'Rama' is not put in the Accusative case, because it is the subject of the 
verb, not in its primitive, but causal, sense. 

Patanjali, in his MahabhAshya, adds this explanation on the meaning 
ofthe word ?rs?s(>3- in the sutra »if5iwf« &c. ?T5(f^4 may- be either jj^ *Tf 
ftRf or i^rsft ^«rf SIW' 

When we take the former interpretation, the roots ^Tffrf (^ ) %if^ 
(*|) and ![rsfra# (<lenom. of ^r5?) have to be excluded from the rule ; as, g?tft 

''TH: fRrafirtr^^T; ?iv?frr-3js?raw-5?TTT: ; w??if%-?r«?r?Rrf^-«^f^f • And the 

roots ^ , jTT with f% and awr with 3<T must be included in the rule; as, qojfft 
^^Tsrt^-STJPrif-^^^nT: ^!ra^f?r-ftlTPraf?r-a4riH^|rt-?qTfR; ■ Whtn we adopt the 
second interpretation, the roots iT^ , HT«r with ?p and 5W with fq- , must be 
included in the rule ; 5n'^-ft5nft-?IPir<r^-$1^: , l^'Hlfir-f^Sinraf^-^fPTra^rfir- 

There are several exceptions and counter-exceptions to the preceding 
■■"le, which are important. 

Vart : — The causals of sff ' to lead' and «j?^ ' to carry,' do not govern 
'he Accusative, but the Instrumental ; e. g. v^^ >t(T JUrf^ qfft "n A servant 
<^*rrics a joajj Hf^qr HTT Hnnr^ ?niRrfW «fT (S. K.) (He) causes a servant to 
'^''y a load. 

190 Karma Karaka. [ Bk. I. Ch. IV. 5 52 

Vnrt: — But T?^, when it has for its subject in the causal a word 
signifying a 'driver,' obeys the general rule; as, ^mt rU ^^d . Horses 
draw the chariot, qf^ ^HT'T ^(^fl'qff: ■ 

Vart:—{h). The causais of the roots ^ and ^r^ ,' to eat, ' govern 
the Instrumental case; e.g. JiHWufrt ^gr^fir^r . The boy eats his food. 
qawiwtwo fff ^rf^ ^ • (He) causes the boy to eat his food. 

Vart: — (c). vR^ , when it has not the sense of f^r ' injury to a 
sentient thing,' governs the Instrumental ; as, HW^ fl^ ?^?M: , >I^'!tfn frri' 

5^^T ; but Hw^ ?t^pr^5ft#:, >reni^ ^sft ^t, ?prr^ . 

By 'intransitive' roots n>cntioned above is meant such roots as arc 
not by their nature capable of governing an object other than that of 
' time,' ' place' &c., and not those roots which, though transitive, may some- 
times be used intransitively according to the speaker's volition, or -when their 
meaning is, quite evident ; as, f^^fT: <r^: "T"^ . Here fV^ , though transi- 
tive, is used without an object, because it can be easily understood ; hence 
f^5(^ Tra^ and not f%f«lrC ; but »TRr«TRr?Tf% l^ri . 

In forming the passive construction of casual verbs, the princi- 
pal object in the causal, which is the subject (agent) of the verb in its primi- 
tive sense, is put in the Nominative case, and the other object remains 
unchanged ; c. g. 

Primitive. Causal Active. Causal Passive. 

Rama goes to a village. (Mo) causes Rama to Rama is caused to go &c 

go to a village. 

The servant prepares a mat. (He) causes the servant The servant is made to 

to prepare a mat. prepare &c. 

Govind sits for one month. (He makes Govind sit &c. Govind is made to sit &c. 
(a). But in the case of roots that imply ' knowledge ' ' eating,' and 

those that have a literary work for their object, the principal object is [)"' 
n the Nominative case, and the secondary in the Accusative, or vice versa 
:. g. TTTT^S' ^ ^r>T^Tfrl ' he makes Mananaka know his duty ' ; mCJ^ ^ 
il^^rt orirrcpRf w ^-^ 'M. is made known his duty' or 'duty is made 
:nown to M.' ; ^H^sf HOnrf^ ' he makes the boy eat food: ' ^iO'?') ^^^ °' 

With regards to roots that govern two accusatives, the rules 
nentioned above hold good in their case also ; i.e., those roots thS' 
mply motion &c., govern the Accusative of the subject of the primitive 
;ase, and others, the Instrumental case, sometimes ; as, ^if sft ^^ 'T' 

BK. I. Ch. IV. § 53, 54. ] Agent defined. 191 

^rfl«: ( t^9(t ) qti^f Tfit qwi?f ^irTO^f^ ' (God) makes Vamana ask Bali for 
Earth.' jflTTrjarf ^mt frfff; ( ^TPff ) nti »f>^ ^srf sfirc frr?f^ . '(The master) 
makes the cowherd take the sheep to the town.' 

^ *t<«-q?K^iIT^ II ^^ II TT^f?r II ^-^: 9?W5r?T?:'TOTH , 
(«W 3»f^ ^^ ^ ^ «b4) II 

^f%: II frS: *0<>*ii"flwrat^: grfff g^ o^j^^ r^^nr^t ^r^aiff >wfw 11 

53. The agent of the verb in its non-ni (pri- 
mitive) form in the case of hri to lose and kri to make, 
is optionally called karma or object when these verbs 
take the affix. 

nf ( Causal ). 
Primitive. Causal. 

As ftft Hit fim^*: fTC^ >wr >miK* or « if m^j:; r • 

The boy takes the load. He causes the servant to take the load. 

'"^rf'^ 5"^^: mnfflf aK? N?W or $if?#T . 

Devadatta makes the mat. He causes Devadatta to make the mat. 

Vari: — The subject of the primitive verbs ^Jfi{^l^ and str^ when used 
n the Atmanepada, is either put in the Accusative or Instrumental case in the 

causal: as, 

Primitive. Causal. 

1^-T^ 5^ tl^W WftWTT^ fjf tW* or 5^^^ . 

5evadatU bows down to the Guru. He makes Devadatta bow down to the 


■•^f^ 'fWT TnfT!T»t . TO^^ ^wrr«T rrsn'T or ^^^ ^: . 

he servants see the king. He makes the servants see the king. 

««m: Vni II «<8 II TJ^ffil ^^m^: ^r^ I («T«) II 

54. Whatever the speaker chooser as the in- 
fipendent, principal and absolute sonree of action is 
=^lled karta or agent. 

"^ agent is absolute and unconditioned, as, $«|^: <r^Pr DevadattJi 
" 5 ?«mft <r^rf^ the pot cooks. 

192 NlPATA DEFINED. [ Bk. I. CH. IV. § 55.5^ 

55. That which is the mover thereof, i. e,, of 
the independent source of action, is called Hetu or 
cause, as well as kartd or agent. 

Thus ttiKqft he causes to be made, (TTtft' he cause to be taken, 

When hetu is employed as agent the verb is put in the causative form (III. t. 26). 

The force of the word "^ is to give both names to the mover of an 

agent, VIZ., Hetu and karti: otherwise by sfitra I of this Chapter only one name 

would have been given. 

The Particles. 

^f%: II irfwiTTlH. ifir ^?<lf« Rlit^Wfrf^^rf^ *JHg»fH»qm : Pim 

^ar t^ t^^twtr: II 

56. From this point forward upto the apho- 
rism Adhirl-6vare (1.4.97), all that we shall say is to be 
understood to have the name of Mpata or Particles. 

The word Jit^ of this sfltra serves the same purpose as the word cha 
of the last ; namely, it makes the words Gati, upasarga and karmapravachniya 
take two names, i. e,, their one name as well as the name Nipdta. The letter 
r in iffifNo^ is to remove doubt, i. e., aphorism I. 4. 97 should be taken as 
limit, aod not sutra III. 4. 13 which has the word iswari also. 

v^ mn n «^i9 II v^fk II ^-3n^: 9m% (f5rm?n) » 
^f%: II ^i^^ ftMwwsT *nT<?ar t "^wrt f^»# ii 

57. The word cha ' and,' &c., are called Nipata 
or Particles, when they do not signify substances. 

The following are particles (nip4ta) "ti ' and' ^ 'or' f 'an expletive 
^ 'vocative particle ' ^ 'only' 'exactly.' ?nr^' so, thus,' sr^nr 'certainly' 
5j![T\ 'continually,' ^I^^^^ 'at once,' v^ 'repeatedly,' WTW aKJH 'excel- 
lently,' ^ft?^ ' abundantly,' #qr%r'if' ^rer'if,' [the n is Vdicatory], "* 
'where,' fn 'there,' ^d^ 'what if?,' !ff 'no,'fWf ' ah,' ! l^f*^^ [ IT*^] 
srftpi ' do not' ^it^ ' indeed I' unj ' do not,' jpj ' not,' vj^ ' as much as, 
«W['so much,' »t sJ I 'perhaps,' ^ (disrespectful interjection) wK** 


I. Ch. IV. ^ 58. ] Prepositions oEPrNED. 10S 

ftftt (interj.) ' oblation to the gods,' «Wf ' oblation to the manes,' forefathers 
,,p 'oblation to the gods,' ^ffJ^ (mystical ejaculation typical of the three great 
deWes of the Hindu mythology), w«j' thouing,' rtqt^ ' thus,' introducing an ex- 
posilion, (ISW ' certainly,' fUrsr ' indeed,' aw ' now ' auspicious inceptive), Bf 
'excellent,' ?<T (attached to the present tense gives it a past signification), 
»t^'fie'5If?3TW^$^^- The vowels a, d, i, t, u, fi, e, ai, o, au, when, as 
interjections, they indicate various emotions, differ from the ordinary vowels. 

il (??)> "Tf?' "=^' 'f^' ^^' ^' ^' ^' ('^)' '^' '^' '^' ^^' *^' 1^' 5' 

5, ?ft, CT, TfT, ^, "^T, ^, [ ^, '^^, fjj^, f^m^^ ■] ^^SR^. 5»^^. ( S^ ) , 

ji*, ij«i«^, «!PT, tmr?!;, ^tj?!^, sr^'i;, ^^. ^r»^. ^^. I^. ^W^. t^. ift. 
ntw, ^tuTT, ^:, ^, ^^, '3^5, ?r, t , ( t ), ^frffl^ m: ^1' "Sf^- f«^f. ""l' "^^ 
af, ( ^5>t^), ^rrg^, a^^, t?, ?fnr^, ( >ir3rat ), 3rw, ait, ^r?, ("^15), ^, jjt;, ^. 

»?^, i^, ^t^, fiCT, ^:, t . 

To the list of indeclinables belong also what have, without the reality, 
the appearance of an upasarga (No. 59), of a word with one of the termina- 
tions of case or persons and of the vowels. In the example M^^-^H^ avdattam 
'given away,' the ST^ is not really an upasarga, for if it were, the word (by VII. 
4. 47) would be MTH^; avattam. In the example ahanyuh 5r?f : ' egotistic,' 
the ahaA is not identical with the aham ' I,' terminating in a case affix— be- 
cause a pronoun, really regarded as being in the nominative case, could not 
be the first member, in such a compound. In the example, siRn^fta asti- 
kshirS, a cow or the like 'in which there is milk,' the asti^wmust be regard- 
ed as differing from the word asti, ' is,' which ends with the affix of the 
third person singular, otherwise it could not have appeared as the first 
memher in a compound. 

^f%: II wT^ft 'Hfs^ fvirmm h^?i m 

58. The words pra &o., are called Nipata when 
not signifying substances. 

The following is the list of Jir^^t: or ' prepositions:' U , <m , M7 , ^^T, ITJ, 

'^ ' ^, , 5^ , ^ ,■ 'Sire' , ^ , 'rf^ . «Tfir . 'TfJr , f , 3s, , «rft . «rf^ . Tft . '"T • ' 

The making of this a distinct aphorism, when it could well have been 
'"eluded in the last, is for the sake of giving the Pra &c., words two names, 
"amely, those of NipAtas, as well as upasargas under certain circumstances, 
'■ ^; when they are in composition with verbs. Not so however the chA &c., 
words. They never get the designation of upasargas. 

When these words signifying substances they are not Nipfttas. As TO 
'^^ the excellent army conquers. Here the word <m is not a Nip4ta. 

194 Upasarga and Gati. [ Bk, I. Ch. IV. § 59, 60. 

(«n[U:) II 

mf^SKH II M«S«?*^>l ti«*IHt II 

59. The words pra &c., get the designation 
of upasarga or prepositions, when in composition with 
a verb. 

As q + H^ = wn^ • Here the dental 7 is changed into cerebral 
jj because of the if getting the designation of upasarga (See sfttra VIII. 4. 14), 
Similarly uRiyq^, UUJIOcK', iRiDlfl*: • 

Why do we say when in composition with a verb? When in compo- 
sition with a noun they are not called upasargas. As ifiralr 'tnpRtJ^'wS^^rrfr 
= siTRPKif^JJ: a country destitute of a leader. Here sr is not changed into t. 
Thus while !l<>tr!r«ir: means 'a leader 'the term ifsTra^: means destitute of a 
leader ; though both have the same radical elements : — pra in one is an upa- 
sarga, in the other a Nipita pure and Simple. 

Vart: — The word Ji^ff should be included in the list of upasargas. 
As »r^l^: = 1W^: given by Marut. t(^ + ^ + ff! = f^^ -1- tf + 3 
(VII. 4. 47). Here Marut being treated as an upasarga, though it does not 
end with a vowel, the ^ is replaced by n by rule VII. 4. 47 which declares 
' «T the substitute of ^ which is called ghu, when it is preceded by an upa- 
sarga that ends in a vowel, and is followed by an affix beginning withK 
which has an indicatory k.' 

It might be objected, that as fr^ does not end with a vowel, sfltra 
VII. 4. 47 does not apply. To this we say that otherwise the giving the 
designation of upasarga to 1?:?^ is superfluous; and in order that this should not 
be so, the fact of its not ending with a vowel is overlooked. 

Vart: — The particle ^ should be included in the list of upasargas. 
Thus M^f + 'TT + 55IB; = "iesj (HI. 3- 106). Here because M'^is treated as an 
upasarga, that sutra 111. 3. 106 is made applicable. 

lf?l^ II ^0 II ^^{k II ifer:, %, («T^tr: f^HT^lit) II 

mf^?if^ II attfrsFr ?r«^ «?5jit!t^ ii 

vrfrfsBi): II jsTvret g5?fir «i^jft m^ ff% f ^rnpt 11 

60. The words pra &c., are called also Ga^^- 
when in composition with a verb. 

BK. 1. Ch. IV. § 6i. ] Gati. 195 

As JjfpWT, Now the gerund of the simple root fi would have been 
1^, but as it is compounded with a gati word (II. 2. i8j the. «iTr is 
replaced by s^ see S. II. 2. i8 and VII. i. 37. ij + ^ + ^^ = HfiTvr 
(VI. 1.71). Here pra being called gati we have compounding by rule 
II. 2. 18; and then we apply S. VII. i. 37. Similarly HfRPt. Here pra 
being a gati word retains its own accent by rule VI. 2. 49. ' a gati retains in 
a compound its own accent when it immediately precedes a second member 
that ends in kta , provided the latter denotes the object of the action which 
is expressed by the root of which kta is added.' 

Similarly si4<0f^ , here pra being treated as gati gets annuddtta accent 
by rule VIII. 2. 71. 

The yoga-vibhAga or the separation of one aphorism into two, is for 
the sake of the subsequent aphorisms. The annuvritti of gati only runs 
through the latter sfltras and not of upasarga. So that while pra &c., have 
two names upasarga and gati ; uri &c., have only one name, namely, gati. 

Thus in !l"H^n and «ifHf^W^ , by treating the words n and s^ as 
upasargas we change the 7 and ?r into cj and <t by rule VIII. 4. 14 and 
VIII. 3. 87 : and again treating them as gati we regulate the accent. 

Vart: — The words ^TTftiRf should be included in the list of Gati. As 
(0 5<lft<*l**5 (2) -*lR*riftr»^ (3) tp^mf^^T ^rrrf^ . In the first by taking it 
as gati we have samasa (II. 2. 18) and t^ (VII. i. 37.) The other two cases 
illustrate accent. 

Vart: — The words jqr^ and '^^^ are treated as Gati in the Vedas. As 
Sio«l^fl?Pt?rr«V 1^ . Here the word jsr^ being gati, causes ?a# to take annu- 
ditta accent (VIII. i. 70) "^irrffff: • Here also the accent is regulated by 
VIII. 2. 71. 

(^nn^ 5rf%:) ii 

^: II 3r«if?^: ?T«?r: ^^iiv?tT ¥r3i?frra ftr!imtif ifiraar mf^ 11 

61. The words uri, assent, &c., and. those 
that end with chvi (V. 4. 50), and those that end with 
<Hch (V. 4. 57), (wlien in composition with the verb bhd 
kfi or as) are called Gati. 

The affixes chvi and d4ch are ordained when the verbs in composi- 
tion is either ^ , Jj^or *Sf?^ (V. 4. 50 and 57) flri &c., being read along 
*ith chvi and d4ch ; shows that the verb in composition with them must also 
e any one of the above three verbs, and none else ; in order to entitle a:^ 
'°the name of gati. 

196" Gati. [ Bk. I. Ch. IV. § 62, 63, 

The words 3^7 and 3t^ mean to assent and spread. As 3rft|!^ 
(II. 2. 18 and VII. I. 37) aifTfT^ul. {VI. 2. 49), srW!tt|rfKft (VIII. 3. 71), So 
with the word ^rft . The following is a list of these words: — 
















The words ending in chvi are also gati. As Alj^^Wl having made 
white what was not white. 

So also words ending in gr^ as i4<!<i<il'^c4 having made the sound 

sjg^ ^iffjf^ iT^^T^ II ^^ II x(^rf^ II aigirrw , ^; 
grfM^-Ti^, (fife^n^Jf »tf?r:) ii 

62. A word imitative of sounds is also called 
Gati, when it is not followed by the word iti. 

The phrase wfif^pirH is a Bahuvrihi compound ; WPi;.?ft-qr«i = ' thai 
which has not the word jf% after it.' 

As ^f^^ having made the sound khSt. i!n^^rf!»i; {VI. «. 49), 
T![?ill3wftft {VIII. 2. 71). 

Why do we say ' when it has not the word |f^ after it?' Observe 

3iT^?n^Ki>T: 5sr^9?ft II ^ II ^^ u 9n^.3i«n^: , 
^?;-3mt , ( fwTTitJi'f nft: ) II 

^ II VRrr Tc^<4l ^iviWT «?^r«5s?l' nffrefrl' »raTT. 11 

63. The words sat and asat when in com- 
position with a verb are called gati, when used in 
the sense of 'respect or love,' and 'disrespect or in- 


^As ?r^nr having honored (II, 2. 18 and VJI. j. 37) MW^pw , fllf ^ 
W!y^(VI. 2. 49) ,, ^„ ,t^ ,^ ^^^ ,j^^ (y„j^ 2 ^j) 

K. I. Ch. IV. § 64-66. ] Gati. 197 

Why do we say when meaning ' respect or disrespect ' ? Observe 

%9 nf?r:) 11 

64. The word alani ■when in composition 
dth a verb is called gati, when used in the sense of 

The word ^<riH is an indeclinable and has four meanings : — 'prohibi*- 
m, competent, enough and ornament.' The term srsfj^ is gati when it means 
nament. As sifjfrwr (H- 2. 18, VII. i. 37) ; srsffw (VI. 2. 49) jj(|H*itfJr (VIII. 
71) when it does not mean ornament we have sn^ws^TT 5P1# he goes hav- 
g eaten enough. 

ho) nf?r: II 

q i R l< * *[ II 81«t; ^s^^^tt fj=^rfir "Tftsrro'hfiirr^iiisan' 11 

65. The word antar is called gati, when used 
I the sense ol ' non-accepting,' in composition with a 

The word T^f means ' taking' or 'accepting,' *PiftT(? means there- 
e the opposite of this namely ' rejecting,' abandoning. As <Ji?q?wr 'pT'ni; 
went away having abandoned home ; 3|??(^fiii;jri>^ falsehood being abah- 
ned. ?Rs?j l^fT . 

Why do we say 'when meaning to abandon'? Observq ^wS?^ 
"raif !(JHlf4|d: the hawk went away taking hold of the mouse. 

Vari : — The word m^r is treated as an upasarga for the purposes of 
5 application of the following rules ; III. 3. 106 by which HS^is added ; rule 
'• 3- 92 by which fti is added ; and rule VIII. 4. 14 by which T is changed 
to Pr. As sjs5T^ , ST?fff^: and mVtfhff^ . 

'B^^^^^ ^irO^ ii \% ii ^r^f^ ii '«^-'R'ft, ^- 
^•^. (n%j) II 

66. The words karie and manas.are gati when 
^ composition with a verb and used in the sense of reac- 
on by satiation.' 

198 Gati. [ Bk. I. Ch. IV. § 67.69. 

The word ■«^-jrfNT« means 'satisfaction of desire.' As ^(^ 
qsr: ft^ he drinks mills to his heart's content or till he is satisfied? So 
also JRtf??r fV- f^^ ■ That is to sa)', he drinks so much till his desire (11^) 
is satisfied by revulsion of feeling. When not having this sense we have ?|5«| 
or iHrer'TrT?!; he went away he satisfied. 

ptr 4wnm II ^"s ii ^V^ ii ^V- , ^virm, ( iift: ) u 

67. The word purah in front of, when indechn- 
able, and in composition with a verb, is called gati. 

The pronoun qif 'front' with the affix 9jf^ formsTr^ , and by S. I. 
I. 38 it becomes an Avyaya. (See S. V. 3. 39 pur being substituted for 
pflrva). The object by making it gati is threefold (i) compounding by II. 2. 
18 (2) accent by VI. 2.49(3) to change the: h into ^ by VIII. 3.40. As jr{|i??t, 
Mi^^fl ff and ?nT y:?3inf%, when not an indeclinable we have ^ , J^ , JT: fi^ 

3T^ n I' ^4 n ^T^ II W!S*5^, % ( lf^: wrro*!^) II 
?[^: II ^m v^ «ra«rn»^js?ra' »m5isv|t ^$ ^ »i^iflr >raflr 11 

68. And the indeclinable word astam ' at 
home,' is called gati, when in composition with a verb. 

The word ^I5?rn is an indeclinable as it ends in >^ (I 1.39); and 
means ' not visible.' As *i|4M°<K«i ^^nt !JH*Bf^ the sun having set, rises again 
^IfHJmrft' wrrft' riches that have vanished, sj^ipssft', when not an indeclin- 
able it is not gati as »rot aiHTST the arrow has been thrown. 

"ST!^ iw^^ i> ^^ " 'T^ i> ^vm , nf^-^^'V^ , 

( »r%: 3wq5[ ) II 

^f^: II »i*ti!ii*4l*anmPlv«^PRir«? ^S , ?i imjuj i^jj ^m^ ^ iif¥raiff 

69. The indeclinable word achchha, meaning 
' before in the presence of,' is called gati, when used in 
composition with verbs denoting ' motion' or with the 
verb ' vad ' to speak. 

The word tf^ is an indeclinable and has the force of the word «fil' 
As ti->(f>it<i, «T«snn*( , and <H*tti l V<ft . So also ^iTiiSlrQ ^*blf^«t and »W' 
fl^ when not an Avyaya, we have 37?Pl«d »mjfir . 

Bk. r. Cn. IV. § 70.73. ] Gati. 199 

70. The word adas ' that ' is called gati when 
in composition with a verb and not implj^ing a direction 
to another. 

The word upadei^a means a direction to another. When a person 
cogitates within himself and does not address another, that is anupadesa. 
That is when it is not a demonstrative pronoun. As «!lf: f!^, 5R: ^T'T'^ 
and stf?: isftf^ when used as a demonstrative pronoun we have ^: 
flWIT *Hl-« Iff: 

^{^'. II 8T»rf^5;^\flrrfr , ?R^r ^rsft »i(d+i|ff H^ 11 

71. The word tiras when iised in the sense of 
'disappearance,' is called gati whtai in composition with 
a verb. 

As firtfinr. fW^fl'T and 7r?TfwftH^ wliy do we say when meaning 
disappearance ? Observe ffrfl' >Tr^rft«T<T. i. c, standing apart. 

ftwT^f^jfsr II tstR II ^?[ifir II ftww, ^rfar, (nf^: ^f^^) " 

72. The word tiras meaning ' disappearance ' 
is optionally called gati, when the verb kri follows. 

This is an example of 5Tr(I-f%>irq^r. As f^: fR«r or fcm^<r<t (VIII. 3. 
42): fiir: f«?5T or f?l«^<^ fT (Vlll. 3.42). The change of visarga into m is 
optional VIII. 3. 42. When not meaning disappearance we have f^: 
fW cfrr? ftref^ he stands having laid aside the stick. 

gtnilifarTit II a^ ii xr^rfir ii ^grmil-3rT% , (f^iiTrnt 
ifsf »rfa:) Ii 

ff^ frm^ n^^ >w?r: 1 1 

73. The words upSje and anvaje both mean- 
ing ' supporting or assisting the weak,' are optionally 
called gati when used along with the verb kri. 

As 3<l^)^ fmr or ^TT^ ^^ having given support. ?r?Tr^ fmr or 

'mwRPTW^f^ II is8 II 'J^fsr II ^m^, Hw^ftf^ , ^, 

(lf^: fWm ?!fSr) II 

GATr. [ Bk. I. Ch. IV. § 74. 

200 ' ■ L "■ ■ ^"- '*• V 74-77 

*74. The words srikshat, ' in the presence of 
&c., ai-e optionally called gati, when used along with the 
verl) kri. 

y^fi- _In the words ^r^n^^ &c. the force of tho affix ^ is under- 
blooil, namely making a tliinj; what it was not before. As sremr fi??i or ^^ 
ftr.^rfi?t ft''Tr^«?f making eviiKnit what was concealed before. 

»lf«l«5Tr H^?T: II 

75. Th(i woi-d ui asi, ' in the hreast,' ami 
inanasi ' m the mind ' an', optionally gati when the verb 
kri follows, i)rovided that tliey are not used in the sense; 
of 'placing.' 

As vj<R(^<m or 3tRrfR^r ; «MR(^r«l or »Hf«fi?TT. When it has the 
sense of placing we have 3Tfil^?r Trf"! ?i# he lies down having clasped the 
hand on the breast, mft'jit fr ^H '.^TRT^ he ponders having placed the word 
in his mind. 

n, (f^wrai ?>Bt »rf?r: «i?t?itv»r) 11 

^f%: II "p-t 1? fn^^ fr^ ^^ , siHtJmrr^ ft'im ^fsi n^Hfrr >i?p5T 11 
Y6. And tlie words niadhye ' iii the middle,' 
padc ' in the foot ' and nivachanc ' speechless ' arc option- 
ally gati, when kri lollows, the sense not heing of 
' i)laciifg.' 

As »i«J i^^f or |R^, (I? ^^ or fi?m ; firT^ fiW or ftPfr- 
But when it has the meaning of placing wc have ?fi«^; i?t fW Rl^' 
jfS he lies down having put his head under the foot of the elephant. 

^tR^ (»tf?l: isftl) II 

\fM II ?^ ftmi x^ ?r4 ^ ^ni nfirw^ft "pt^ ot^* ii 

TY. The word haste ' in tho hand,' panau ' in 
tlie hand 'are always and iieccissarily called gati wild' 
used with the verh kri in the sense ol ' marriage.' 

As <m!^ ^^ or ?iE% IT?, having married. But f?# ffWT 'RTt'i'* "^ 
he went out having taken in his hand a k4rsh4pana (a coin). ' 

BK. r. Ch. IV. § 78-81.] Gati. 201 

in^ V9^ II 196 II n^Tf^ II xnv^^, ^vn^, (»if?r: fsfsi 

78. Tlic imleclin!xl)]c word pradlivam ro]lowed 
by tlie verb kri, is always called gixti when usnd in tlit> 
Honso of binding'.' 

The word UR-^^j ends in H and me.'ins ' favourably suitably.' When 
however it means 'bound' it is a gali : as, SfP-^'fRir having bound. But 
when not meaning to bind, we have :— sirt^ if«^f ?ra>? irw having made the 
carriage agreeable, lie is gone. 

70. The words Jivika. and npanishad followetl 
l)y Hie vorh kii ar^) called gati when iised in tbo of 
'likeness or resemblance.' 

As sfff^^rf;?!! having made it as if it was a means of living ; ^qfJri^- 
^^'T— having made it like an upanishad. Hut ^f^i ^fi irff: having made 
liis livelihood he is gone. 

^ OT^?fr: II CO II cT^tfir II ^, mn, vii^:, (irfw: 
^^V^:) II 

^frT: II ^ jRapm'ftrir^r: ^^: ^j^ ^^rft^^tr: 11 

HO. TIk! i)articles called g-ati arid ujvisarga 
:ire to be employ (h1 beforo the verbal root: (that is to say, 
dioy are prefixes). 

The word # has been employed to include the term 3ira»f also. The 
preceding examples all illustrate the application of this rule. 

^ft ^ifif II ci II xT^rf^ It ^js^f^, xi^, a?fxr, (nft: 
'^^'1 mo) II 

^f%: II s??f% firsTff iR^q^'f ^sm, fxif^ <^f^ snJt^^rsqr: 11 

81. In the cliliandas (veda) these gati and 
"pasarga are employed indifferently after the verbal 
''oot, aa well as before it. 

As:— TRlftsirV ^STSr < H i qi«IHMft '!f»fW II «l^^qT fq^ HKt (Rig. I. 2. G). 

202 Karmapravachaniva. [ Bk. I. Ch. IV. § 82-84. 

In this we have ^rRjnrfT instead of sitptjct ' vayu and thou Indra, ye 
heroes, come ye both quickly to the soma of the worshipper by this sincere 

wf^ffHTg II «•'? II ^^11 sERiffciT:, tf, (nfl go 
s«^{%) II 

82. Ill the chhanclas (vcda) these gati and 
upasarga are also seen sej^arated from the vei'b by inter- 
vening word.s. 

As:— 5?i ^ f^ ^wr OT JraTftTPm II ?f?gt m 5?7f5?tff (Rig. 1. 2. 4), 

" Indra and vayu, here are soma — libations for you. Approach, ye with 
pleasures for us. Fkr the libations are desiring you." Here ^ is separated 
from the word ^STTTfrby the intervening word Jf^fft: . 
Karma pravachaniya. 

^aq^vftm: II ^^ II q?[Tfir II ^^JJirn'ftqT: II 
^(%' II ?fr%r ^f T5^fif5?rpi: ^^w^sfti €<rR^ t^^t^trr: 11 

8?). From this point as far as apliorism I. 4. 
97 the particles ti'eated of, are to be nndcrstood as liav- 
ing the name of karma-pravaehanlj^a. 

These particles govern a substantive and qualify a verb and 
differ from other particles termed upasarga and gati. As g??j?f >W?tr well 
praised by you. g ^^ vf^fjr you have sprinkled. Here g is a karma pravach- 
anfya and qualifies the sense of the verb, i. e. it is an adverb. It is not an 
upasarga, for had it been so it, would have changed the ^ into <T (VIII. 3- 65)' 
The term kirma pravachaniya is a big term compared with other technical 
terms such as, f; , fir , tj &c., which generally do not exceed more than two 
syllables. The word karmapravachaniya is not however merely a technical 
term ; it contains within itself a definition of itself. It means that which 
qualifies or speaks about (jfr^Jf^rfj an action ( ^4 ) is so called. 

^^^spt^i II 6}{ II q^Tf^T II 315: fJ^lSr , (^UzrVift'nO " 
"j^: II wf HTsfr 5wir «j>§ 5f4!TT^#!mjfr >nrfir n 

84. The word aiiu when it .denotes a sign, is 
called karma-pravachaniya. 

The word lakshana means a sign; an attendant circumstance an 
mvariable concomitant or accident in its logical sense and not merely a" 
occasional concurrence. The force of «ig in this case is that of -after,"!" 
consequence of,' because of, or being indicated by.' As SIWT m^ it "'"'^ 

Bk. I. Ch. IV. § 85, 86 ] Karmapravachaniya. 203 

after or in consequence of the muttering of prayers. To put it in other words, 
anu is a karmapravachniya when it governs the word which indicates the 
cause or the attendant circumstance of an action. 

So also ^ii*<HW ^ffwrj ura^d = J r wfrt'f ^^ w^^rmft^r^sr^T. htttw. 

The God (clouds) rained having listened to the well performed reading, by 
Sakalya. The force of a karmapravachaniya, therefore, when fully analysed 
will be found to be that of an upasarga whose verb is not expressed in the 
sentence but is understood; and because of its being so understood, the 
particle itself seems to govern the noun which in fact was governed by the 
unexpressed verb. Thus in the above example ?ff??rt is in the accusative case, 
apparently governed by the preposition ^H , but really governed by the 
verb s^Hfn^.l'-^ understood. 

So also ?PT^? fjpfs^f^r^ . The Taurus sprinkled water after the 
sacrifice, '»l*lW!rH*qKN''T JIiTr: the people began sprinkling water after the rising 
of the canopus. 

Why make unnecessarily this sutra, when sm would have been called 
karma parvachantya even by force of sutra 90 following, where also the word 
lakshana occurs ? This is for the sake of indicating that the karmapravachantyas 
should alw.ays govern the accusative case (II. 3. 8) even in expressing ^?r 
(II. 3. 23). Otherwise Rule 23rd of the third chapter of Book II would have 
set aside Rule 8 of the same by the maxim of <n:rq' 1.-^.^2; and would have 
caused a karama pravachaniya to govern an Instrumental case where the 
sense was that of hetu. 

«tc0^i^ II 'H II "^^^ II 'J?fNT-3i^, (aflw: m^e) 11 

ffrl: II SWITS^ ?^t<Tr«f «?R5 ^^T«I^«r^iff HTffT II 

85. The word ami is kariria-i^ravachanlya 
when it has the force of the third case. 

The meaning of sj^ in this case will be that of ' with ' or along with. 
■*^s irfhr^ V^fh^ ^1T the army lying along side the river. T^flJjq^ ^TTfiTflT ^TT 
'ying along the slopes of the mountain. 

f^^ II c% II Ti^fH II ft^, (313: ^^v^e) 11 

^; II ^ ^p^iw^: ^ wq^-ft^i ?f?fr >wf^ 11 

86. The word auu is karma pravachaniya 
■^hen it is used in the sense of inferior or subordinate to. 

The word ift*r means ' inferior,' and being a comparative term re- 

M"ires the other term with which comparison is made and which is superior ; 

"Complete the sense. In other words mt governs the person to which others 

■■« inferior, in the accusative case. As f l -t^ || <<»«mn^<| l <fimi : ' all grammari- 

*"^ are inferior toSAkat4yana.' 

204 Karmapravachaniya. [ Bk. I. Ch. IV. § 87-, 


^^: II OT![r«f : «if«r5& ^t^ ^ 'ilf^ 5F"f>i^^:'fhr?fift 1^ 11 

87. The word upa when it means ' superior ' 
or ' hiferior to ' is karma-pravaclianiya. 

That is when the sense is that of 'over, above,' or ' inferior' as 37 
^ni\ Sto: a Drona is above a khdri. TT fts# ^rT?<Ti!T: a karshajiana is more than 
a Nishita. In this sense 37 governs the Locative of the thing which is inferior 
(II. 3. 9). So also 37 ! ), l| chJ r <l T' $<ll*<.iiir: 'all grammarians are inferior to 
Sikatdyana.' In this sense 3>T governs the accusative case. 

artr ^ «ni% 11 tc 11 sT'i-titt, m^, {^w) ii 

^ra: II W7 "rtt ?r5?r ^m^^t^ ^s^^^m'^^^ m^- 11 

88. The words apa and paii arc karnia-]-)ra\a- 
clianiya wlien meaning ' exclusion.' 

The force of ^STT and qf^ is in this case that of ' with the exception of.' 
As*ntf%T'sfi^'T?t 5^: it rained outside of or with the exception of Trigarta. 
So also qft' f^nrafi-iit ^ffrN': • In this sense they govern the noun excluded in 
the ablative case (II. 3. 10). When not having these senses, they arc not 
karma-pravachaniya. As ^\^^ "Tftfir^ffir . He waters the rice. Here it is an 
upasarga, and hence changes the g into ^ . 

(«we) II 

f^: II Mr3;??t«n[rs?: inif?[^"?# stv^g q ^Hhttjflr >nif% ri 

80. The word ah as far as, is l<:arma-prava- 
clianiya when it expresses limit (e. g. when it means ' as 
far as inclusive of or, ' as far as exchisive of.') 

The word q^Ji in the text shows that both sorts of limits are here 
meant. As ?rm?^fpt^^?r ?7: it rained as far as (but excluding) FAtallputra 
MnrRf^j^f ^fr W it rained as far as (including) PAtaliputra ^TT^ 
^aj: TrfSr^: 3TRrN;n[?rrqi , ^ vm^. when it means 'little' or is a verbal prefix 
it does not get this name. 

Bk. I. Ch. IV. § 91,92. ] Karmapravachaniya. 205 

90. The words prati, pari and aim are karma 
priivaehaniya when used in the sense of ' sign ' (in the 
direction of) ' mere statement of circumstance ' (' as re- 
gards ') ' division ' ' share of and ' pervasion' severally. 

As (i) ^Sf qfir-Tfr or ^ f^offft f^^ ' the lightening is flashing in the 
direction of the tree.' (2) ^r^f q^ spit RpT— <Tft = si^ ' Devadatta is a good 
man as regards his mother.' (3; ^ jrfw ?5nr?»t 'the poison fell to the share of 
Hara.' m^ TfW ??iTq; that it may fall to my share. So with <rft and ^h. (4) 
fg^W if^ fi)*^ft< ho sprinkles one tree after another. So with "tR" and stt. 

arfw^'HT't 11^1 II ti^Tfif II 3?^: , gjTw^t («ifrn f?tf- 
ffin^me ^ae) ii 

^frf: II SRTdlffst? Hm^fsf^s^: ^^siT^^^at H^ II 

!)1. Tlic woi-d al)lii is karma-pravachaniya, in 
llio above senses of ' in the direction of,' ' as regards,' 
and ' eacli severally ' but not when it means division, 
'aliare of 

The illustrations given under the last sutra mutus mutandi apply 
iicre also, with the exception of those given under head (4). As TO^ft 
^ot^; imTHft &c. But it is not karma-pravachaniya when ^tjm is meant. HTT 
means the share which is allotted to one as his own. As <|i;-H*tn i P r s^HT W? 
^IftTnTgive that which falls here to my share. Here abhi is an upasarga, and 
therefore *r of ?«r is changed into ^. 

Viik: Taf^^f^ tr^^tllT: II %^ II cr^rf^ ii tjf^: , i^f^- 
i^i^-^f^'ftlT: , i^ve) II 

92. The woi'd prati is kai'ma-pravac;]ianiya 
when used in the sense of representative (' I'cpi'esentative 
'->'') or exchange (' in exchange for.') 

That which is like to the principal is called 5ifw(%f^ . Giving in 
":turn for what is obtained, is irf^nr . As ^fin^a* ^TW: ^f^ Abhi-manyu is 
"^ representative of Arjuna. KiNi'ftA ft^>-^: sjftq^afrii he exchanges M4shds 
or these sesamum. In these senses prati governs the Ablative (II. 3. ii). 

«ifvrti6 sR'i^T II %^ II xn[Tf5f ii sif^-^d, 9R^%t, 

Karmapravachaniya, [ Bk, I. Ch. IV. § 93.55 

93. The words adhi and pari are karma-pra- 
vachanlya when used as mere expletives. 

As ^J^Jini«t»frr whence has he come ? or ^?r: <nit ipssfir. These 
words though mere surplusages, have been called karmapravachaniya so thai 
they may not get the designation of upasarga or gati and thus produce 
results peculiar to those words. 

g: ^«TqT«[ H <S8 II t|^ II g: , ^^mw, (^JTC) 11 

%f^: II w ![r«?: 'nn^mv ^^:ipr^^^hmm itrt 11 

94. The word su is karma-pravachanlya in 
the sense of respect, (when it means ' excellently'). 

As ^feT# vjT?tT , « CT?i H^-?iT excellently sprinkled by your honor. Well 
praised by your honor. By not being an upasarga, it does not change the 
^ into "I (VIII. 3. 65). 

Why do we say ' when respect is meant'? Observe gf^ ^ ?,,r<r 
has this your place been well sprinkled to-day. 

<3rf^^g;»l5t^ II ^«, II tT^^llgTf?r:,9?% ^^^,^, 
(^iTfl 'junri^ ) II 

^ra: II ^ rm- ^ifwm^ 5r5TO^ >nrr?rf^ ^ surn^ ^?ff >r^ 11 

95. The word ati in the sense of super-abun- 
dance (' excessively ') and ' excellently ' is karma-prava- 

The word ^fd*1U,r means to do more than what is necessary for the 
accomplishment of an object. The force of ^ in the aphorism is to draw in 
the word .nrRtm from the last. As Mf^?K^, >t^. It has abundantly been 
sprinkled by your honor, srfiRyif^ .p^ir so also sjfront »mr excellently 
praised by your honor, gj^ Rt^p ^nt . 

9?m: r^i ^HnRT?9?iin»nfkgi^3 11 if^ 11 Ti^if^ 

sift: . ^-#MTIR.3»5inTOn.^^.,gg^ {^)u 

9(3. The woi'd npi is karma-pravachanlya, 
when^it implies, the sense of word understood (' some- 
what') or possibility (e. g., ' even ' in the sense .of such a 
great person), or permission to do as one likes, ('if you 
^ke ), or censure ('even' in the sense of what is disgract 
lul) ; or collection ('and'). 


BK. !■ Ch. IV. § 97, 98. ] Karmapravachaniya. 207 

The word q^fitf means the sense of another word which is not 
expressed but has to be supplied. As ^i^^ ?^tw there may be perhaps a 
drop of ghee »iw;f|rilfi ??|P^^ . Here some word like vindu ' a drop,' stoka ' a 
little' mitrd 'a measure &c., has to be understood. The word QirnrT means 
possibility, a supposition. As, ^rft' ftr%T «»!<*♦)?« ^»I#^ST possibly may 
sprinkle a thousand trees in one moment; ^rfr ^g^n^nsTT'T he may praise 
possibly, a king. In the above cases it is used with the potential mood. 
3j!^^ means indifference on the part of the speaker where he permits 
another to do as he likes. It is used with the Imperative mood. As ■Jffq' f^r^ 
you may sprinkle if you like, ^rfr ?g% you may praise if you like. The 
word n?t means censure, contempt or reproof. As f^ijiir^ J^^rfTfir fir^ 
ijjlIiTjw. The word ?r5«Rf means cumulative. As gjfq' ?5f?f — arfr fif^ praise 
as well as sprinkle. 

In all the above instances, the word not being an upasarga, does not 
ciiange the tT into tr . 

arftr^Tts^ 11 w 11 ^(^^^ « ^H^: , t^^ » ( ^w* ) '• 

^f%: II f^x- ?^r»ft ^"^ ^vf^wK I ^f^ *«i«(ifH e^!=yr: ^t^R'r^'fNRfjfir >nrflr 11 

97. The word adlii is karmapravachaniya 
when used in the sense of " lord " (" being as a lord " or 
"having as a lord"). 

The word t^'JT means ' master,' and it therefore requires another 
correlative word denoting 'property ' of which one is master. The word adhi 
governs a Locative case. Sometime locative of the person possessing, 
sometime locative of the property possessed : as s^f^ srer?^ <rnr«r: or srf^ 
'^I'^ JHWIT: . Brahmadatta rules over PanchAlas. 

ftwRT ^ H %t, II ti^rf^ II finnm , fsfti 
^mho arf^: ) n 

^: II ^ifir. ^tt^ RwTT 5r^^*»Rfift >wf?i 11 

98. The word adhi is optionally karmapra- 
vachaniya when the vei'b kri follows. 

As SRpr »lPffif i^fi^ q ft . Here the word ^f^ may be treated either as 
^lfitora^ 4m <! )^)<l . When it is a nft the accent will be regulated by 
l^'^'JI' I. 7X: otherwise not. 

SOS Parasmaipada and Atmanepada. [ Bk. I. Ch. IV. § 99, 100 

vf^: II mirjr. TT^q^JEtirr >w^ 11 

99. The substitutes of w are called paras- 

The word 5f: is in the genitive case, and means ' of 5r.' The won 
si^ ' substitutes ' must be supplied to complete the sense. The term $ 
is a generic word for verb in general, viz., VS\, ^ ^ ^^, f?^ ^ 
fS? fai^ wtr 51?:. The substitutes of 5i are the well known persona: 
terminations, by which the verbs are conjugated in those tenses. Namely thi 


Sing. Dual. Plural, 

ist Pers. ft^; ^ 1^ 

2nd Pers. fijtr «iw «t 

3rd Pers. ^ ff^ fir 

And the affixes ^pr and ^§ ( HI. 2. 107, and 124, am 
III. 4. 78 )■ 

( 8: ) 11 

\f^: II >^i qr?^ q^'H'anrf irrsTRf wynniKrwH'nr^^rr ftvf|^§ 11 

100. The nine affixes comprised under tht 
Praty^hara tail and tlie two ending in ^na (Sanach anc 
Kanach), which are substitutes of wt are called Atma- 

The following are the Atmanepada affixes : — 

Sing. Dual. Plural. 

2nd iiRi <mitPl v^ 

And the affixes ^rr^ and qsPT^ (III. 2. 106). 

Bk. I. Ch. IV. § i'oi-io3. ] Person defined. 20J 


101. The three triads in both the sets Paras- 
maipada and Atmanepada, of conjngational affixes (com- 
prised under the general nanie tin, a pratyah^ra formed 
of the first and last of them, viz., tip and mahiii) are 
eaUed, in order, Lowest (3rd person of European Grami- 
mar, the middle (2nd p>ei'son), and the highest (1st person). 

Of the ig conjugational affixes, above given ; 9 are Parasmaipadi and 
9 are Atmanepadi. Each of these two classes is subdivided into three classes, 
according to person, as shown in the above list. 

^f%: II dl> a ch^-q ? fin'^ ^T^ ^iTlfl H^^ ^^V- 5^ "Tf^ " 

102. Those three triads of conjngational 
affixes, which have received the name of Lowest &c., 
are called (as regard the tiii'ee expressions in ( ach triad) 
severally " the expression for one '' (singnlai'), " the ex- 
pression for two" (dual), and " the expr(?ssion for many " 

Of the six triads thus formed, each is divided according to number 
into three classes, viz., singular, dual, and plural. 

gT: II le^ II tr^if^i ii g^:, (-^f^ R i?*«i^'» f^;v9^ Hf- 

^: II a<rsj *ftfftr ^ftftr <T?rft' ^?j ^aif^'^T frrw ^jsi^'f ^fnf^ >tt^ ii 

103. Of snp (which is a Praty^hara formed of 
su the first of the case afiixes and the final p of the last 
of them) the three expressions in each successive set of 
the three, are also severallv called singular, dual and 

210 VlBHAKTl DEFINED. [ Bk. I. tH. IV. § io4-lo6, 

The sup or the case-affixes by which nouns are declined are 21 In 
number corresponding to the seven cases, see sfitra IV. 1.2. They also 
have three numbers singular, dual and plural. 

fil¥; ) tl 

104. The triads of conj ugatioiial affixes and 
case affixes arc also called vibhakti or Inflective affixes. 

The word ftvifrT means a complete triad. Thus friTiJt ^H^^i^ means 
the three affixes of the seventh case, i. e., the locative singular, dual, 
and plural. So ^ftpfj ftHfri: means the third person, singular, dual, and 

aifrrsS ?«nft^ ii«4«(Hi^jt3fiiw5?nirTJf7 ivm ^^ v^ 11 

105. Wlien the pronoim yushmad, "thou" 
undei'stood, and also when the same expressed, is the 
attendant word in agreement with the verb, then there 
is the verbal termination called the middle (2nd person). 

This defines tlie 2nd person of conjugational affixes. As vi q^ 
thou cookest or q^flr; ^ q'^: or T^: you two are cooking ; v^ TfH or <nv 
you cook. 

nfm ^ ^iJ^iR^ *r5ii^vfriT -q^vr^ ii <io\ ii v^ « 
Ilfre , ^ , ^q-^qq^ , j^nh , tm^T: , ^«n!f^, ^ , ( »T^»m: ) II 


lOG. When joke is implicid with reference to 
an action, the verb denoting it is nsed in the 2nd person ; 
provided that the word manya ' to think ' is the atten- 
dant word (upapada) of sitch verb, and of the verb manya 
itself, the affix mnst be of the 1st person and singnla'' 

BK. I. CH. IV. § 107-109. ] AVASANA DEPINED. 211 

The word i?fm means joke, sportt As 5^ «tp§ »ii:^ aft^^ ?fit; >ift 
Htf?rt , ^rn: ^if^ffi(fir. . Thus thou thinkest ' I shall eat rice,' thou shalt not 
eat, that has been eaten by a guest. 5ft »n4 ^sf ^T K ^ lRl ^ ?fre«r^ , ^fTTOhr 
fl fq?rr . I think thou wilt go by the chariot, no, thou wilt not, thy father has 
gone before thee on it. When joke is not intended, the proper persons 
should be used: a.s, 1^ »Tsjid ^;f Hl^ . Thus thou thinkest 'I shall 
eat rice.' 

WE'T^T: II 1«9 II tr^rfir II <mn^, ^^T:, i'^r^ WHl- 

nj^VK^ f <TTf?rwiftr ) ii 

^f%: II ^TWWTtI gTIPTTpti5^ H<I;i^hP c q iT ^s<<H r^ jf^ J-^HMttf t >ITfir II 

107. When the pronoun asmad " I," under- 
stood and also when expressed, is the attendant word 
ill agi-eement with the verb, then there is the verbal 
termination called the Highest or the 1st person. 

This is clear. As »if <r^rft I cook, or merely TTT^-'WrTt T^T- or 
merely <f^f^: . 

^ jjsnr: 11 506 II ti^ft n i^ n«m: ii 

108. In the other cases, namely where, 
" thou " or " I " are not the attendant words in agreement 
with the vei'b, there is the verbal termination called the 
Lowest (or 3rd person). 

As qr^f^ he cooks, T^^: they two cook, qr^^ they cook. 

,^: ^flB^: ^m , II 96^ II xi^x^ II m: ^i^i^h , 

^/%: II "r^ V: *lft<*^ TCifiir i^hrrirarwTTvn* ?r ?fff 'iRt^ vtf^ ii 

109. The closest proximity of letters, there 
being the intervention of half a m§,tra or prosodial length 
between them, is called contact or sanhit^. 

When words are in sanhlta, they are glued together by the rules of 
'""''hi. As,^ + W*. 



[ Bk. I. OH. IV. § „o, 

%nfy <»«WR»i^ii lie I1 1^ II fww: arwm II 

110. The cessation or the absence of succeed- 
ing letters is called pause or avas^na. 

The word avasAna occurs in sfitras VIII. 3. 15 &c. 


Coiifainiitg Original Sutras, Sanskrit Vrittis witli Notes and Explanations 
in English based on the Celebrated Commentary called the Kasika. 

Translated by 
SEISA CHANDRA VASU, B. A., MunsiflF, Ghazipur. 

Trausl.ilor of Siva Sanliita, Cheramla Sanhila &c. 

Published by 
;atvajnana Chaterji at thk Panini Office, Allahabad. 

To be completed in 32 parts, each 'part containing one full pada or chapter. 
(Five parts already out.) 

/v'lzto of SHh\cni>lton in a.haiice, uhhi.Hii:; fosta^.:, for the complete work, i. e. ^2 part.. 

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NCE the advent of the British rule and the peace and prosperity that have 
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''-■, the Vedas, the Brdhmanas, the Upanishads &c., it is absolutely necessary 
have a complete knowledge of the Grammar elaborated by PAnini. 

Further, as a master-piece of close reasoning and artistic arrange- 
"t, It ought to be an object of study with" every one who wants to culti- 
•ile his intellectual powers. In fact, what the Geometry of Euclid has done 



( ii ) 

towards the logical drvelopmrnt of the wc-stcrn intellect, the Asht'ulhyA\i , 
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system elaborated by native Grammarians, is in itself most perfect, and th.i- 
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any languai'c, that could vie with the wondertul mechanism of his eight l)ool> 
of Grammatical rules." 

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daily on the increase, and who depend for their knowledge of what 
< ontained in Smskril l)ooks, on Engli-^h tr.msl.ition of Sanskrit authors, r 
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known commentary called the K.'isika. Though it is not a close translate; 
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explaining it where necessary, and in slioil, making the work a help loll 
studrnt, desirous of studying the Kasika in the 

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Pl'bi.i.sh1':r oi' Panini, 


A'.- IP. Provinces, Indui. 


Chapter First. 

'CT^: tr<[f^fvT: II 1 II ^xfk II ^*r^: , tj^.ftf^j u 

1. A rule which relates to complete words 
(and not to the roots and affixes out of which the words 
arc constructed) is to be nriderstood to apply only to 
those words the senses of which ai'e connected. 

I. This is a paribliAsIiA or interpreting aphorism. Whereever in 
tins Grammar a 7ff%f^ is found, that must be understood to apply to ^»Ttr 
words. A rule relating to f^ or complete words is called q^f^. The 
word f^T is formed by adding ft to the root >^r5[ ; that which is ordained 
(ft^fhijt) is called f^fJf. What are those rules which are ordained with regard 
to complete words ? They are as follows, — (i) Rules relating to fPft^ or com- 
pounding of words; (2) Rules relating to fkff^ or the application of 
declensional and conjugational affixes ; (3) and the rule by which one word 
is considered as if it bad become a constituent niember of another word 

The word a«ri means capable ; that I's to say, that which is capable 
it expressing the sense of a sentence on analysis, is called fifi ; or the word 
It!? may mean that which depends upon words as connected in sense; 
liat is to say, a rule relating to words whose senses are connected 

Thus it will be taught in sfitra 24 'a word ending with the second 
:ase-a(fix is optionally compounded with the words fiw , Wft?f &c. and forms 
•atpurusha compound ;' as, ^ fk(^: = ws[*W-' ' who has had recourse to 
pain.' But when these words are not WT^ or connected in sense there' can be 
w compounding ; as, <nc^ $T?« W'j, f^^fr ft'^ftr^f ^«5»»r ' see O Devadatta, 
"6 pain, Vishnumitra has taken recourse to his teacher's house.' Here the 
ords ^fsj and f^ though read in juxtaposition are not compoundedj as 
"•^y arc not gipf. 

214 Samartha words. [ Bk. II. Ch. I. § ,, 

Similarly, it will be taught in sfltra 30 ' a word ending with the 3rd 
case-affix is optienally compounded with what denotes that the quality 
of which is instrumentally caused by the thing signiOed by what ends with 
the 3rd case-affix and with the word ST«r ' wealth ;' as, ^f^^RTT + i^o^: = 
i t <*'HHa "'d: 'a piece cut by nippers.' Here also when the v/ords are not con- 
nected in sense there is no composition ; as, gift'SitRr it^WHT , ^°^ 5^?Tt 
3iT#)' 'thou shalt do it with the nippers, Devadatta is cut by the stones.' 

Similarly, sutra 36 declares, 'a word ending with the 4th case-affix, 
is compounded optionally with what denotes that which is for the purpose 
of what ends with the 4th case-affix, and so too with the words srsj , 

Thus ?jrra + ?rf = wjr^ ' wood for a stake.' But when these words 
are not connected in sense, there is no composition; as, jj^ ?# WTRi , ^ 
^^T^IW "T? ' go thou for the stake, the wood is in Devadatta's house.' 

Similarly, sutra 37 declares ' a word ending with the 5th case-affix 
may be compounded with the word H^; as, ar^i-^r ^>f^f = ^T^KHir 'fear by 
reason of a wolf.' But when these words are not connected in sense, th<;re 
is no composition ; as, iT^g r# irf 7^<-^, H^ S^^tT^it ^rjrfrfrn ' come thou to me 
from the wolves, there is fear to Devadatta from Yajnadatta. 

Similarly, sutra H. 2. 8 declares ' a word ending with the 6th case- 
affix is optionally compounded with what ends with a case-affix ;' as, nir: 
35^ = rrJTT?^: 'the king's man.' But when the words are not Bvi , 
there is no composition ; as Hf^l? rriT', ^^^f ?ffTTtf ' the wife of the king, the 
man of Devadatta.' 

Similarly, sfitra 40 declares. ' A word ending with the 7th case-atTix 
is optionally compounded with the word JJI^ 'skilled;' as, ?J#T ^'»^: = 
^?^n"S: ' skilled in dice.' But when the words are not connected in sen.-^e, 
there is no composition ; as, 5rTiWf»T^, J^i^: ft^^ <TRrniT ' thou art skilled in 
dice, the gambler drmks in the tavern.' 

Why have we used the word qf ' a complete word ' in the sfitra ? So 
that this gjpf Tft^Tflt may not apply to ^^f^f^ t. e. rules relating to letter.s. 
Thus rules of ^f»^ 'conjunction of letters' are qofftf^and not<nftf5r; a"'' 
therefore the condition of being connected in sense, docs not apply h^''^' 
Two words however disconnected in sense, must be, glued together by t'"^ 
rules of sandhi, if those rules are applicable. Thus sfitra VI. I. 77 declares: 
'instead of a letter denoted by the pratydhdra ^ there is one denoted by 
the pratyfthira «ro , in each instance, where one denoted by the pratyil'^'''' 
^ immedi-itely follows;' as, ^ + gRJT!I = f'-^WPT. This substitution 
of ^ for f will take place, whether the words arc in construction or not, as 

Bk. !!• Ch. I. § 2. ] Parangavat words. 215 

^grTT'.'RTnT ?# OT^ 'let the curd remain, eat thou with tlie vegetable curry.' 
So also frrsj ^r<f«5* ?r $^?TtR^ ' let the girl be, take .the umbrella from 
Devadatta.' Here the augment g^ (?r subsequently changed into "a) comes 
between ^tr^ and HT, though the two words are not connected in 
sense (VI. i. 76). 

ti^-3?3pra[ , ^Bi^ II 

iT^^ff II ^??r??r itrjpf^Kft wir'(ify*<.un:^4*i»5'!iH*m»-*i<«^iw 11 

^iTn^im^ II 3?s??7rRf !?fii#>flr ^^s^: 11 

2. A word ending' in sup or a case affix, wlieu 
followed hy a word in the vocative case, is i-egarded as 
ifjt was tlie aiiga or component xxirt of such suhseqiieiit 
vocative word, wlien a rule relating to accent is to he 

In other words, the word ending in a case-affix enters, as if, into the 
body of the vocative (Amantrita) word ; as it will be taught in sfitra VI. I. 198 
which declares ' a word ending in a vocative case-affix, gets the udAtta 
axent on the beginning i.e., first syllable.' Now, this rule will apply even 
when a word ending with a case-affix precedes such word in the vocative 
case. Thus the word q?if ' O two lords '' has uddtta on the first syllable. Now, 
when this word is preceded by another inflected noun as 3TT<t ' of prosperity,' 
the accent will fall on JT, the two words being considered as a single word ; 

as:— ^jfi^r^r Wrfftfr r^ ii'nt jpTPpffii T^'Hm ■^'re?r?T^ii Rig- I- 3- '• 

'0 Asvins, riding on quick horses, lords of prosperity, and bestovvers 
of plenty of food, eat the sacrificial offerings to your satisfaction.' So also 
in the following : — «!<»§' !ir?T ' O thou wandering with a bowl. T^JT^T ^sfT 
' thou cutting with an axe.' Hsfnut 0»l'i ' O thou king of Madras.' ^Rf^'onTR 
nn^ ' thou king of Kashmir.' 

Why do we say 'a word ending with a case-affix ?' If the preceding 
word ends with any other affix than a case-affix, this rule will not apply. 
^^ '^^ ' f t ^H f! ^ ' O thou who art pained, I am pained because of this 
% pain.' 

Here ifrjif 'being a ft^^fT (a verb)' is not considered as an artga of 
"'evocative word. 

Why do we say ' when followed by a word in the vocative case ?' 
rius rule will not apply when the subsequent word is not a vocative. As 

216 Samasa Designation. [ Bk. II. Ch. I. ^ 3_ 

Why do we say 'of the subsequent?' It will not be a part of the 
vocative word which precedes. As t^g ^<»i';jR;T'0 Devadatta wandering 
with a bowl." Here wof^r has not become part of Devadatta, but of the 
subsequent word «ff5«^ . 

Why do we say 'an anga or component part?' Both must be con- 
sidered as one word for the application of the rule of accent, so that the 
first syllable of each word separately may not get the uditta. 

Why do we say ' as if or ^.' It is not altogether the body of the 
subsequent word ; rules depending upon its own separate independent 
existence also take effect. 

Thus rule VIII. i. 55 declares 'a word ending in the vocative case is 
not anudAtta when it follows the word ^n"!; there intervening a word between 
itself and ^f^ ; as, WT «F'»t!lK'T_! Here kundena is considered a separate 
word for the purposes of Rule VIII. I. 55 and is said to intervene between 
%m and the vocative word «nr5^ . 

Why do we say ' for the purposes of the application of rule of 
accent?' For the purposes of the application of any other rule, it will not 
be the anga of the subsequent word ; as, epif fs'V^ ' thou sprinkling in the 
M'ell,' ^5I»J^. Here had ^fS' and "^ been the artgas of the subsequent 
words for all purposes, their «■ and 7 would have been changed into 1 and 
CJ respectively by Rules VII. 4. 2 &c. 

Vart : — When a word ending in a case-affix becomes, as if, the com- 
ponent part of the subsequent word, it becomes so even when there ar; 
several words in apposition with it which intervene between it and th 
vocative word ; because that, of itself, does not constitute want of immediate- 
ness. Thus ?tt^T^ ^rwfT ^jjT '0 thou sewing with a sharp needle' atf "if 

Vart: — Prohibition must be stated of indeclinable words. As 
5«^oit^T ' thou reading loudly.' ;ff -^r < fh n t • 

Jii^^^it^icg'ng: II ^ II tj^ n in\, ^fr^. 

^: II ^^iT«:rrif5Tm^ sjTn safn^ ar^^'-j'jHthfHt.T i iH^ ?f»ir^#aT tft?I«^: I' 

3. From this point up to the aphorism kada- 
vakarmadharaye (II. 2. 38), all the terms that we shall 
say describe wiU get the designation of samasa of 

Bk. II. CH. 1. § 4. J Samasa Designation. 


Thus it will be stated. 'The indeclinable word w when not mean- 
ing like unto.' Here the word m^tn must be read into the sfltra to complete 
the sense. In fact this chapter and the second chapter treat of compounds 
and therefore the word compound must be read in all those aphorisms. 

The word prdk is employed for the same purpose as it was used in 
I. 4. 56 that IS to give the designation of mm to various technical terms 
like ^m^tm^ &c. which otherwise would not have got the name 
of ^TTW . 

^ gnr H 8 II ii^i^ II ^ . gm ( f^ ^m^: ) u 

^ f"^- " ^^*f^ ^^^ 5^ "^ ^w^Rrf^ ^r^^H 7(f^ ^frv^ ^^njrfHt^r^ 

4. Tho words 'saba supa' meaning 'with a 
word ending in a case-affix,' are to be understood in each 
ol the succeeding aiiborisms. 

In this aphorism the word ^.^ is understood from sfltra 2, so that 
It consists of three words v/c, ^, gy, ^r. All these three words jointly and 
sevc-Killy, one at a time or two at a time, should be understood as governing 
the succeeding aphorisms, as the contingency of each sfitra may require 
rius aphorism will constantly be applied in translating the siitras that 

Why have we used the word ^if ? Well, without it the sfitra would 
me stood thus: ^7 «qT' a noun may be compounded with another noun ' 
but ih.s overlooks the case of a compounding with a verb. The word Hf 
s therefore used so that we may be able to break this composite s6tra into 
wo separate and simple sutras, namely:— 

(i). i^r, gq;, m^^ ^S'JVH 'a case-inflected word may be com- 
lounded with a word with which it is connected in sense.' Here the word m 
^'tli the help of the three words ^.^ taken from sfitra 2, tr«re^ from sfitra 3, 
na «W!I from sfitra 1, forms one complete aphorism, and applies to com- 
'°"nds like 8i55?r?5nr <S(%m^^ . The accent will depend upon these 
'S'ng considered as samasa. 

(2). «7r ?rf 0<^ ^m^ a sup-inflected word is compounded with 
nother sup-inflected word. The compound which does not fall within any 
^1 e various sorts of compounds to be treated of hereafter, will fall under 
I's general head of compounds; as, yr^ii^ qr^ ^^ fPtkwfit W: This 

'^» 's for the sake of accents. 

218 AVYAYIBHAvA DESIGNATION. [ Bk. H. Ch. I. ^5, ( 

^tm^ HT?ig II \ II ^^Tfif It 3janft*n^: , i| II 

5. From this fonvjirfl whatever wo shall 
describe will got the name of Avyayihhava samasa or 
adverbial comiwund. 

This is also an adhikdra aphorism like the last. As far as sfitra 21, 
the compounds treated of, will get the designation of Avyayfbhdva. The 
word sis?f#ili7 like the word gs^flr^Tsft^ is a self-descriptive term, and not an 
arbitrary term like fs , f^ &c. When that which was not an indeclinable 
becomes an indeclinable, it is called 31?^#HPr or 'becoming an indeclinable.' 
In the AvyayJbhiva compound the sense of the first of its elements is the 
main one or the independent one on which the other depends. 

'»gi?I^Tg^^q^'n:ifIHTJ^^f^^T?^T5cfBI^^5 II % II q^tf^ II 

'Sfjai'ftwsi: nmw.) (^'t'5:) II 

V ^m€t mf^ II 

6. All indeclinable (avaya) employed with 
the sense of an inflective-afflx (vibliakti) or of near 
to, or pro.sperity, or adversity, or absence of the thing, 
or departure, or not now, or the ^jroduction of some 
sound, or after, or according to, or order of arrangement, 
or siraultaueonsuess, or likeness, or possession, or to- 
tality, or termination, is invariably compounded witli a 
word ending in a case-affix which is connected with it 
in sense, and the compound so formed is called Avya- 

The words ^ and m are understood in this sfitra. The 
word vvf should be read as connected with every one of the above 


1. fi'lf^KmT; — As STf^rSf ««n T#* ' a story relating to women.' 
nrfa«»irft ' relating to a girl.' 

2. «h1m«I*(«T ; — As OT*HH ' near to the jar.' 3<rTfiSjaif ' near to the gem,' 

3. ♦I^R^r-ft-r; — As g«n{ ' well or prosperous with the Madras'; 
ftHir4 ' well with the Magadh.' 

4. s^f^^pT ;— As jjtrrf?* ' ill with the Gavadikas;' ^fi 'ill with the 

5. 'ipn^^^T ;— As fh^r^^\ 'free from flies;' fi-^JJ* 'free from 

6. shji^R^t; — As f%ff ipT 'on the departure of the cold weather'; 
r? JffTa • 

7. »W!>'(%7^'T; — As «i'^w^>T ' past (not now) the time of wearing 


8. ?}sf!fr5>Th^^T; — .\s ?■[% 9f?' ' the exclamation Hari' (thus |«>TfJrt 
?f^?fc ^3'# 'in the house of the Vaishnava there is the cry of Hari Hari'). 

9. TSJIT^T , — As ^%ttr <Tt^t^H ' the infantry after the chariots.' 

10. ttjitu^^t; — The meaning of the word 7(vn is four-fold, viz. corres- 
pondence, sevcrality or succession, the not passing beyond something, and 
likeness; thus (1) ?i^^<t»T 'in a corresponding manner.' (2) SRJrtfT 'according 
to each or several object or signification.' (3) ?njT^f%j; ' according to one's 


11. sn^i^^q^;_As ^u^sJis sffl^5 >WJT: 'let your honors enter 
ill the order of seniority.' 

12. ^hrmT^T ; — As ^t^m ^^ ' simultaneously with the wheel.' 

13. m^WPf ; — As ^flf% ' like a friend.' 
14' ^TT^T^T; — As tWT»r ' as warriors ought.' 

15. q ra f q^^T ; — As (Era'CT't 'even to the grass' i.e. the whole, 
not leaving even a scrap. 

16. Hi=ifiT^; — As otRt as far as the chapter of fire («>. the whole 


7. The indeclinable -word yathil when it does 
^ot signify 'likeness' is invariably compounded with a 



word ending in a case-affix which ia in construction 
with it and the compound is called an Avyayibhava 

Thus Jwrra^^ JUim i HW-H^K^ invite every old Brahmana. So aisc 

Why do we say ' when not signifying likeness?' For there is nc 
composition when likeness is indicated. As ?Wl5^^-d*t1«ir «[?r?=fr: As is Deva- 
datta so is Yajnadatta. 

This samisa could have been included in the last sfitra clause 10, 
but making a separate sutra shows that the word ^pirw^^fT there, must be 
limited by the present sutra, to first three meanings of the word jfift given 
there and not to its fourth meaning, visi. there is no compounding when it 
means likeness. 

^i%: II ?irff^S5?s!t!prT'Trr'^ nnitH stt «? 9«r?^ sis^r^Mr^ 
^mt *Rf^ II 

8. The indeclinable word yAvat wheu it sig- 
iiifles limitation, is invariably compounded with a word 
ending in a case-affl.K which is in construction with it, 
and the compound so formed is called Avyaylbhava. 

The word siq^JKCT means accurate ascertainment, restriction or 
limitation. As, ^^ inf jtHUjJHlHH ^fT ' invite so many Brlhmanas only and 
not more as there are pots ': i.e., if there are five pots then invite five Br.lli- 
mans ;if six pots, then invite six Brihmans. 

Why do we say 'when meaning limitation'? Observe ?fRfTf ''R? 
3^1^ 'I ate so long as it was given to me,' i.e. I donot know for certainty how 
much I have eaten. 

( sTBUflHTog^ne^f ) u 

^p(: II «fnrf«f ^*Tt*!i !j:?r^ ^ «^ wf^ sTs^r^l^^(TV em^ ^^ " 

9. . A word ending in a case-affix is com- 
pounded with the indeclinable word prati, when mean- 
ing ' a little ' and the compound is called Avyayibhava. 

Bk. n. Ch. I. § 10, It.] Optional Compounds. 221 

The word ^RT means ' a drop,' 'a little,' 'a wee bit;' as, XTWf''' 
'a little of vegetable,' ^<rsiRl 'a little of soup.' 

Why do we say ' when meaning a little'? Observe^ qfflr ^^JlW# 
ff !I3 ' it lightens in the direction of the tree.' Here it is not compounded. 

Though the word sup was, by anuvritti from sfitra 2, understood in 
this sfitra, its repetition in the text is for the purpose of indicating that the 
anuvritti of the word ^?Tf which began with siitra 6 does not extend further 
into the subsequent sfiiras. 

The word STfflTTf being exhibited in the 3rd case-affix is not an upasar- 
jaiia (I. 2. 43) and therefore, it comes as the last member of the com- 
[jound (11. 2. 30). 

t^lfT , (3J5gO»=tf ) II 


10. The AvorJs akslia, ' a dio for playing 
with,' sal&lca ' au ivory picco u.sed in gambling',' and sau- 
ksliya ' numerals ' arc compounded witli the word pari, 
aud tlie compound formed i.s called Avyayibhiiva. 

This g«ira is restricted to terms applicable to gambling. Thus there 
i"^ a game called panchikA which is played with five dice or five ivory pieces. 
When all these five pieces fall with taccs turned upward, or all with faces 
turned down, then the thrower wins the game. But when the fall is other- 
wise, he loses. Thus ^WTfc ' an unlucky throw of dice.' ^jsrr^r'jft', 'an un- 
lucky throw of ivory pieces '; so also ^,^'jR ' an unlucky throw by one over' 
fsr/^, f%TR- and lastly ^^'S'lf?-.' This is the maximum. But when five are of 
one form, then of course, he wins. 

firHim « 11 II ^^lOf II fsivni^i n 

11. The word vibliasha oi' option governs all suc- 
<^eediiig sfttras. • 

This is an adhiklra sfitra. All the rules of compounding given here- 
'fif, are optional. The same sense can be expressed by the uncompounded 
""■as as by them when compounded. But not so are the compounds which 
*^e been treated of, before. Compounds like ^«rjf , HVR[W , »W7ft &c. 
i^ntioned above are invariable compounds ( ^nr WIW ), the sense conveyed 
■I '"6 compound teroJj not being capa'ple of analysis, by taking the senses o( 


the sepiratc members of the compounds, or at least not capable of expressine 
any sense without inserting extraneous words on analysis. 

HWM girrar >Tfffi ii 

12. Tlio words apa, pari, 'baluli and indecliu- 
ables ciidiiij? ill aucliu may optionally he compounded 
Avitli a word ending i.n the fiffcli eaxe-alHx, and the coni- 
poaiid so fonned will be Avyayibhava. 

-As 3r<!%1^'T ^^?r ?^: or 3TTi^iT%''-^r ^5?rt^: 'it rained away from 
Trigarta. Si also, tR'.'^'T'T'T or TfcRfT^'-'JT- ' round about Trigarta.'q'lTirfiiii or 
jf^q^Tf?!. ' outside the village' ^;n qrfPT or HfT TTTTr'T, ' cast of the village.' 

Words formed from the verb ai^ 'to go,' are g'J^ 'north' irf^ 
'east,' &c. 

From this siilra we learn by inference (jfiApak) that the word ?f^: 
also governs the ablalive case (sec It. 3. 29). 

W¥^1T4r^Tf*rR^: II 93 II ^^IH II ^\\, fTt^T^T-^rfff- 
ftiajt: , (H93i?sm9'ci5;?»qi ^^) II 

«trsjnfNif5rw ^r€r ^^fft n 

I0. 'Hie Avoi'd ah when .sig-uifyiiig limit ex- 
clusiv'c or limit inelusiw, ni.ay optionally beeomponndcil 
with a word ending in thiHitlh eus'^-aHi.x: and tlie com- 
pound so forjned is called Avyayibhava. 

As, ^vrf^l^ or ^fmilFSTWr?^ ^'^f ?^; ' it rained up to Pdtaliputra.' 
MWTfT or STf'^KTK'-W ^rj TfiOj^. 'the fame of Paiiini extends even to 
the boys.' 

^51^'TimBi^ arrmg?^ ii 9« ii ^rf^f ii m^^H , ^' 

H?ft , ^lfH5^ , (^93?9fg510) II 

^ri?^ ?is«i?jhTrqT9 «>Tr€r »T?f% ii 

14. The word.s al)hi and prati when implying? 
direction (towards), are optionally compounded Avitli 
a word ending in a ca^e-ailix denoting the limit, or tli^ 

Pk. II. Ch. I. § 15, i6. ] Optional Avvayibhava Compounds. 223 

goal wliich regulates or mark.s the (liroctiou; and the 
iv.suUiug- compound U Avjaylbliava. 

The word iaksliana means a sign goal. See also I. 4, 84 and 90 
for a further explanation of this word. As s^v^frq- or ^/r^jqi^T ^p^f, qqfSpf 
'the moths fall in the direction of fire.' So also smr^ or srfnf Jirit , the 
sense being, that making the fire their aims ( 51^ ) they fall towards it. 

Why do we say 'when meaning lakshana '? Observe 5r^ tRt W^: 'he 
turned back and went towards Snighna />., having turned back he went only 
towards the direction of Srughna but not to that place itself. 

Why do we say the words abhi and prati ? Observe wP^t^ ITT: 
'he went in the <lircction of the fire.' 

Why do we say 'when meaning direction towards'? Observe 
8?>-7|^f Tf^: or sir^rjTiTrT ' the recently marked cows.' 

^mr ^^r^ II 

IT). Tire word ami ' near to ' is optionally 
conijiounded with that word, nearness to wliich is indi- 
cated by the pai-ticle, and the resulting coniiionud is 

As, «I5f!W3jf%»^tT: ' the thunderbolt fell near the forest.' 
Why do we say gjj ? Observe q-?f ynm ' near the forest.' 

Why do we say ' when compounded with the word, nearness to 
^■'iich is indicated '? Observe ^HH ft'^JHTW ffuw ' it lightens towards 

tlie tree.' 

Though this compounding was valid even by sOtra 6, because near- 
less is mentioned there also ; it is repeated here in order to show that 
1 Avyayibhava compound mentioned here is an optional compound after 
> and not an invariable compound like otiiers. 

^^^ w^m: II %% II ^^if^ II «RiT , ^ , wn^: , (ho- 

'^m II 


Irregular Formations. [ Bk. II. Ch. I. § 16-18. 

16. The word auu ' alongside of is o]>tiou- 
ally corapouuded with the word indicative of that 
wlios;? length tlie particle expresses, and the compound 
so formed is called Avyayibhava. 

As, Hlrfn. nt^m^t ' the city of Benares extends alongside the rivet 
Ganges' ^w^fHji Turr ' Mathura, alongside of the Yamuna, the length of 
Mathura behig measured by that of the Yamuna.' 

Why do we say ' length'? Observe ^Wf? f^m^ f^. • 

17. And the words tishthadgn, 'at tlie time 
Avhon the cows stand to ho milked,' &c. are Avyajabhava 

The words fnv^Jj&c. are all irregularly formed Avyaytbhdva com- 
pounds. Most of these words are epithets of various times. The force ol 
■^ in the sulra is restrictive, that is to say these words always form the Avya. 
ySbh&va compound and nothing else. They are as follow ;— - 

fSr^T^, ???5, sif?f?ff»Tf IT , ^^"i, 'aw^!^, h;t^h, FraTR- 

ttrsw, sTifci'i, ^x^'{, '!J^t\, n^^'i'^. HTT^ftr'^, e'Jifir, ^i^srffr, 
<irTO"TT; , y^^jTi , r^^^^s^rf^t^rf V. 4. 1 27. c. g. 5»r?tr«f% 11 

xfH ^sq m^sv. m II %(> u ■^\^^ h tn^, Tva , ^«3^', 
m {^o-s{oxno%o) 11 

18. The words para ^across,' and madhya 
'middle' may optionally he corapoiuided with a Avord 
ending hi the sixth case-afflx, when they take the fornis 
pare and madhyo, and the compound so formed i'^ 

Ordinarily these words would have formed Possessive Tatpurus'* 
compounds. The present huira ordains AvyaytbhAva instead. The force 

BK. 11. Ch. 1. § 19, 20, ] Irregular Formations. 82S 

^ in the text is that the Genitive Tatpurusha compounding also takes place 
in the alternative. As, ^Tf?^fJT'^or »ftTrTfr»^ 'across the Ganges.' »^i»niH or 
tiifHiJpl 'middle of thi Ganges.' 

Of course according to the option allowed by sfitra II. 1. 1 1 ., this coiDt 
pounding need not take place at all, the same sense being expressed by a 
phrase ; as trt ^tntft: or m4 ^ttrm: • 

^im\ mf^ II 

19. A numeral may be compoxinded with 
11 word denoting 'one belouglug tea family' and the 
Insulting compouud is Avyaylbliilva. 

The word i^ means uninterrupted descent of persons from a com- 
mon source whether through birth or knowledge. A succession of teachers 
antl pupils, of ancestors and descendants &c., "would constitute a ^ ' family.' 
One born in or belonging to such a ^jj is called a ij^ or descendant. 

As, fff^fr 5?rr^>TCJ?«r ' of the Vydkarana which has two sages as its 
irincipal expounders viz., P4nini and Patanjali. So, RttRt •!ir*i"lt'!| 'having 
hree representatives vis. Pdnini, Patanjali and SakatAyana or KAtySyana.' 

When we desire to express their equality as regards knowledge, 
hen both the words are put in the same case : as (l7Tl% or f%irf% t*ir**.(ri*|, • 

So also when the relationship is by birth: as, 5irf#^rf^ >Tl iB; i JTH . 
Twenty-one BhAradwdjas. These a subsequent compounds are like Dvigu. 

«T?i\ffl?g II Re II TT^rf^ II fT^ffl: , n , (^9^e^e^ml) M 

fi%: II ^^•^: STsI: ?T? ^»5^r fliR^, Ws^nihTffV ^TTBf Hf^ II 

20. A nnmeral (sankhya) may be componnd- 
P(l with names of rivers ' and the resulting compound is 
AvyaylbhAva denoting an aggregate. 

According to Patanjali this refers to their Aggregate ( ?r»ir?iT ) ; as 
''''■T^'( ' at the meeting of the seven Ganges,' fJ^igsT 'at the meeting of 
the two YamunAs, <T'^? ' where the five rivers meet,' <m4i)^l4<t(^ ' where 
seven Godavaris' meet. See II, 4. 1, 17. 


828 Tat-pueusha. [ Bk, II. Ch. I. § 21 .23, 

21. A Avoitl ending in a case-afflx is com- 
pounded with words denoting' tlio names of rivers, when 
the compon))d Avord denotes a thing other than tiiafc 
expressed by the tn'ms of the coniponnd, and is an 
appellative ; the compound so formed being an Avya- 

The anuvritti of the word sankhyA does not extend to this sutra. 
Though this rule is given in the subdivision relating to optional compounds 
it is, however, a Nitya-samasa rule: for no Name («irr) can ever be expressed 
by a sentence, and that being so, these compounds can never be analysed. 
As, ^nrnij: 'the country colled Unniatta Ganges.' So also Sir^^inm 
^'Cj'fii; nr^jfT^il. 4. 18. 

Why do we say ' when it denotes a thing other than that expres';ed 
by the component parts of the compound'? Observe ^stlT^t the ' river 

Why do we say ' when it expresses an Appellative'? Observe Jlff^fWlr 
^JJ: ' the country where the Ganges moves rapidly.' 

?Tr3^: II !^^ II Tj^rfH tl ?(?5^; 11 

^ M^m: II 

22. Fi'om this a])]iorism as Ikr as ap])orisin 
IT. 2. 2o, tbe word Tat-pnraslia is the govei'ning word, 
and is niulerstood in all tlie iollowing sutius. 

From this sutra as far as the sutra II. 2. 23 relating to Bahuvrihi 
compounds, the word Tat-purusha should be read into each sfitra. this big 
term is of older coinage than that of PAnini, being, in fact, made by 
older grammarians. In the Tat-purusha compound, the sense of the last of its 
elements is the main one, and governs the preceding one. The Karma- 
dhAraya (Appositional Determinative Compound) and Dwigu (Numeral Deter- 
minative Compound) are also subdivisions of this class of co.mpounds. The 
rest of this chapter and 22 sfttras of the second, deal with this. 

%?l II 5?^ II q^t^ II %5:,, fr, inf^:) 11 

^: II ^Jjv ^ure^^c^ffr H^rrr II 

23. And the kind of compound called Dwign 
(Numeral Determinative Gompound) is also called Tat- 

Bk. n. Ch. I. § 23-25. ] Tat-purusha. 227 

The object of making Dwigu a subdivision of Tat-puruslia Compound 
is that the aTT^Pcf affixes and rules given in V. 4. 68-160 should apply to 
Dn'igu also. Otherwise we could vi'el! have dispensed with this siitra ; as 
sutra 52 of this chapter already defines Dwigu. Thus q'^niT V. 4. gi fem, 
"f^rfiff (IV. I. 15, 21), 'an aggregate of 5 princes' gg^; ' V. 4. 8g, <r^«T^iT 'an 
aggregate of 5 cows.' ^^(T'l^'T ' an aggregate of ten cows.' V, 4. (j2. 

ff%: II ft^^rf'H f^w fM?rrf|f5r: <r? ^«re^^, wjjptst ?fJir«r ^^ ii 

^rr^^fT II f^fTrr?^crrTTrf»?ir^7^ jT^^j^rT'T 11 

24. A word ending wJlii llio .s 'coud ciise-afflx 
iseomiioiindcd witli tlio vvord.s Hfitti 'who lias had rcc^ourse 
to,' atita 'goiK! by ' patita ' who Juts ialloii upon,' gata 
' who has gone to " atyasta ' who hUn pa.s.sod,' prapta ' who 
lia-=i obtaiiic I,' and apanna'wlio has roachi^d,' and the 
rci.sulthig compound is called Tat-pm-usha. 

As gfsi? + piffT: = ^5?Pit<T, ' who has had recourse to trouble.' Hi ^ipi Trr:, 
So also : — ?Kf?cI|Trfft<T. ' who has passed over the dreary forest.' TC^TfflrT: 
'f.dlca into hell.' iTr>i<T<T. ' gone to village.' fTr<Tr?il?rT. 'p.issed the waves.' 
5<3!IfT: 'whj has reached ple.isure.' g^l/T^T. 'who has obtained happiness.' 

Fiiri: — The words iptt , JTr4t &c. should also be included. As iTPHT'ft', 

^JR^T II ^H II tr^if^r II -m^ff, ^H , (^efliJcTeio) ii 

25. The judeclinahlo Avord swayam 'oneself^ 
is conapouudcd with a word eiidiug in the affix kta, aud 
tlio resulting compjuud is called Tat-puru.sha, 

The anuvritti of the word ftiff^iT from the last aphorism into this, 
'^•■>iinot take place ; though, however, it is understood in the next sfitra. The 
Word ?fjr»^ being an Indeclinable, cannot take any case-affix. As ?tw tT^rft l^ 
' f«el washed by himself ' ^^ ^5ihmrs?j»( . 

in this compounding, the two words do not appear to have undergone 

"y change after their composition. They are the same as they were 

■^fe the composition. But by calling their juxtaposition, ' a compound/ 

228 Tat-purusha. [ Bk. II. Ch I. § 26, 


two indirect advantages are gained. Namely these two words jre 
regarded as one word, and their accent is also similarly regulated. See 
Rule VI. I. 223. 

The words ending in kta which Is a Nishth4 affix, are past parti- 

(fU^^tlT) II 


2G. The word khatwft in the accusative case 
is coinpoundefl with a ■word ending intlie affix kta, whou 
censure is implied, and tlie compound so formed is Tat- 

The word WT means ' censure,' 'blame' and this sense can be con- 
noted only by the compound word as a whole and not by any of its consti- 
tuent elements. This compound is also, therefore, a Nitya Compound, though 
it occurs in the subdivision relating to Optional Compounds : — because it is 
impossible to analyse such a compound and express, by means of a sentence, 
the sense conveyed by the function of the compound word. 

As ^sigr^rs: or '?!r|fSW: (literally lying on a bed) ; silly, stupid, going 
wrong or astray. 

There is no compounding when ' censure is not meant. As JSrifirSr:! 
' lying on a bed.' 

Why this word should have this opprobriou-; meaning, will be under- 
stood from the consideration of the following facts: — a person under the 
Aryan social polity, could only then enter the married state or the life of a 
House-holder, as it was called, when he had completed his BrahmachArya ;■''• 
the prescribed period of bachelor studentship. All Brahmacharis were 
bound to sleep on.^-ouijd and not on ^sjr or cot";, so long as they were 
Brahmachiris. A person who without completing his studies, and without 
obtaining the permission of his teacher, entered into matrimony, was origi- 
nally called, in reproach, ^jrerf: 'who had ascended the couch in an improper 
way.' Then the term was extended to all persons guilty of vile action. 

^f% n '^s II tr^Tf?! u mfk , (^cfgo^e^f «") 
(f|^nm) n 

BK. H. Ch. I. § 27-29. ] Accusative Tat-purusha, '229 

27. The indeclinable word sdmi meaning 
' half i? compounded will a word ending in the affix 
kta, and the resulting compound is Tat-purusha. 

The word grft being an avyaya, and not denoting any substance, 
cannot take the affixes of the second or any case. Therefore the anuvritti 
of the word fin\^! would be inapposite in this aphorism. 

As grftfjfPT 'half-done.* ^rrf^ftfi^ ' half-drunk' tri^Trff^' half-eaten.' 
The object attained by thissamdsa is the same as in II. i. 25, namely 
making them one word and taking one accent. 

H^rfr 'I 

28. Tlie words donoting time, being in the 
accusative cas(;, are optionally conip.")unded with a word 
eliding in the affix kta, and the i-e.^ulting comp.ound is 

This rule applies when duration of time is not connoted by the 
compound, which is provided for, in the next aphorism. The word ^(^l: 
does not mean here, as it would otherwise mean by Sutra I. I. 68, the word- 
form gfr»f but special words denoting arrST . 

As >Trai?fflrfiv?3rTf: 'the new moon,' (literally, the moon that has begun 
to measure the month). Similarly ^TJW'fiFTr; , TrR'^fsfiT^rff: applied to six 
Muhurtas (of .}.8 minutes each) which are called ^t and s?^^ which some- 
tmies occur in day time (in the summer month) and sometimes in the night 
(in the winter). 

^9i9^T^i: gtiT %) 11 ^v 

^''i^Pi gjiRfr >Tff% II 

29. Woids denoting time being in the accu- 
sative case, are optionally conapouuded with a word 
'Gilding in a case-affix, when used in the sense of com- 
plete connection throufflioufc witli the time (i.e., dui-a- 
won of time) and the resulting com j)ound is called Tat- 
I'uru.sha. . ■ 

E30 Instrumental Tat-purusiu [ Bk. If. Ch. I. § ig.- 

The word ^(5 is understood in this aphorism; but not so the phra 
' ending with the affix ^,' 

The word ^Jiwr^f^rT means 'uninterrupted connection.' For accc 
of these words see VI. 2. 2. 

As 5f ^^'S'^ ' a momentary pleasure,' «^iN4it-4imft, wIcR'^TT'ITr. 

(TTraf >i7;Wii 

80. A word ending \yitli the 8rd ca'sc-affl 

is optloTially compounded with Avliat denotes qualit 

the (|uality being tliat wliich is instrumentally cause 

hy the thing signified by Avhat ends witli tbetliird cas 

affix and with the word artiia 'wealth,' and the con 

pound so formed is called Tat -i:*!! rush a. 

The words ^tT, ^TX are Ajndcrstood hero: and the whole of this sul 
is an epithet of those words. A noun in the instrumental case is compoun 
ed with a word expressing quality, and with the word ?ju: provided that t 
word expressing quality is itself the result produced by the sense of t 
word in the instrumental case. As ^jsfiS^H?!"^: ^^^tw^: ' cut by nippi 
fttft-^foi: 'made blind of one eye by a hog ' >TPTr«J: 'wealth acquir 
by grain.' For accent of these words see VI. 2. 2. 

Why do we say ' when caused by the word in the instrumental casi 
Observe ST^r 9BPI: 'blind of one eye.' Here ST^f in the 3rd case is not t 
instrumental cause that produced blindness and hence no compounding, 

Why do we say ' a word expressing quality ?' Observe :— »irf'rt'7R 
'sowing with the cows.' Here though 'sowing' is instrumentally caused by t 
cows, yet it does not qualify cows but the sower, and hclicc no compoundin 

Guna-vachanas are those words which, not being- .words formed 
primary or secondary affixes, or other words entitled to the name of saiikhj 
or sarvandma, or jAti, or compound words, are words denoting qualities ai 
capable of being used as adjectives qualifying substantives. 

>»f%: II if ^f^ Wf 3r^«J ^TH? (%5"I ftM Urt^ ^^■■ ?If SfJNf^ ^^^' 
WJC'TV ^TRft »I#f II 

Bk. I. Crt. I. § 31, 32. ] Instrumental Tat-purusha. 281 

81. A woi'd ending' iu tlie third easo-afflx is 
compounded with tlie words piirva 'prioi-,' satlvij^a "like,' 
- sania 'similai',' iluartha 'words having- the sense of iess,' 
kalal-iti 'quarrel,' nipnna 'proficient,' misra 'mixed,' and 
slakshua ^)olis]ied sleek' a)id the resulting compound is 
called Tat-purnslia. 

From tilis sutra, we learn incidentally that the words <tI &c., govern 
the instrumental case. 

As, iTr^7 "Tt: = mm^ 'prior by a.month,' ^fwjTT^: ' prior by a year,' 
mt'XlJJ: 'iik.' the mother,' fi--c„Trrr ' like the father,' JTrT^Pr: ' similar to the 
mother,' f^^nn. 'similar to the father,' HmtfJ, Hmf^^^ti ' less by a masIiA,' 
Hfir^^vSTf: 'a fight with the swords,' 'jf^?f^: 'bandying words.' !rrg;firTT: 
'proficient in speech,' STr'^R" f^Tor: ' proficient in the observances of sacred 
duties,' ftifftHT: — JJff^iT. 'mixed with sesamum or juggery ' 9W^roCT!I^3r! 
'polished in behaviour.' , 

Vari : — The word ^{^ should be enumerated in the list, as frrawC; 
'later than a month.' 

v^\, (no^o^9^^o^o) II 

^fRjf HTf% II 

3-2. /V word ending with the tJiird caso-afflx, 
when it denotes tlio agent or the instrument (11. 3. 18) 
is compounded divei'scly with wlitit ends with a krit 
affix; and the compound so formed is called Tat- 

The word ^si shows that there is a general relaxation of all the rules 
and conditions. As Hf|^f?ff; = 3l^frT: 'killed by the snake' ^r^SfrfJIW: 
'ili^ided by the nails.' TtllTf'SW: ' cut by tlie axe.' 

Why do we say 'when denoting the agent or the instrument'? 
Observe fHWrfH^^fq-ff: ' dwelt with alms.' Here the force of the 3rd case is that 
■nentioned in sflitra II. 3. 21 aod not that of II. 3. iS.' 

Why do we say 'diversely'? Observe ^r^itj S^fsr ' cutting with 'the 
Sickle.' q-f^^r^fTTn^ 'cutting with the axe.' Here there is no compounding. 
"' there is compounding where otherwise there ought not to be, because of 
^he word ^55r:—as "rfWTT^K; and »r^ ^«: , 

232 Instrumental Tat-purusha. [ Bk. II. 0\. I. § 33, 3^ 

(^ora«'?9^^«i5t5jo) II 

ff>r: II ^5Knir&itif ^<itt(f n^ ^^^ ^^i «? ^pr^^ 'stf^^nrT^^ 

5rr^?f»i II ^;mfm ir^'JTarf?'^ su^sapr 11 

38, A word ending wLtli tlie thml casc-afflx 

wl ion ffc denotes the agent ortTi3 instniniont, is com- 

• ponnded optionally Avith a word ending in a kritya affix, 

when-an cxaggei'ated statement (whether of praise or of 

oensiire) is implied, and the compound is Tat-i^iirnsha. 

As ^5fitf?rrT^ ' a shallow river' (so shallow that a crow may dip hii 
licak into it and touch the bottom and drink), ^^#^^f: ^vT: 'a shallow well' 
(so that a dog can lick water from the brink of it). ^r^q^Swrf^ jt°If^ 'thin 
grass ' (so fragile that it can be cut by vapour) cfcudchff^ s?J^; . 

This sQtrafs in a way a prolongation of the last. 

Vayi: — The phrase 'words ending in a kritya affix* must not be taken 
universally, only the kritya affixes Z(H and jrip^ arc meant in the above i.fitras. 
The following are the kritya affixes ;—Tlsjr , sT;fNT , ^Trf , ^Ff^, ll'ffff , (sec 
siltra III. I. 95-133). Therefore there is no compounding when the word end? 
in finr as in =R[^.' fjTf^X ■ 

s^rf aar^H'l^ 11 ^» II q^if^l II 3^^^, ^1^^, (^ef«r«Hf- 
?iego^«) II 

^^: II s?T^TTrf^ i.<itHi'riH>H^lf^ Hspg^ «? ^f^ RTTm, m^^ 

«>iRft »i^fn ir 

84. A word ending with the tliirdcasc-aflix 
and denoting a condiment, is optionally compounded 
With a word ending Lu a casc-aflfix, .signifying food, aiul 
the resulting componnd i.s called Tat-purusha. " 

That which is to be prepared is called ?pST, and that which prepares ' 
isaaspT; as<^;n?*r: = ^vj( 'Tffy^ ^^^^■. 'rice prepared, or made relishable 
with curd.' So also HTlry^pr; . The words /food' and 'condiment' as repre- 
sented in the above compounds, are connected in sense by a verb 

Bk. H. Ch. I. § 35, 36. ] Dative Tat-purusha. 238 

Hirrwlf wf^r II 

35. A wo I'd, ending with the 3rd case-affix 
and denoting a relish giving or rotiniiig ingredient, is 
compounded witlx a word meaning, victuals, and the 
comiJound lis Tat-purusha. 

Anything eatable, whether hard or soft, is called. >{?t?r; its refinement 
i, called ft>i{f^rrt!i . As ^^'^TWr: ' barley prepared with juggery;' g^S^prff: 
'flattened parched rice prepared with juggery.' 

The connection here also l>et\vteen the two w'ords is 'established by a 
verb understood. 

^5«ff in[«»^'5ijf%ff crg^^fsit; II ^^ II ti^ifn 11 "'^ci'ff , 

TfrT: II rffnf grw ^^ f?^ g^ riWfr ?«t^: m '^^^^ *iHkH9 , «tN<,»f V 

^mt >i^f?T II 

mT"^^ II siifT ft??RiTRfr5'T €#%5pfTr "^r ^^fRs^rr 11 

8G. A woi'd ending with the 4th case-affix i3 
compounded with what denotes that which is for the 
purpose of what ends with the 4th case-affix and so too 
with the words artha ' on account ot,' hali ' asacrifice,' 
liita 'salutary,' suklia 'pleasure' and rakshita ' kept,' 
ami the compound is called Tat-iDurusha. ' 

The words ^Sf , tTqr are understood in this' sutra : and the whole sAtra 
qualifies these words. - 

By the expression irjij ,' for the purpose thereof,' the special relation 
of a niiterial and its inodi^fication alone is by Patanjali here held to be 
intended.- As ^<ira frw- = 'TTfrc': 'wood for stake' (that-is wood which by modi-. 
"cation will be changed into a stake). g" ^ <rif f T"4 'gold for ear-ring.' But not 
^° here, rp^sinr ^JlTift ' pot for cooking.' ^n^spTraRgSTST'^ 'the wood mortar for 
"'feshing. From this, sfitra we may also infer that the Dative case conveys 
"''so the sense of ' for the purpose thereof.' The word ^t}?^ is taken as one 
Word by somq, meaning ' a thing serviceable thereto.' See VI, 3. 44. For 
«(-tcnt see VI. 2. 45. 

831 Ablative Tat- PDRUSHA. [ Bk. IK Ch. I. § 36.38. 

J,',,,-/ .—Witli the word Wtr the compound so formed is a Nitya com- 
pound (an invariable compound) and agrees in gender with the word which 
it qualifies ; as, JTfTT'inj'T T^T: 'milk for the sake of Bralimans ;' and JtfOT!Tr?ff brtTit: 
'gruel for the Brahinanas.' So also ^T^ffl: ' a sacrifice for Kuvera' >nfmir^>[; 
' a sacrifice for the great Raja.' iff ?ff ' what is good for cows.' H^^tfw 'what 
is good for horses ' TiJ^m ' what is pleasant for cows ' iftrW'i ' what is kept for 
cows,' (as grass). 

TT'W'ft ^^n II ^» II 'T^rfH II ^^Hi , vn^ , (^ewdftcfa 
S^T 'wr ) II 

ijfft: II "T^Jptf 9??tt >l?r(T5|T m^^H ^ rlTFStt Mm fTWriTV 

«»rr# ifRr ii 

TTfSjir^ It H^ >ftfr Jtr^r Hf.'5r ftf^ ^^sRSipj 11 

37. A word ending with the Bth casc-afflxis 
optionally compounded willi tlie word hliaya 'fear,' and 
tlie compound is Tat-pnrusha. 

The phrase WT HTT is understood here, and the sfltra qualifies it. 
As ^^k^ir>nf = ^^fH«f ' fear from wolves ' "ifltipi ' fear from thieves' 
^f?ppr 'fear from robbers.' 

Vari :— So also with the words sffri, wl'.n and iff: as ^^pfiTT: , ^iS^ftft: , 

This sutra is an expansion of sfitra 32 and an exposition of the word 
VS^ there. So that we may have the following compounds also: JTrif^T: 
' gone out of the village.' ^jif Wfm: . 

3?^«TT'it5gf»'T0i?ntni^%?i5<?^: ii \^ ii ^rf^r u <sf^n- 

38. A word ending witli the 5th is 
compounded witli tli'3 word.s apata 'gone away,' apodbsi 
' carried away,' mulita ' freed,' patita 'fallen,' apatrasta, 
'afraid of,' when the event tako5 place in a gradual 
maimer, and the compound is called Tatpurusha. 

As, mtm^w. ' gone away from pleasure ' M<<^1<T r 'H« : 'carried a.way by 
imagination ' nWJ^: ' freed from the wheel.' ??Hhfil!T: ' fallen from heaven-' 
mjrqir^S: ' afraid of the waves.' This is an expansion of II. i. 3»' 

BK If. CH. 1. $.38-40. ] ABLATIVE' TATPURUSHA. iSS 

By using the word ^^fj: ' in a gradual degree,' is siiown the limited 
range of this kind of compounds, Not every ablative word can be so com-, 
pounded. Hence there is no compounding at all in the following cases :— 
flffffffff <Tt%Jf :, ' fallen from the miiihion, vffJT'TR'T'r^'?; ' afraid of eating.' For 
here the fall &c. is violent and sudden, and not gradual and slight. 

«ii??Pff, rRj^-srv wirwt >wf?r 11 

frf^i^ II ^TtrtTf^'ft qr^fRr ^T»re?iiT 11 

20. Words with the .sense of stok.'i ' a little,' 
anlika ' near,' dura ' far,' and also thj woi'd kriclieJilira 
'penance,' ending- in the 5tli case-aflix are componnded 
with what ends in kta, and the comi:)oiind is Tat-purnsha. 

As ??ft^f«T5^. ' loosed from a little distance.' 

So also srfSfl^r^rn'W: ' come from near ' a^mr^jffltM: ' come from near ' 
'jrr^llrf: 'come from far,' ftij^f^jryfim. 'come from a distance.' ffSaTSTW: saved 
with difficulty.' ft^aRJ ^'T- ' obtained with difficulty.' 

By rule VI. 3. 2 the case-affix is not elided in compounds of 
this kind. 

Pari: — The words jTiT 'a hundred' and «f5( 'a thousand' are similarly 
compounded with the word >Tr . As, ?Trtr?7t' - "Tr^r^TSTT: 'beyond a hundred.'' 
So also ifctr^fsr. ' beyond a thousand.' In these examples the word ^ and 
^ff being exhibited in the 1st case and thus being upasarjana ought to have 
stood as the first member of the compound (II. 2. 30) ; But these compounds 
"re supposed to fall under the class of rr^rffrT &c., (II. 2. 31) and hence the 
iipasarjana stands as the second member of the compound. Irregularly is 
albo (he augment g^ ( g'J ) interposed between these twowords. 

40. A word (3]idJ ng with the 7th case-affix is 
'^ompoiuaded with the words saiinda ' skilled' &c. and 
^be compound is Tat-pnrusha. 

Sg-g Locative Tat-purusha. [ Bk. If. Ch. [. § 40.43, 

The word ^h;^: in the sfltra being in the plural number indicates a 
class of words beginning with sauiida. 

As, H#T ^fi^: = swsrf^: 'skilled in dice ' SRT-T^t: 'cunning in dice' 
«I«f^?f^; ' '1 gamester in dice.' 

The following is the list of ^t'm'^ words;— I iffW, 2 \3^ , 3 f^^^ , 4 
s«ira , 5 sr^t'"' < *5 BfftfT , 7 ^fl^ when meaning place, 8 srfti , 9 qf , (or ?rf^q?) , 
to >l(^ , 1 1 ^^O'PJ , 12 "^ST , 13 ftji , 14 anrrs ' 15 >F'^ , and 16 ^>flT . 

11, (€9?jefto^'ft ) II 

^f%: II f%5-q'!^- "Tft ^vj f?$#: ^? gtrwfsi ^H^%, m^ V ^wr^lr H^rfr 11 

41. A word ending with the 7th case-affix is 
compoiuuled witli tlic words siddha 'i^erfected,' sushka 
'dried,' jrakv^a ' cooked ' and baiidlia 'bound,' and thu 
resulting compound is Tat-purusha. 

As, gf^nC?t%."g[: 'perfect in s^nkisya.' arrfiT^^rfll^: 'perfect in Kdnipi- 
lya.' ^TITT^'^K: ' dried in the sun.' 5r«tl^'!i|f: 'dried in the shade.' ?«Tr?fl7li: 
'cooked in pot.' cRnft <15R: 'cooked in an earthen jar.' ^?Ri|f>l: ' bound on the 
wheel. For their accent see VI. 2. 32. 

These are also further illustrations of the word ^fi in sdtra 32. 

vgmjN i^ II tf? II ^^if^ II «8(T^;^'n #^ , (^ccrefsrs- 
^o^B^ ) » 

fFf-tm^ II 

42. A word ending with tlac Ttli case-affix is 
compounded with the word dlivahksha, ' a crow,' (and 
with synonyms of crow) when contempt is implii.'d; 
and the resulting compound is Tat-purusha. 

As, iftiK^Nf: ' a crow at the sacred bathing place' i.e., a very greeny 
person ; as a crow in a bathing place does not remain long, any where, fO 
a person who goes to his teacher's house and does not tarry there long, '« 
called a #!j9KrsR: or a ?fh?gT«re': . 

When it has not this meaning, there is no'compounding: as, ?ftai?W' 
ftWSRr ' There is a. crow in the sacred bathing place.' 

ld^9^) II 

PK. 11. Ch. I. § 43-45. ] Locative Tat-purusha. 237 

43. A word ending with the 7th case-afflx is 
compoiuided with words ending with a kyitya-afflx (a 
tilt, pas.s. Participle) and the resulting compound is Tat- 
purusha, when 'deht' is iiu plied. 

This compound is confined to the words formed by the kritya affix ^m^ 
and not to every kritya-formed word. 

As, >rRr|«f ' a debt repayable within a month.' So afliiWtS^r ' payable 
ttithin a year.' «!t(f?«p^ ' repayable within three days.' 

By using the word ^'n we indicate by implication any appointed time 
ill general, and not merely a time for the payment of a debt. Therefore we 
get compounds in the following cases also: — T^fliUi HR 'the Sdnia that 
should be sung in the morning.' irftiT'.^^fr'I'JTr^; ' the chapter that should be 
studied in the morning.' 

Why do we say ' debt'? Observe «ir# ^^ ftw 'the alms that should be 
given each month.' 

^tnnm II «8 II t^^R II ^iuTH , ( wciofsroHF^ft 
g^T wf ) II 

44. A word ending with the 7tJi is 
invariably coinpounded with a word ending- in a case- 
adix, wlien the compound thus formed i« used as an appel- 
lative, and is call ,'d Tat-pin-u.sha samasa. 

A sanjnA is expressed by the complete word, hence it is an invari- 
able (nitya) compojnd ; for we cannot express an appellative by a sentence. 

As, sn:X!# ^JT^r: 'wild sesamum' yielding no oil ; anything which does 
not answer to one's expectation. So also ^<uiiHINr: , q# ftf^W: ' anything 
'ound unexpectedly.' So also q#i%?^W: , ^f7S[rr^^r: • 

The case-affix is not elided , in this case, in accordance to sfltra VF. 
3.9. (The 7th case-affix is not elided after words ending in consonants 
or m short Vf when the compound denotes appellative.) 

^'TTfl^KT^T^I^T: II ^ II ^^\fh II ^VT, 3Tf :-?:t^-5TJITI^T:, 

( ^efge^Tciifiaije ) 11 

^. II sffTTJf^ rr^ri'i^rv ^iri^isfrr: Tirfft'r ^? ^rwjt , fTCT^nrv 'anr^ 

238 Locative Tat-pubusha. [ Bk. II. Ch, I. § 45.4^ 

45. The names of divisions of day or night 
ending with a Yth case-afHx are compounded with wordvj 
ending with the affix kta; and tlio resulting compound 
is Tat-puruslia. 

As, i«f ?fi?P^ 'done in the morning.' 'TTTTilTtm ' done in the after- 
noon.' t Ii h ^ ^W ' done in the first part of the night.' »im<M^tI ' done in the 
last part of the night.' 

Why do we say 'members or divisions of day and night?' Observe 
"JRfi^ HtKT 'eaten in the day ' TT^ ^^ ' occurring in tiie night.' 

This being a continuation of suira II. i. 32, we have diversely 
nf^^^ and ^^mrf^^f . 

H^ II ^ II T^ffn II «T^ , ( mO^OT^S^^OWf ) II 

46. Tlie word tatra ' there,' whicli is a word 
ending with the 7th case-atHx, (V. 3. 10; is compounded 
with a word ending ia kta, aiKl the resulting compound 
is Tat-purusha. 

Thus JPTJ^TTH ■ eaten there.' m^ 'done there.' ?mW ' drunk there.' 
By making this a compound, the same purpose is served as in sulra II. i. 25 
namely, these two words form one word and get one accent. 

ii^ II »9 II TJ^lfjI II §^ , ( ^cf^9?f«F«'5f ^f ) H 

TN: II W? »FJI>tf^ «^«T>Wi ^fTi'tT «? ^T»T?«[^, rTIJ^V aHmt "T^fff 1 1 

47. A word euding with a 7th case-affix is 
compouTided witli a word ending with the affix kta, 
when ' c:.!nsure ' is implied, and the compound is Tat- 

As, 5rf?rJ»r?K'aRjIrr ?r q^nn ' they are as if an ichneumon standing on 
hot ground (metaphorically said of the inconstancy of man) ^rTSP^ M 

So also 5^ ^l-"^^' dried in water,' (figuratively used for any thing 
unheard of or impossible.) 

So also sjfft 'IfVi^^ ( lit. ) ' making water in a stream,' (fig.) ' doing a 
useless action.' wrft f«K ' offered oblation in ashes,, (fig.) 'a fruitless action. 

The 7th case-affix is not elided in the case of this sfltra also, ^^e 
sitraVI. 3. 14. 


Bk. II. Ch. I. § 48-49. ] Irregular Tat-purusha. 


48. The word s like patre-sammfta 'a clisli-com - 
panioii' (a parasite^, &c., are Tat-puruslia compounds, when 
(•outompt is imiilied. 

All these are irregular compounds. Some of the wo'rds contain ed 
in this list are compounds formed with the past-participle ( tR ); they could 
have been formed by previous aphorism also. Their inclusion in this list is 
for the purpose that their first member should have uddtta on the beginning ; 
because all the words belonging to this class, are a subdivision of a larger 
class called ' grfrrOwfft Class ' treated of in sutra VI. 2. 8i. 

The following is the list of the words:— i <n*gftir: , 2 <Tr9^?Tr:'a 
p.irasile ' (constant at meals or dinner time). 3 5J*^ir^r^:, 4 ^»^^f^: , 
5 3??lSft:, 6 ^^m:, 7 ^f?^^qr:, 8 arrT»T^:, 9 ^«m(!^.^:, lo «?^R^<JI^:| 

II wc«w: , 12 ^irrTRiw , 13 TfrrRjFT., 14 R(!?fjpr:, 15 Ftrrf?-?nr: , i6if^^r:, 
17 atfii:, 18 iti^^H, 19 it^Mn^, 20 ijfsjir^:, 21 if?^, 22 iti^, 

2,3 ft^fff: , 24 ir?v,sf: , 25 irJfiTJ:, 26 ^njff^fW^. , 27 nT'sJTJT:, 28 irViWsrtt, 
29 "frs^lTT , 30 nVjqf: , 31 'fT'ST'Tr?!^: , 32 ifrslmi?^: , 33 !Ifl5ff3R:f?Tr , 

34 «°?5^n- II 

( «fiis?T9gsg«^o ) H 

49. A case-iuflccled word doiiotiag an action 
*vluch naturally precedes iu time (puivakaia), and the 
words eka ' one,' sarva ' all,' jarat ' old,' purana ' ancient,' 
i^iava 'new,' and kuA^ala 'only,' are oonipoiinded with their 
30-relative case-inflected words which are in the same case 
^'ith them ; and the compound so formed is Tat-purusha. 

The phrase fi^ ^f is understood here, the whole sfltra qualifying it. 

Words which separately can be applied to n^ny distinct and differ- 
" objects, when they apply to one common object, are said to be in apposi- 
*"' CflWrrfror*! ) or abiding in a common substratum. 

In the present sfitra the word-form p(irva-k41a is not to be taken 

iM Irregular Tat-purusha [ Bk. II. Ch. I. § 49-1-. 

(I. I. 68) but its significates ; while of the rest ^^ &c., the very word-form is 
to be taken. A word denoting action which naturally precedes in time, is 
compounded with a word denoting action which naturally succeeds it. As, 
SWI^.'sriT: ' bathed and perfumed.' ^nr4fftrl'^ ' ploughed and levelled,' ?»\T5l^jii 
'burnt and healed.' ^^?ri?f 'having one petticoat.' ITg;f5j^f 'begging 
once in a day.' flqt^f: 'All gods.' ?i#iTqT!?rr: 'all men.' 3Tr3??fl' 'old elephant.' -jfr? 
nfe: 'an old cow.' 3re5tfTT: 'old occupation.' jrrnjllff 'old rice.' jnCTra^Wr 'an 
old habitation.' So ^^^TT ; qfTr^esiw ; ^TSflvriT 'only rice.' 

Why do we say ' when they are in the same case?' Observe ^?R^r: 
5rr^ 'one's petticoat.' 

Tliese and the subsequent compounds are Karmadhdraya Compouiuls 
(I. 2. 42). 

f?[w^ ^siqm II «<8 n u^rf?! 11 f^^-#^ , ^w^r^^ , 
( ^ocref^egqTO'aHi!nfvi5j5?:^sr ) 11 

«ii^ HTR II 

50. The words oxpi'ossingii point of t]iG coin- 
l)a3S, oranuuibcr (saukliya,) uiitor into eoni]iositioii with 
the AVOfd correlated to tlieni by being in the same case, 
w lien the sense of the cxiju pound is that of an appellii- 
tivo ; and it is a 'rat-2)urasha. 

The phrase 'being in apposilion,' is understood in every one of these 
sfitras up to the end of the chapter. 

As q^sr^fttCPft 'the town of IshukAnia>iatni-in-the-east.' ^pTT^rTtT'ff 
'the town of Ishukilmasami-in-thc-west.' q'^rar. 'the live mangoes' ^mw- '"'« 
seven-sages' (tlie constellation of the Great Bear). 

Why do we s,iy ' when the sense is that of an appellative?' Observe 
grmi^r: 'northern trees.' <ig jfrxT'ir: ' five Brahmanas.' See IV. 2. 107. 

m^r^\\ , ^ ( H9cT5ni9f^^i^€ege ) 11 

fw. 11 fff^'vi f^ji ^r^vt^ n iTW: «nTfT? ■^frft'J^ R^'JS* ^mHrf*'" 

ni. In a case where the sense is that of ^ 
Taddliita-afflx, or when an additional member comC 
after the compound, or when an aggregate is to. he eX- 

Bic. 11- Ch. f. § 51-52. ] DviGU. 241- 

pressed, then a word signify iiig a i^oint of the compass 
or a ruimher, enters into coinposition witli a case-in- 
jli'cted word whicli is in agreement with it by being in 
tlie same case, and tlic compound so formed is called 

First let us take the case where the sense is tiiat of a Taddhita-affix. 
Tims when a compound is formed out of the words 1^??rf ?jr5ff*tf HT: 
'that which is in the eastern hall ' (in which analytical exposition of the 
compound in question, the word HT (IV. 2. 107) serves to represent the 
force of a Taddhita-aflix) the compound having reached the form of "T^f-f- 
frrar, the feminine termination of the tr^ is rejected, because Patanjali 
declares that the masculine state belongs to a pronominal when exercising 
any of the five functions belonging to a word ; we have : — q'i} + ^ciTSir + *! 
(IV. 2. 107) = <T>4?rr5T. (VH. 2. 117 and VI. 4. i4X)'who is in the eastern hall.' 

So also when an additional member comes after the compound (uttar- 
padeV As, ii# jjrPnfiRf: or ^VJTTff^ff^^: ' loving the eastern or western hall.' 
Tli^st; Uttarpada Compounds are invariable (Nitya) compounds, so that they 
can not be resolved into their component elements. 

When a q ni^ l i ' aggregate' is to be expressed, it is of course impossi- 
blo to use a word expressing points of the compass ( fj^^ words ). The 
following com|)ounds are formed with numbers ( ^f$iff ), when employed 
with the force of a Taddhita affix ; as, q'f^Trf^flf 'relating to five barbers.' 
Tr^^fTTfi^: 'relating to an oblation offered in live cups' (sfflT'T) (IV. I. 88). So also 
<f^«I7Vi^ (V. 4. 92) 'whose wealth consists of five cows,' ^jjirip^: 

The following are examples of aggregates: — 'T^'Fi^l' ' the collection of 
five fruits ' (IV. I. 2l) ?HITf# 'an aggregate often bundles,' fiR^^T 'the aggre- 
gate of the three worlds.' q*i|*»ilR ' an aggregate of five virgins;' this word is 
neuter by II. 4 17. and the long f is shortened by I. 2. 47. 

^^i^^l {55: II \^ II ^^\f^ II ^rni-^^i, f^'-, ( ^eftc- 

^^: II ^rf^wurrnrT^gHiff? "^^jr n: tnHrr<^: ^tto: a f8:»r#^ ^^fn ii 

52. In a case where the sense is that of a tad- 
flliita aiHx, or when an additional member comes after 
tlie compound or when an aggregate is to l)e expressed, 
*lie componiidj the first member of wliicli is numeral, is 
t'alled Dvig\i or Numeral Determinative compound. 

ti% Irregular Tat-purusha. [ Bk. IT. Ch I. § 53.5^ 

First to take an example of Taddhitirtlia:— as, ef^ ^nrSj^^fRt: =ij^^; 
<Tr«: 'an offering prepared or offered in five cups.' So also ^^fqrfsr: ' prepared 
in ten cups.' These are names of Purodisa ofTerintfs ; and are formed by 
adding the affix HW in the sense of ' refining an object of food ' by sfltra IV, 
2. 16; then this affix is elided (g^J by IV. i, 88. 

To take an example when an additional member comes after the com- 
pound. As "T^snTrsm: ' loving five ships.' flisrpr^^r^' money which has come 
by two ships' (fjc + sft + r^^ V. 4. gg^T^m^) 

Of an aggregate we have q'^T^ff. The feminine is formed by IV. i. 2r. 

jft^cTtf^ 5?e%: II H^ II t^tOi II 5^g?nf5i %^% 
( wfiiccTflis^f 5^0 ) II 

53. Case-inllected words expre.ssiiig vileiieKs 
are curapouiwUnl witJi case-iullectcd woi-ds, expressing 
contempt, tmd the resulting eonipound is Tat-puriisha. 

As WoirrtIT«?r«f^; 'a bad or dull grammarian.' Here it might be asked 
is the word sjir^C°i' 'grammar' a word of contempt, or the word t^n^TTO 
'grammarian'? Neither ' Grammar ' (it being a part of Vedanga,) nor the 
person who studies it /. ^., the grammarian, can be an object of contempt 

The word 'grammarian' is, however, the expression of contempt in an 
indirect way, thus : — The person studying grammar but not studying it well, 
becomes an object of contempt and such a despicable person becomes also 
contaminated. The word »jfgf^ is a term of contempt fier se. It literally means, 
a person who on being asked a question, and not possessing ready wit and 
intelligence to answer it, scratches his head and contemplates vacancy 
(»!te^fw) and tries to divert the questioner's attention by exclaiming ' how 
beautifully clear is the sky,' such a person is called ijRtf^: . 

Such compounds are confined to cases where the reason for the use 
of any particular term is to express contempt with regard to the signification 
of that term. So we can not form a compound of the sentence t^TRFT'^^' 
'the thief grammarian;' for, contempt is not expressed with regard to the signi- 
fication of the word 'grammarian.' But when the term ' grammarian ' i'- 
self is used in a contemptuous signification, then a compound will be formed. 

This aphorism is commenced in order to introduce an exception'" 
sutra 57, by which an adjective stands as the first member in a compound. 
By the present sfitra, however, the attributive word will stand as the secoi"! 

3k. II. Ch. I. § 53-55- ] Irregular Tat-purusha. £43 

Other examples of such compounds are: mflraff^iflPT: ' one who hankers 
after performing sacrifices for persons for whom one ought not to perform 
sacrifices' •fhrht'ir-J^^ri: 'an unbelieving logician,' 'an atliiest.' * 

No compound can be formed under this aphorism, if both the words 
are not used in an opprobatory signification as such. Therefore it is not 
in the following case. 9R#!mlrsrW!T: 'the bad Brdhmana' &c. 

( ^oHoftegoirf ) n 

^f%: II qrr WJj^ff ^t w^'S ^Raw^^^.- ^ ^"pe^ , wfj^^v ««rRft Htfii ii 

54. The iiifleetecl words papa ' sin,' and 
anaka 'insignificant,' are coniponnded with words 
cxprcs.sive of vilenes.s, and the comi)oiind is Tat-purusha. 

Both the words qrr and ^77 are words of contempt (^TOt) ; by the 
last sutra, they would have stood as second members in the compound; the 
present sfttra, however, is so framed with regard to sfltras I. 2. 43 and II. 2. 30, 
that they will stand as first. As <rpHrfw: or sinr^PirfT^: 'a contemptible barber' 
"(TT or sn^-^Sffi?: ' a contemptible potter.' 

1^^: , ( ^encf^eieio^s ) ii 

55. Case-inflected words denoting objects of 
compai'i.sor), are compounded with words denoting what 
i« Ukencd to tlaem, by reason of tlie latter iwssessing 
qualities in common with the former, and the compound 
is Tat-puruslia. 

That by or to which a thing is compared is ' upamlna ' and the 
'upameya' (the thing compared) is called ^Wfs^r or 'common.' Thus MHI^qiH 
¥^: 'cloud-black Krishna' (Krishna black as a cloud). Here xwf is a quality 
common to Krishna and cloud: therefore 'cloud' which is the ^9mt is com- 
pounded with it. So also OT^^^jff 'lily-white.' ??nr?»?r 'Swan-sounding' 

*''rM-<TrfriryBT 'globular as Nyagrodha tree.' For accent see VI. 2. 2. 

But not so in t^r?^ JPTT'IT ' black Devadatta' or qRW f* ^rJOT: 'the rice 
^f* like fruits ' I^W f^ iTOTf^f : ' clouds like mountains.' 

244 Irregular Tat-purusha. [ Bk. II. Ch. 1. § 55 

5(5. A case-inflected word dcnotiMg subject of 
comparison is compounded with tlie words vyaghra 
'tigor,' &c., the latter being the standard of comparison, 
and in constructiou witli the foi-mer; and the compound 
is Tat-ijurusha ; x)rovided that any woi'd ex^jressing tlu; 
common characteristic (^rnTRT) as explained above, is not 

This is a modification of sutra 57, by which the objective would 
have stood first; by the present, the attribute stands second. As tWtW 
mnnCT = T»f^?trar: ' a person-tiger' (in strengtii) J^^Rff: 

In the last sulra, tlie compounding was between the gTITT and the 
common quality. In the present, the compounding is between the g^ft-ff and 
certain 57»IR but never with Hfn'JT W^H- Therefore we can not form this 
kind of compound from the following sentence: — TK^ sJTfET f f ^TT: 'a man 
strong as a tiger.' Similarly iT<3T?n^, ^iJT^Tt* , ^jrcf^fff^JT'^ , -JlPi^^'X^ II 

The words sjirT &c. are STrffI%T3T; i. <?., this is a class of compouml 
words, the fact of a word belonging to which, is known by its form, a posteriori 
and is not discoverable by any consideratio» of its constituent parts a priori. 

The following is the list of such words: — 

I. ntni = A tiger, a. ffif = A lion. 3. ^fr =» A bear, 4. grr'' 
=- A bull. 5. ^^f =• Sandal. 6. ^?k = A wolf. 7. q'ty = A bull. 
8. TTTf = A boar, hog. 9. fRrff = An elephant. 10. (i?- - A tree. 
"• %'^^ = ■'^f elephant. 12. ^ = A kind of deer. 13. TOiT " The 
spotted antelope. 14. jrj^^ = A lotus flower. 15. qj^TO - A tree Butea 
Frondosa. 16. f^^^ = A rogue, cheat. 

r A lotus-like face. 

2. 5i«l*<((HH ) 

3- ^iTf^^sm'^ » Sprout-like hand, a tender hand. 4. ftf**^^^' • 

Bk. II- Ch. I. § 57,58.] Irregular Tat-purusha. 215 

farlr^if fet^m^ "S''^" "^^ " ^^^^ " f«»i«l^'n*r^ , f«i^- 

0iR?r* . HW^.v ^ WTf^ >iTrfr II 

57. A Ciise-iuflected word deiiotiiig the qualL- 
11, T (tlio Adjective), is c'oiTi])ouiideddlvcr.sely Avitli a caso- 
jiitit'ctcd Avord denoting- the tiling tliereby quaiifled, (the 
Substantive) the latter being' in agreement (same case) 
with the former; and the compoimd is Tat-pnriislia. 

The ' (liscriininator ' is called ft-ff^'l and the ' discriminated' is called 
f^^f'f as ;ff3r?Tf* 'a blue lotus," r^jfr^isr ' a red lotus.' 

By using in the rule tlip expression ^^m ' Jiversely ' it is meant 
tliat in some cases it is imperative to make a compound (^?!r?nTm) as ^scrag: 
■d hlack snake.' ^tf^ffmT^'- 'red rice':— and sometimes it is forbidden; as, rr'fl' 
3TRfJ5!i- ' Rama called also JAmadagnya' (as being the son of Jamadagni): 
?rf1. ?Jff^Tl'4^.— and in some cases it is optional, ^t.^'TrTSr or sftsittTvt. 

Why do we say 'qualilier?' Observe =T¥r^: ^7. 'the Takshaka snake.' 
Why do we say ' qualilied.' Observe STrf^'TCT'^r^: ' the red Takshaka.' 

^f^: ir <^# ^jqr ipii =^1 ^r^^ htr f^n v^nn it< ??$# ^^m-- ^mwrfiir- 

58. The casc-lnflectetl words pfirva ' prior,' 
a])ara ' otlier,' ]n'athania ' lii'st,' ehtirama ' last,' j'aghanyti 
'liindtnost,' samana 'equal,' madliya 'niiddle,' madhyama 
'middle,' and vira 'hero,' arj compounded with words 
ending with acase-atlixand whicli arjin agreement (same 
case) with them ; and the eoniponnd is Tat-purn.slia. 

As iinfj^: 'ancestor,' (any one of the three, father, grandfather and 
great-grandfather), s?qftqTj<r: 'successor,' '^rT'ij^: 'last person,' spifSfj^isr: 'hinder- 
"lost person,' ^niPTj^: 'equal person,' ift^ or JIs^PTJf^: 'middle person,' TfTJ?^: 
■lieroic person.' 

846 Irregular Tatpdrusha. [ Bk. il. Ch. I. $ 5g, 

Wtf^ffl: , ( ^ocTcf^oie^oi'nH ) ii 

H^flr II 

^Pa5(r»i II ^?irr?^ 'cs^ru^T';^ ii 

59. The casc-iiiHected words i^reiii ' class ' 
&.V., are compomuled with words krita 'mad(3 ' »fec., which 
arc in agreenicut (same case), witJi tliein; and tlie com- 
pound is Tat-pui'uslia. 

Vart:— The words ^rar &c., for the purposes of this sutra, are suppos- 
ed to have the force of the alfix T^ (chvi). Tlius 'q'^ajW. ^(rr«r. ^f: =Mf6j^<tr 
' made into classes ' (those who were not clas^iHed before). 

The class of words called ffinR' are Akfiti-gana and cannot he known 
a priori. This SamAsa is also an invariable Samdsa by reason of sutra II, 2. 
18, since all words that end in chvi ( ff ) arc called gati (I. 4. 61.) 

I. "Sfe = A line, a series. 2. ?r^ = One or 3j^- . 3. <I»T = .\ 
heap, collection, multitude. 4. 5^?? = Name of Krishna or JPf? . 5. rrftr = 
A heap, mass, collection. 6. fn'^ = A collection, heap. 7. frsnr = An 
object or f^#T . 8. f^tT7= Poor, indigent or RrvTRif^^Pr. 9' qT = Distant. 
10, ^qr = The god of rain. 11. t^ = Divine, celestial. 12, V^ =■ Sha- 
ved, bald. 13. HW = Become, being. 14. iPI'l = Sraman or N^iTT • i> 
iffr?«r= Liberal minded. 16. w^nr?«f = A teacher. 17. ^JT^T^rrgf - Handsome. 
18. wm^l = Brahman. 19. ^(^ = Kshatri)a. 20. ftfljP = Dis- 
tinguished, distinct. 21. >?| = Clever, skillful, dexterous. ' 22. ' tfr'^T -- 
Learne<l, wise. 23. ^?7<7 = Right, proper, good. 24. ^T!? = Shaking, 
trembling, tremulous. 25. firT"i = Skillful, dexterous. 2G. fi<TCT = Wretched, 

I. ^ = Done, performed, made. 2. ft?r = Measured 3. ^' 
Thought, believed, supposed. 4. >T?T = Produced, formed. 5. ^'K = '^'"'' 
spoken, uttered. 6. ^tR = Joined, united. 7. flJffJjTnT = Known or under- 
stood thoroughly. 8. ^Wfwrni = Repeated, recited. 9. ^fiinsW " 
Reckoi\ed up, counted, summed up. 10. ?mrf^?J = Considered, suppose, 
imagined 11. ^^^ = Served. 12. fSTT'flfir^ = Ascertained, known. 
13, sTT^^tjfr •= Corresponded with, answered. 14. f^rfW = expeUe ■ 
banished. 15. 3^1^ = Assisted, benefited, served &c. 16. TTTfiW '"^'''^ ' 
17. 5? = Seen, looked, perceived. 18. gKlSrf = Counted. 19- ^^ " 

TBk. H. Ch. I. § 60, 6[. Irregular Tat-purusha. .H7 

Broken, torn, rent, burst. 20. 3frfH = Said, uttered. 21. Rr"ij?r = Well- 
known, renowned. 22. gr[^»T = Risen. 

■ffiH T5rf^RT«e*TTT5T II \0 II q^cf% II ^H, 5T5{-fg«I«J»T , 

?rr^^»^ II fffTPT^rfrffiTfWTfrejrR'T 11 1 ir 

GO. A woi'A 011(1 i 1 1,14- wiLl) (Jic allix kta, and 
not having' tlio neg-ative augiu(!ut nail is conipoiindecl 
wltii tlie siiiuo word Gliding' Avitli the affix kta but whicli 
is (listiiignishcd Iroiu fhi; lonuer, l)y liaving tlio augment 
nail; and th \ conipouiid is ''l''af j) inisha. 

Thus fm^it 'done and not done,' HHTf^^ eaten and not eaten,' "flrir- 
<fW 'drunk and not drunk,' jf^^'^^ff '.spoken and not spoken.' 

The intermediate augment tf or the ?, as in the following two 
examples, do not make the forms di.ssiniilar. ^f^JffT^^fT sff^'r?! , fSTTf- 

Rfftrt^ ^^w II 

Viiri: — The compounds ^fTPT^rT &o. should also be included. 

Vari: — The compounds like ^r^RTfrvg' should also be enumerated, and 
llicrc is elision of the second member in these compounds. As JJJ^\il7(: qtfuT; 
" ^rr^iTfrUT ' tiia king beloved by the pi-o|)le of his era.' i.e. an era 
making king. 

^WfWt'^TriTtclJ^r: gaq*n%: II %'i II ^^if^ H 'acT-lf ?T/ 


248 Irregular Tat-purusha [ Bk. If. Ch. i § 62,61 

Gl. The woitl.s sat 'good,' muliat 'great,' p.irama 
'highest,' iittama ' bi'st, ' and ufkrislita 'excellent,' 
are compounded with tlie words denoting the pjrsoii 
deserving ol' respect; and the compound is Tat-puruslia. 

As ^rTr^: 'a good person,' iT?(T^q-. 'a great man;' TfJiT^. 'the hin-lipst 
person ;' TtTITJ^. 'the best person ;' TrfTiyj^TT: ' the excellent person.' 

Why do we say 'with words denoting the person deserving ol 
respect?' Observe 3r^. ift. ^fTriT ' the ox was i)ulied out of the mud.' 

5^t: , 53qm^*[ II 

02. A cas(;-in11ected word denoting obj;ct 
deserving of respiict is comjjoundcMl Avitli tlu^ words 
vrindaraka 'eminent,' niV^-a 'serpent or elepliant,' knnjui'a 
'elephant'; and the comjiound is Tat-j)iiriislia. 

As jfr^?nr^: ' an excelh-nt bull or cow.' ^Rf^rjir^. ' an excellent 
horse'. So also ifrTrT. , »flr-:r5rr- &c. Wiiy do we say 'when meaning the 
object deserving of respect?' Observe ^rgfRRfT: ' llie serpent Susima.' 

^?i^^cT'Rl wffjqf^JI^ II ^^ II q^if^ II q5?!?:-^cJ»?1 , 

<sjifaf'»f5cn^ 11 

ff%: II ^?Tr-^ff4y sTrffi Tftifs? ^rair'fy ^T^fr mt g? ^t^^^, ?r?7iriv 

(>'). Tlie words katara 'whicii or who of 
two' and katama ' wiiicli or who of many', when iised 
in asking questions about the genus or class, are com- 
pounded Avith otiter (rase-inflect id words with whicli 
they are in constfuction, and the compound is Tat- 

As ^mr^^K? and ^wrafirstrf. ' which of the tvVo is katha, and wiiich 
k4:Apa?' aR?r«r^?. and SKfTq^^jr?: ' which of these is katha &c.' 

It might be objected, 'what is the use of employing the word 
snlwiftsw in the aphorism ; ^since the word mritj is especially employed m 
asking such questions ; (see V. 8. 93) and the word ^IPT will get the same 
signification by being read along with it?' The very use of this ph^^e 

BK. H- Ch. I. § 64, 65. ] iRREGi'i.AR Tat-purusha. •j.g 

in the aphorism shows that the word ^^ has other meanings besides that of 
an interrogative pronoun, of determining jAti ; as ^^ HT^f^^^: ' which of 
vou two, Sirs, is Devadatla,' and gsriif)' ^ni ?'TTT: ' which of you, Sirs, is 
Devadatta.' Here there is no questioning!, about jAti, all belonging to the 
same genus, hence there is no compounding. (Accent VI. 2. 57.) 

^^5tqfgo ) II 

04. The word kiiu 'what,' when imi)Iyiii<r 
'(•ont('ni])t,' is coniponndod svith n word (>iidiri^- in acase- 
allix, and tlie compound is Tat-puruslia. 

As Rlf irrirr ^r T rrrf^ ' he is a bad king who does not protect his sub- 
jects.' r^ ^ifisr ^j/Hrw(% 'he is a bad friend who hates.' Taf ift; m H ??fw ' it is 
.1 bad ox that does not carr)'.' 

The affixr^ (V. 4. tji) does not come after this compound as in l^txnf. 
TTOiT. &c., by force of Rule V. 4. 70. Otherwise the form would have been 

r^ffrnr and not fsifa^rr. 

Why do wc say ' when censure is implit-d?' Observe ^^if HjIT = ftf 
KlTf- ' whose king ;' fai^??!: 

^^lif iT^ffr: II Vi " ^^tOi II 'i^st-g^ifii-^aVwi-^f^q^-ilfe-^g- 

ftie^c ) II 

f i%r: II <fr?rf$Pr: w? mi%Trf^ g^^w ^it^ , ajjjf^rv mm^ >i^f?r 11 

G5. A case-iuflected word denoting- a genus 
(iatl) is compounded with the words pota ' a hei-maiihro- 
dite,' ynvati, 'a young female,' stoka 'a little,' katipaya 'a 
f nv,' grishti 'a cow which has hud only one calf,' dhenu 
milch-cow,' va.-^a ' a barren female,' vehad, 'a cow that 
miscarries,' hashkayanl 'a cow that has a full-grown calf,' 
Pi'avaktri ' an expounder,' 6rotriya 'a learned Brahmaua,' 
^'^hyapaka 'a teacher,' and dhdrba < a cunnijig fellow; 
'''•id' the I'esulting compound is called Tat juirusha. 

230 IRRKGUI.AR Tat-purusha. [ Hk. Ch. I. § 66, 67. 

As flfrif 'a young female elephant' f'TWflsf ' a female elephant.' Srj 
also tf^!{^^V: 'a little lire' ^ffit^s ^IrtJT'T 'a little butter milk,' ifr'j'?: , iftvjj , 
•ffrrrf: , ntf??! > jfr^'S^frrofl' , ^rasiCKf ' an expounder of Kntiia', g^ffsr^r, a 
lirahmana who has mastered the Katha branch of the Yajur Veda' a[r?r>.?fn^ 
'a teacher of the Katha branch of the Yajur Veda.' 

Why do we say 'when denoting a genus or a common noun ?' Observe 
tq^rT: sfffHT ' Devadatta expounder.' 

The word «r# has not a bad sisinlfication hen-. Hence ^K»«a moan<; 
'a Br&hma'ia well versed in the Ritha branch of the Yajur Veda.' 

iis«JHi^^%g II \% II ^vfk na.f^T-?r^%:, w, ( ^ertefgj. 

wxf^^? 9»TrRT'5 ) II 

4f%. II sTTflTTrf^ «^'?f jJif^rT^ ^? mi^^n , n?T^<?v w>ir«r h^ ii 
< ^ ■> 

OG. A cxsti-iiitlected woi-d denoting- ;i goiui.s 
(jati) is compounded with a woid denoting- and tlio 
compound is Tat-pui-uslia. 

The word.s denoting praise should be rudhi (^ft) words like Tclf^^ 
&c., which retain their specific gender thougli used along with words of 
other genders, in apposition with them, as, jfrsi^lTISiJ ' an excellent cow,' ^i1 
frff^^t 'an excellent horse' ifff^.^iKf 'an excellent cow.' These words are 
generally used at the end of a compound to denote ' excellence ' or ' the best 
of its kind.' 

Why do we say ' when denoting gen as '' Observe ^Wirt H^7^^ ' ^" 
excellent virgin.' 

gaiT ^i^sfd^WtTqf^^u^a'yf^: 11 ^19 II tr^rfn ii g^t, 

H^ II 

G7. The word yuva 'yotmg,' Ls compouudw 
with the words klialati, ' l)aUl liea(h)d,' palita ' greydriii- 
ed'valina ' wrinlvled,' .jarati 'de.;ajc.d,' when tlx^y ^^'^ 
in agreement (same case); and tlie compotmd is Tat- 

The word ^infffSr is exhibited in the feminine gender, in the aphorism, 
with the object of indicating the existence of the following maxim of inter- 
pretation ufPtTff^irir'f f?rjpW?r??anf^ jtt^ h 

Bk. II. Ch. I § 68, 69. ] Irrkgular Tat-purusiia. 251 

' A PrAtipadika denotes, whenever it is employed in grammar, also 
such a crude form as is derived from it by tlie addition of an aflix denoting 

As, vn + jg-rTfw: = ^«jr5Tf^: . So also ;TTf%: »!Rmt- = ^^JTPS^r in the 
feminine: 'baid in youth.' So ^rrRi^rf: fern. ^^Tf^lfff, ' grey-hailed in youth' 
OT^^SW: fern. Wfff^!T( ' wrinkled in youth ' ^^HCT fern. ^3T<:?Jt ' appearing 
ok! in youth,' (prematurely old.) 

3?i3nr?^T , ( ^efircHo^eic ) 

mm H^ II 

OS. Word.s eiuliiig- vvitli a, kritya affix, and 
tl)c word tiilja 'e(Hial,'aiid Its syrionym.s, at^e comxJoiuided 
W'ith words wliicli do not di'iioto g-oims (Jati) being in 
tlu! same ease with them; and the compound is Tat- 

As, ifrii^miT ' hot food,' wr3?T5I^'f ' salt food ' TPfNroNsf ' cool drink, 
^^<^: ' equally white,' «J?TX?^: ' equally white.' ^tnnifr^T 'equally 

great' "" 

Why do we say 'when not denoting a genus'? Observe HTS^ 
%T: 'eatable rice.' Here the word jfrsJT is used as an Adjective 
and not as a common noun. Hence there is no compounding even 
under II. i. 57. 

^J^V ^TRTi viTf% II 

09. A case-inficete<l word denoting ' colour ' is 
''ompounded with anotlier case-intiected woi*d which is 
I'l agreonieut with tlie former, and also denotes colour, 
and the compound is Tat-puni.'sha. 

As |i«tDrerr^: ' spotted antelope,' 5^^?t^it^: ' antelope dappled with 
?":craf«: ' dappled with black spots' &c. For accent VI. 2. 3. 

J52 Irregular Tat-purusha. [ Bk. l\. Cii. I. § 70, 71 

^f%: II ^rjjsf : MTnTrl?f>i m ^m-if^ , m^'sfv ^imt >t^ 11 

70. T]ie Avord kuniani 'a boy ' is compounded 
witli co-oi'diuato words rivamana 'au ascetic,' &c., and tlie 
compound is Tat-puruslni. 

In this list of sjTCJf ami llie rest, with the words wliich are feminine 
such as llirorr , ^srfww, cK5J?r, the word ?F>nT must also be in the feminine 
gender; with the words wliich appear as masculine, e.g. ^tfl^rrTSfi, 'iffHSTT^, qf^rt 
the word S'lirc must also be masculine, because 'a PrStipadika denotes, 
whenever it is employed also such a crude form as is derived from it by the 
addition of an affix denoting gender. 

As, ^rrhiTiiirr and cRiHTMIcrr ' a virgin ascetic or a bachelor 

MT^r;^: II 

!• "UTOT = Labouring, toiling. 2, ilJrfJniT = Gone abroad or into 
exile. 3. ^t^ = An unchaste woman. 4. irfHCft = A pregnant female. 
5- WJ^t = A hermit, devotee. 6. ^Rft = A female servant. 7. ^^IcKt 
o An unchaste woman. 8. ^.^ri^ = A teacher. 9, ^(>I5:7^ = Handsome. 
10. 7l*?fT = Learned, wise ii. ?f = Soft. 12. ^^vf = Right, proper, 
good. 13. '^TSt = Shaking, trembling. 14. f^^"! =■ Clever, sharp, skillful. 

^5«qj^ fpi^I II M II ti^tfjJ II ^a^iTT^: , TfH'RI , 
(l«ci«5eie ) II 

^fw: II ^«7t^^r%^: g?5?fr »rf>?cft ^«^ ««re«!-S , ?i?5K«rar ^pmt H^ 1 
?rf^^ II '^g«7infr^rR'r?i ^trb?pi ii 

71. A ctise-iiiflected word denoting a qund- 
. vnp-d is coinponntled with the co-ordinate word gar- 
bhinl, and thy compound is Tat-purusha. 

'llTpS*!f 'a pregnant cow.' HiTf»rf^"tt ' a pregnant she-goat.' 

Fafif:— It should be stated that the rule is confined to the words 
denoting genus of quadrupeds. So not here :— ^Kfcrnfft Jlf^oft or wR''^' 
irwtrfr ' the pregnant cow called K4l4ksht or Svastimatt." 

Why do we say ' quadrupeds ?' Observe Jinnntt Tpi-if • 

i;k II. Ch. J. § 72. ] Irregular Tatpurus'ha. 


^orofko ) II 

72. And tiic woi'ds muyum-vyamsaka 'ciiii- 
iiiii-- liko ajKjaeo.-k,' &e., aro Tat-piini.slm. conipoumls. 

These are irregularly formed Tftt-punisha compounds. Tlie force 
ol the word =g in the aphorism is that of restriction. For though the comi)ound 
hk,-. ^?rrs?f«^ is allowable, we cannot form a compound like 'Jm 

The following is (he list of such compounds : — 
Hmz^^^[^: II 

I. «rars?f^^-. 2 e^f^rsn^r^f. 3. ?f;i#mgiT^. 4. i^jtj^^. 5 j^^. 

^^.>r??,=r>T^intheVedas. 6. T/^'TSTor crr?>TST . 7. ^r^^^^-^„, ^^5,^^ 
^ l^iUu ^?t^J^vr •l5^T?r^ as, 9. tr4^^^^^. ,0, ^f^tfi ,^S|, \,, 

-^^wwwr (r^^r) . i-^ ^Tfl^rfitnfrr . 13. r^^rfoifrr . 14. ^r?^^<iftT . 
'5 si^t^r^rrrr. i6. irfera-ffr^rr . .7. ^^rsft^Nr . 18 Rfffff-'fr^rr . .9, 
•rrm-(. 20. ?Er'tr?^?r or ^7rf?5frr. 2t. ^f^^^r or q>^r . j.. ?ii?<cRm . 
.V r?^?>Tr. 24. %^;.fr. 35, r^^T^^^^r. 26. ^.^-r^irf , 27. ^r=^:?f 
*Tr?r^yrr. 29. 5Tr?r ^^r^r . 30. ( ^r^rt^r ) . 3.. sir^r^r^frr . 32 
{ ?Tr?rRr!T<Tr ) . r,^. |i?sp7=g%TCTr . 34. ^.-^fprf irr . 35. ^-sm^Ttr . 36. 

35'IPmf . 37. 3?T=^RT^r or m=^f . 3^. ^rT^RT^f . 39 \m^^H . 
■K^. 3^N^^. 4,. ^i^„^^, ^3, s^p^^^f^^ ^^ ^^^^^ ^^ r^^5I^'T, 

45. sif%^7. 46. ?;rrr^r5frr5T?!f . 47- "m7rf?«rr?f> . 4«. ^jf^m^^r . 49. 
ii'^TTPjrjfr'T . ,0. gr?qrjrqT?jr5ir or sjfr^jrr. 51. r^^Jifrfec'r 53. ffr^r'^- 
^_^"ff- 53- 5rr?sitT^r. 54. irr^f^qw. 55 ff7^^ . jf], ^i^rg-^^^^r „ ^^^ 

^^ '^^ ^"' (^^*^^^). 61. ^r^^^n or ^t, ^rt.^p,^;^-.^f.> 

*^raR?j. 62. sT^-rfTfTirrfr . 63. q^w^srr^r . 64. mr^nn^( f>5. vm^^^ 

• 70. 5?7=^T=!rr. 71. m^iTSf'Tirrr . 72. frfvv^ft^^-^r . 73. 7v5?sr-.r 
'4 T^ij^jr . 


254 Irrecui-Ar Tat-purusha. [ Bk. II. Ch. I. ^^ j. 

10. ^q^x^mv'^^ 

Chaitkr II. 

Tf%: II ii^l?Tt<r^'rR^^^5Tl' s?^^ ?T8rrf^^ h^?^ «f "T«rfT<TVTfNr- 

1. The words piirva 'front,' apara 'near,' 
adhara 'lower,' and uttara 'upper,' are comijounded when 
in fonstructiou wilh a word signifying a thing that 
liiH parts, provided tliat the thing having parts is 
disLiiigiiished numerically by nnity ; and the compound 
is Tat-purusha. 

The word 'ekadliikaraiia' (the unity of substanc^ag the attribute of or 
qualifies the word 'ekadosin.' This debars the Genitive Tat-purusha compound 
ordained by sfitra 9 ; which would have placed the words ' pfirva ' &c., last in 
tlie compound, whereas being here exhibited in the nominative case (I. 3. 43 
and 11. 2. 30), they take the precedence. 

"^ + 5Kr?re?r = "rf^rra: ' the front of the body'; MTT^RT: 'the back of the 
body'; s?^^fnr: ' the lower part of the body '; and ^ ^ Bi<»m : ' the upper part 
«f the body.' 

Why do we say ' what signifies a thing that has parts'? Observe 

V*"^: 5KRR?r. But not so in "^ wt^rajPrrT'^nr 'invite the fore-most of 

he pupils': because here the substratum (adhikarana) is not unity (eka). 

It how do we get the compounds like H-^^g: ' noon'; gn^ry- ' evening'? The 

*>''u 'ahna' is compounded with every word signifying its parts, because we 

«arn this by inference from sOtra VI. 3. no. 

3?f 5T^^«H^H ^ II ^■^ II 31^, i^««B^, ( wf«Teno5«« 

'9?'«5^RI f «lf^«B^5t ) II 

^f*T: II »T4r»«§nwTOaR$^5f^«KTrMfi«T'^5T ««RHJf «m^is «»rF#lr »WfH II 

256 Ekadhikarana Tat-purusha. [ Bk. II. Ch. II. § 2, '. 

2. The word araf' ardha when it signifies ex- 
actly equal parts i. e. halves, is always neuter, and i'; 
compounded with a word signifying a thing that has 
parts, provided that the thing halved is numerically one 
and the compound is Tat-puruslia. 

The word M>'t is neuter when it means exactly equal parts or bisec- 
tion. • 

The word ^eRff^ and ^^frf^^fncr are understood here. This sfitra 
also debars sutra 9; as scg-ftwrrjrT; = Sfifq<:75fl' ' a half of the pepper'; s^^ 
qtt^rnt^ ' a half of the Kosfttaki.' 

Why do we say ' when it is neuter'? Otherwise we have qprrJaf: ' half 
the village '? sfHTnt: ' half the city.' 

The word ' ekadesin ' must also be taken here. Thus in the sentence 
•lif waW*|ijTl*^ ' a half of the animal is of Devadatta'; we cannot compound 
the word ' ardha ' with ' Devadatta.' 

The word 'ekSdhikarana' must also be taken here. So we cannot com- 
pound ST-f fifCTSfl^ri^ ' the half of the peppers.' 

"ff%: II ^ati^rrT ?r«?^r7rPr ^JKlf^r^^ifvr^r'nnii «?rs?pnr5^f ^m^ 

8. The words dvitiya, ' second,' tritiya ' third,' 
chaturtha 'fourth,' and tuiya 'Iburtli,' are optiontiUy 
compounded with that word which signifies a tiling 
that has parts, provided that the thing having parts is 
distinguished numoriLally by unity. The compound 
so foi-med is called Tat-punisha. 

This also debars sutra 9. By the force of the word 'optionally' 
used here, II. 2. 9. also applies. The prohibition contained in II. 2. n. as to 
the compounding of a genitive with an ordinal, does not apply here ; for that 
rule can find its scope in other ordinals than those pientioned here. 

As MN RRTrar: = fMirf^ 'second begging.' When we app'y 
sfttra 9, we have ftwtft?ati. So also with the words ^(ftlrfJwr , '^f^< 

Far/:— The word jtfhi ' fourth ' should also be included. AsPW'" 
gft* or »rthjf»IW • 

BK. 11. CH. n. 5 4-6. i IRREGULAR TAT-PUftUSHA. ^5? 

^ - -■ - - I n-i-- - -r ' - '- 1 

But we cannot form compounds, for reasons given in the last sfltra, 
of the phrases ftjfN fHWRf f^^^'tf or ^Ht^ ftWSJT^ ■ 

fjefttniT , ( 'B»?ieft9'J0ie ) it 

flfRf: II iTff sTTTsr ^^dn^ fi:!ft?rr»^ «f ?riPF9^ wwy<Tv ^nm\ wfn ii 

4. The words prapta ' obtained,' and §,panna 
'obtained' are optionally compounded with words ending 
in a second case-afflx and forrn Tat-purusha comiJound. 

The anuvritti of the words ' ekadeiin ' and 'eicidhikarana' does not 
exist here. This aphorism states an alternative course to rule II. i. 24. Thus 
we have RffTsfffr^: ( xTnTt sffrl'^f ) or sffft^gnT: ' obtained his livelihood.' So 
also sirrariftft^: or ^t^mrva. . 

«BiSr: xlftWTf^HT U H " '^^ >'■ ''5TWT:, ^R*nf^«n , ('519- 

f^9?reie^e ) « 

ff%: II TRfTCTWirrfff^Ri <jfi:m^ ?t?;r^^ 's^^f wf HPa^^ MRi r uii^n r: 
^rai^rs^: ai?ii?t rHT^!« ?riRfr >rf Ht 11 

5. Words denoting time are com])ounded 
wiieii in construction, with words denoting the object 
whoso duration is measured by the timft, y.nd the com- 
pound is Tat-purusha. 

5 This is also a kind of genitive compound. As JftWl' STRW^T = TT^WTfl: 

* a. month old' (born a month ago.) So also ^ffwrwra; 'a year old.' 
»I?5mt: ' two-days' old.' &c. 

5m^ II ^ H ^^f^ » '"'^ , ( ^'T^:wef^9?Te ) h 

«rrf^f^ II !T^ sr?ft<Tr??rfr #t 11 

6. The iiegative word naii is comiionnded 
'^V'ith a case-iniiected word with which it is in con- 
struction, and the compound is Tat-purusha. 

As srjnupi: = swWCr: 'who is not a Brdhmana,' (though a man). The 
1 of elided by VI. 3. 73: 

yar(:^-Tht »r of sr is also elided even when the second mertiber is 

* verb, provided that censure is implied as m^^ wf Wl^ ' thou cookest not 



256 Irregular Tat-purusha. [ Bk. II. Ch. Ii. 5 , 

The word H^ has six senses:— (1) wrflC^r ' likeness or resemblance 
as s?!rrer>r: 'one like a BrAhmana and wearing the sacred thread &c., but not 
BrAhmapa, but a Kshatriya or a Vaisya.' (2) sthtt ' absence/ ' negatioi 
'want,' or 'privation,' as STitnr 'absence of knowledge.' (3) %: 'difference 
or ' distinction,' as sf<r?: ' not a cloth, but something different from or oth 
than a cloth'. (4) H^ffT ' smailness,' 'diminution' used as diminuti\ 
particle, as M^frr ' having a slender waist.' (5) STsn^wfJT ' badness,' ' unfi 
ness,' having a depreciative sense, as M^W ' wrong or improper time.' (f 
ftfhr ' opposition,' 'contrariety,' as Hiflffr: ' opposite of morality,' 'immor 

i^r^fjm n la II xT^ ti t'^l , Wf^T , ( ^9^e^o^me) 
^frf: II i«rf?nnf ^i?t«i^»#7 5<»T ^r? a»R?jS ^ifj^rv ^tmr h^ 11 
^rf^9F»^ II iv{ 'jitj^'^^^Pw^Ks^Pi; II 

7. The word iahat ' a little,' is compouiidec 
■with a case-inflected word which does not end with; 
kj-it-afflx ; and the comijonnd is Tat-purusha. 

Far/: — It should be stated that the word (^ is only compoundei 
with words expressing qualities (adjectives), as |isr?ir?r^rr: ' a somewliat proud. 
»«nTfTq^: ' a little brownish.' f^j^^ff: ' a little hideous.' y«rj!Rr: ' a little rais 
ed.' fV«^'ftfl[^ ' a little yellow.' fv^^H ' a little red.' 

Why do we say ' with words expressing qualities'? Observe f^rTHT"!: 
there is no compounding here. 

^^ II c II q?rxf5j „ ^^ ^ {^o^o■?^9^9^o ) ir 
^f^: II isisfRf OTJ^ fTTwr e^WR flf ^^m% sri^tv «»imlr >Rfif 11 
^r^^ II ^<6m "^ <r^ mnm^ ffw T^s^>r 11 

8. A word ending witli a sixth case-affix is 
compounded with a case-inflected word with which it 
is in construction ; and the compound is Tat-puru.sha. 

As ^TJiT: 5^ = rmj^; 'the king's man ' fdwu] «<)*<»< •• ' the Brdhmana's 

Vart.—Vihtn a word takes the genitive case because of its connec- 
tion with a word ending in a kfit affix ; that word may be compoundedwilli 
such a krit word Rule II. 3. 65., states the conditions when a krit-forn)e<* 

o- II Cii. II. 4 8' 9 ] Irregular Tat-purusha. 


word governs the genitive case. Thus fJPmVf- 'jSi hatchet ' (a fuel cutter), 
.Pjf^T^rWT: 'PalAsadestroyer. 

Why do we saj so ? The very fact that a special rule has been made 
for the compounding of genitive cases governed by kfit-nouns, shows that 
other words which take genitive case by some special rule, are not so com- 
pounded. Such as the genitive cases ordained by II. 3. 38, 5i, 52. In fact the 
genitive case ordained by any rule of Pdnini, other than II.53. 59, is a ' prAti- 
padavidliAna' genitive; and a word taking genitive case according to tliose 
rules, is incapable of composition; see vdrtika under II. 2. 10. 

TirT3t^f^f«5S II <! H Ti^xfif II »?mv-3Tlf^:, T , ( ^0- 
gsftege^cT^t^ ii 

mf^^ II msPUV ^^: TRI' fl1??PTff?T T^SipT II 

TTfw^ II »r^!7ra^^ ?TT^N'ii^ T'fJi'^BnT 11 

9. A word ending with a sixth case-affix is 
compounded with the word yajaka 'sacriflcer' &c., and the 
coniijonnd i.g Tat-purii.sha. 

The compound which was ordained by the last aphorism, would have 
been prohibited by Rule 16 in the case of ?ir3T-^r &c.; hence the necessity of 
tlie present aphorism to guard against such a prohihili >a. .-Xs WSnnarrsTcli: ' a 
BrAhmana's sacrificer.' ^TNfT^r»T«l>; ' one who sacrifices for Kshalriyas. 

I. vm^ . 2. «nnr . 3. tf^'mni; . 4. <Tft-t«r^ . 5. q-ft^^* . 
6- ^Ttf^ or ^m^ . 7. sn^nT^ . ?. grwii?^ or 3Hrn^ . 9. ^3;*?ir . 
'0 ^. n. if. 12. rvm^ . 13. "rfMinsTsjr . 14. <ftar. 15. fff. 

Vafi: — A word in the genitive case is compounded with a word 
expressing a quality which abides in the former word. As »r«UIW"5: ' BrAh- 
•nana-caste.' ^^^pisij: ' sandal-scent.' SKftwiT^: 'the wood-apple juice.' 

Vafi; — So also with an adjective in the comparative degree ; and the 
"gn of comparison nr is elided. Thus m^ TrfWr : = «r^|;t?r: ' the 
whitest of all.' «arW "ff^ft: - fltTfTS^ 'the greatest among all.' This 
virtika' is an exception in anticipation to the next sfltra which prohibits 
wnnposition, when the genitive has the force of specification. Thus Q^IJKT 'fl'i 
'* cow whitest among all.' 

aflO Compound Prohibited. [ Bk. 11. Cm II. $ lo, i i 

^: II f^#ri9 «rr ^ ar !T fT«r*?i# ii 

. 10. A word in tlie genitive is not com- 
poizncled with another, wlien the force of the sixth case- 
affix is that of spueilication (nix-dhararia). 

With this sfilra, begins a series of exceptions to the composition of 
words in the genitive case. The separation of one from the many, on account 
of its genus, attribute and action, is called 'nirdhdrana.' As ^TPrat fl^'^TRf 
jmpT: 'the Kshatriya is the most powerful amongst men.' ^strrr TTf triffwiT'fT: 
' the blick cow is the most milk-giving amongst cows.' vfiTK^J^rni ?fl3?IT: 'the 
runner is the swiftest amongst walkers.' This form of genitive meaning 
' amongst,' is ordained by sfltra II. 3. 41. 

Vari: — A word taking a genitive-case by force of any rule other than 
sfttra II. 3. 50, is never compounded. See sAtra 8. Thus the following words 
are never compounded g^ftf^jrr^, TJ'frjrfl'T • 

g|5CtJI-5^-lf|?T-3?'^-gf-3|oq!i-cTsq-9WT5!lf^^^3t^ ( iT^JT ) II 

11. A word, ending with a sixtli case-affix is 
not compounded with a word liaving the sense of a'l 
ordinal, an attribute, or satisfaction, or with a participle 
ending in the affix called ' sat' (III. 2. 127) or an indeclin- 
able, or ending with the affl.x: ta-\ya, or with a word 
denoting the same object (i. e., wlien they are in apposi- 

The wofd 'artha' joins with all the first three words, as (i)5WRf "f^' 
'fifth amongst the pupils;' m^mptfm (2) ^r^ir ^r««^»r ' the blackness 
of the crow,' ^3r^f?rr: ^mi- (3) "F^rI gr'f?r: ' satisfied of fruits;' <lfBr»rf Sf' ■ 
(4) HW3r«?r ^■f'T 'the doing of a BrAhmana ;' sWCT^Jf ^ff°i: ' the doing of a 
Brihmana, (5) jfrsR^ST fl^r ' beinf done o(*Br4hmaaa,' rtWOiW gW- (^' 
WlirWJr • «lf#nrn . When however the affix iS jparf having the indicatory t 
(III. I. 96.} there is compounding as firsPT^ir^if 'the Br4hmana's duty.' (7) '^'' 
TRfPsyr^^^r 'of the king Pataliputraka' <T(ftpf: *nr5(rrt?ll ' of the sfitra coinpo9«f 

PK. II. Cm. II. § 12-14. ] Compound Prohibited. 261 

PAiiini.' We can however form a compound like the following ^W^ffrrrftrft': I 
By the general rule relating to words in apposition contained in sfltra II. i, 
57, the difference between that sQtra and the present, is as to position of the 
words. In the genitive compound the genitive word would have stood first 
if compounded ; not so in the other, there the quality stands first. 

tre^ 1 ) a 

^f%: II nmr n: "jiTRTf f^fffret^ <sr^ !T ?r»re^ 11 

12. A word ending with a sixth case-affix is 
not compounded with a word ending with the affix 'kta,' 
when the force of 'icta' is to denote ' resi:)ect ' &c. 

The affix =fir is added in the sense of inclination, understanding or 
respect by siltra III. 2. 188. The present s,fitra alludes to that aphorism when 
it uses the word "HTT; and pfij4 itself is used only as an illustration and includes 
the other two significations of ' kta' also, namely mati 'inclination,' and 
buddhi ' understanding.' 

As rrjrf IS: — 5.?: — Tfsnr: 'the king wishes, understands or respects.' 
Why do we say 'when meaning respect'? When 'kta' has not this 
signification there is compounding. As gnrjftrff ' pupil's laughing.' 

<*(f^^itiniinj»n n II ^ II ^^lf*r 11 3Tf^^?:xir-T?Tf^tn , % 
( ^9^'^ 5T <?«;?) II 

^pff 11 s^r^qtroTTrftRT ^ 'tSI' sr ^»re^ 11 

■ 13. A word ending with a .sixth case-affix is 
not compounded witli a word ending witli tlie affix 'kta,' 
when the force of tlae latter is to denote ' locality' in 
which something has happened. 

When the affix tK is attached to roots denoting ' fixedness, motion 
ir eating', it gives the sense of agent and of location in connection with the 
iction denoted by the roots i. e., that the action is located by the agent in 
Ills or that site (III. 4. 76); as f^^ ?TRr«i[ ' here they have gone.' f^qf H^lfiT 
here they have eaten.' 

"c^f^ n II ia II tr^T^ 11 ^bwR , ^ , ( mo^H ^ ) n 

, . 14. A word ending with a sixth case-affix la 

lot compoutided with another, when the force of the 
3*initive case is that oi the accusative. 

862 Compound Prohibited. [ Bk. II. Ch. II. § ij^ „ 

The anuvritti of ^ does not extend to this aphorism. The word karma 
qualifies shashthi. Sfltra II, 3. 66 declares the conditions when, instead of the 
accusative, the genitive may be employed i. e., when the agent and the object 
of the action denoted by the nouns formed by krit affixes, are both used in a 
sentence, the object is put in the genitive case and not the agent; as srrv^f ir^f 
fiffHriHi'^'T ' the milking of cows without a cowherd is a wonder.' fr^ ^. 
TffHrsH \^^ 'eating of rice agrees with Devadatta.' aw «!r»r "Ri^: iirsf 
?Tf^f ' the drinking of milk by Devadatta is indeed excellent.' f%^^ ^irij 
|«f*: Tfi'ii'T'rf 'wonderful is the structure of sfltras by Pdnini.' 

{nmfi ^ ) ii 

^Rt: II ^It »rr ^ «ir <nfrJ*«T '^m^ n^^^ 11 

15. A word ending with a sixth case-afflx i.s 
not compounded with a avoivI ending with 'trich'or 
'aka,' when the force of tlie genitive case is that of au 

The word 'kartari' qualifies the genitive-case. The affix ir\ is taught 
in sfitra III. i. 133, and the affix h^T is not a single affix; all affixes that 
have an element 5 are sj^; such as "»jjt^ or js^ or jsr (sflira VII. i. 1.) Thus 
*»^: JJffsRif 'your honor's repose' >if it *?ff?r5Kf ' your eating' JW^JqwfH'Kr 
'your going in front.' 

The affix <f^ is employed always in forming nouns of agency ; hence 
there can be no example of a word in a genitive case having the fcrce of an 
agent, governing another word also having the force of an agent. The oT^ 
therefore serves no purpose in this aphorism, but applies to the that 

The genitive has the force of an agent under conditions mentioned m 
II 3- 65. 

Why do we say 'when it denotes agent'? Observe fljT/^lrf ^WT^' 

^^f? ^ II % II q^ifsT II v^ , n (fre^f'J^r^T^l) " 

^: II ^rtfr ^ ^ g^RK^ jTi»-«rf «? «r^ T aT«r^ Ii 

16. A word ending with the sixth case-afflx 
is not compounded with a word ending witli ' trich ' or 
'aka' affix when the force of these latter affixes is that 
of an agent. 

The word 'kartari' qualifies the word 'aka' only and not 'tr'*;''' ''^' 
the latter always denotes the agent and nothing else. 


11. CH. II. 5 16-18.] NlTYA TaT-PURUSHA. Sfi$ 

As »T<rf WCT ' the creator of waters ' jrf ^m ' the destroyer of cities ' 
fSI^ jlrrf ' the holder of thunderbolt.' 

It might be suggested that the word nd being read in the class of 
qpr^ (sfttra 9) ought to be compounded. The word »$ there means ' hus- 
sand,' while in the example we have given, it'means 'holder.' 

The above are examples of words formed by jf^. Now we shall give 
ixamples of words formed by h^; thus nm^ HhT«: ' the eater of rice,' (r«1^ 
jfifiK: 'th6 drinkerof saktu.' 

17. A word eudiug with a sixth case-afflx is 
invariably compounded with a word ending with aka 
whon tliese affixes denote a sport or a livelihood ; and the 
compound is Tat-purusha, 

This is a Nitya-samisa incapable of analysis. This anuvptti of 
he word 'na' which began with stitra 10, does not extend further. The aflfix 
1% never has the sense of sporting or livelihood ; the only examples possible 
ire ot' aka.' Thus SfW^TTSTlflrsirr ' a sort of game played by the people in 
lie easter.i districts in which udddlaka flowe.-s are broken or crushed.' So 
ilso 1'rC"3T5'S'?JT=^rftr^r ' a play of gathering flowers.' 

So also f??TS»!I9K: ' one who earns his bread by painting or marking 
■he teeth.' H^^^t^ ' a nail-painter by profession,' 

Why do we say ' when meaning sporting or livelihood.' Observe 

'^^■^h^^ ) u 

^Rt: II ^ irfffwr?^ ^m'j •ui^^t^t ^ f^ «»R*r^ mjifTV ^inft iwfn 11 

'nf^qpT It jrr?4t nww jkit^f 11 

'rrpif^ II swrrrar: m^mmi ft^fNrar ii 

vrt^^ II MV^. i^srTcro ir»ff«raT 11 

'fW^ II <nr?^ " iriwu vl -^rgt^r? 11 

^f^?^ II Rnr^: wFsm«f 'jw^ II 

2g4, NiTYA Tat.purusha. t Bk. II. Ch. II. ^ ig 

18. The indeclinable word ku ' bad,' the par. 
tides called gati, and the prepositions pra, &c., are in- 
variably compounded with other words with which they 
are in construction ; and the resultil^g compound is Tat- 

The word ku means 'badness or sin' ; as, '555T: ' a sinful man '; (2) 
Gati (I. 4. 60) as, ar^eJ ' having asserted '; (1. 4. 61.) Tr^isfrin II 

So also with the words it &c., when they are mere particles and not 
used as 'upasargas,' or 'gati'; as J^ meaning ' bad,' in J^J^: 'a bad man'; so also 
*r and srfaf meaning ' respect ' in ^"T^^: ' honorable man'; Mftj?^: ' excellent 
man'; sff means ' a little' as sirf^jr^: ' brownish. 

Generally these are attributive words but they are found elsewhere 
also, as cRifsxr or ^^'W or ^^ow ' tepid.' So also jsfiw , Hf?rw?r<T and srrtiH 11 

Vart: — The words q &c., when the sense is that of ' gone ' or the 
like, combine with what ends with the first case-affix. Thus ijfTf^: ' a here- 
detory teacher '; so also nrst^^f . 

Vari-.-T-The words Hi% &c., when the thing denoted has the sense ol 
'gone beyond' or the like, combine with what ends with the second case affix. 
As vfH^i^^- 'Jr|m = STpra|. (I. 2. 44 and 48) 'without a bed-stead,' S{{mn: 
* exceeding the necklace in beauty.' 

Vart: — The words *IT &c., when the thing denoted is 'cried out' &o., 
are compounded with what,ends with third case-affix as M^*!??: SSrfaKwCW = 'W 
*tf^w: ' what is announced by the cuckoo' i. e., the Spring. 

Vart: — The words tRT &c., when the thing denoted is 'weary' &c., are 
compounded with what ends with the fourth case-affix as "Tft'sn^'Itl'nTff 
-q^^raT: ' weary of study.' STF^^'TTf?': ' wealth' (sufficient to support a maiden). 

Vart: — The words f%T &c., when the thing denoted is 'gone beyond' 
&c., are compounded with what ends with the fifth case-affix, as fWhETrfW 
' who has gone beyond Kausimbi '; so also fsnfcrifir; . 

Varl: — A word enters into composition with f^ 'like '; and there is 
no elision of the case-affix, and the first member of the compound retains 
its natural accent, as ?rMrf%^ ' like a word and its meaning,' ?Ria7f? ' "''^ 
two garments.' 

7flr/:— Prohibition must be stated of JJ &c., when they are ' Karnu 
pravachaniya'; as ^Th !jf% ft^Jpp) f^^ • the lightening flashes in the direction 
of the tree.' «r^ ii^^ hp^ ^f^ 'Devadatta is good towards his mother.' 

g^ II.Cn. 11. § 19, 20] NiTVA Tat-purusha. ~ 266- 

gtitj^fn^^ » 9<! II ^^rf^ ii «'7tn[^, wflrjc^ ( ww- 

r,«^WW:9f ) II . 

19. An upapada or attendant woi-d (III. 1. 92),^ 
•which does not end witli a tense-afllx (III. 4. 78) is in- 
v.ariahly compounded with that with which it is in con- 
struction, Tlie compound tiius forjned is Tat-purusha. 

Thus cffni^nT: ' one who makes pots,' spittlfrr: ' one who makes cities.' 

Why do we say 'which does not end with a tense-affix '? Observe 
^vTTiirjrT^ JTjrf^ ' he goes to bring fuel. 

• It might be objected, that the question of compounding with a word 
ending in a tense-affix is irrelevant ; since the anuvritti of the words ?iq^ wqr 
is understood here, so that ^^ will find no scope. To this we reply that we. 
should infer that the words ^ wtr should not be read into this and the last 
.■ipliorism. The following Paribhdsha also arises from this sfltra. 

" It should be stated that Gatis, KArakas, and Upapadas, are compound- 
ed with bases that end with krit-allixes, before a case-termination or feminine-' 
affix has been added to the latter." * 

The result is that Upapadas and Gatis are not compounded by sfltras 
i8 .ind 19 with case-inflected nouns, but they are compounded with pri- 
mary nouns before a case-termination or feminine affix is added to the latter. 
The same considerations apply to kArakas also. Thus arsCTTT^ft' 'a female' 
brought in exchange for a horse,' is formed correctly. sncfT !lflti^ ?rr «• »T^^ 
^fhr; add 8ff«r (IV. i. 50) and we have si^fsfffff . If on the other hand, the 
feminine affix ?f>T had been added to ^^ previous to its composition with 
*^ the form would have been snc^jffl'rrr , and we should have had no base, 
ending with short H and in that case #|^ could not have been added by . 
IV. I. 50. 

3»%!n«'??j!T II ^0 II ti^fir II Sim , ifn , «f«q^H ( ^9^9' 

^^9Vn^ ) II 

*.f^: 11 WJ ) i>qYTTT < -»l y OTTO: ^tt^ »Wlff Hf^H II 

20.. When. an upapada is compounded with • 
"^i^iindcclinahle ,.thei). it is compounded only with those . 
^vyayas which end in the affix wt^. 

J68 Optional Tatpurusha, [ Bk. H. Ch. H. § jo, 21, 

This makes a restriction to the general compounding of upapadaa 
with avyayas as ordained by the last rule. As ^rrj^Brr W'!? ' he eats havine 
made his food sweet.' So also B^ltku" ' having seasoned.' The avyayas 
ending in spr are formed by the affix "i^ (111. 4. 26) &c. 

Why do we say 'with avyayas ending in *w'? Observe sn^^^ir 
' the time of eating.' Here the avyaya ends in gir of the affix m^ added 
by rule III. 3. 167 (the affix tumun may be applied, when the word in con- 
struction is not a verb, but m^f , S'RI or tffr ' time.') 

The force of the word only is to indicate that this composition 
takes place in those cases where a rule ordains a^^ only, after any root with 
regard to any upapada ; so that no composition will take place where the 
affix W as well as another affix is ordained after a root with certain upapadas. 
Thus sfltra III. 4. 24, declares: " the affixes ^f and "t^tT come after a verb 
when the words s?$ , swi and 'jji are upapadas." Here the aw (affix "ma) is 
not the sole affix ordained ; but there is a co-ordinate affix with it namely ^r. 
Therefore in WHf^TT ' having first eaten ' there is no composition because 
»T^HfiPT is not the only form we can have; for, «1$3^ is also used in the 
same sense. 

21. An upapada ending with a third case-affix 
(III. 4. 47) &c., is compounded optionally with an inde- 
clinable formed by the affix siq^andthe compound is Tat- 

The term M"? is understood here. The upapadas ending with a third 
case-affix &c., are given in sfitra 111. 4. 47 and the sfitras that follov/. As 
•RSI^frttf ^^ or »^*;ft*r(fw H?;'if ' he eats after having relished the food 
with radish.' So also "jrilfrftT or <n??JsiTfFrfrsH i9^ (III. 4. 49) ' he ''" 
pressing on his ribs.' For upapadas ending with other cases, see sfltra IH' 4 
52 &c. This being an optional rule, it is not necessary that the upapada 
should be tulya-vidhftna with the wf"^ ; so that this optional compounding may 
take place even under rule III. 4, 59 where siw^ is not the only affix enjoined, 
but there is ft as well. This vibh4shi may therefore be called both m »'"• 
Vfim vibh4sha. It is qfir with regard to those rules where »T«^ is the only »•''' 
employed; and it is' mjRr with regard to those where vi^ is not the only 

Bk II- Ch. II. § 22-34. 3 Bahubrihi. t61 

22. An upapada ending with a third case-aiHx 
or any othei-ofthe remaining four cases, is optionally 
compoimded with a word ending with the affix ktv^ : 
and the compound is Tat-purusha. 

This rule provides for avyayas ending in ^j which the last two rules 
did not provide. Thus we have 3-^4 ffWT or r«#: ff^TT . Here the affi.\ ^f is 
added by sfitra III. 4. 59, In the case when there is composition, the ^r is 
replaced by the substitute '=^; otherwise not. See VII. i 37. 

The condition of the upapadas being in the 3rd case &c., applies 
here also. Therefore there is no composition in s|«5 fp^TT or ?!r^fi??rr . 

ictitlt siga^ff : II R^ H T^lf^ II ^: , JTgsftf^: ( ^C ) H 

Tf^: II ^<t: wmt ?rf^i?^|fr »ITf% II 

23. The remaining compound is called Bahu- 

A compound which does not fall within any one of the rules given 
above, will be Bahuvrihi. This is a governing aphorism and extends up to 
sfilra 28. Thus f^nn: 'possessed of a brindled cow.' 

»IJ5\f| ) H 

^l^3(fj^ u inr^fif : ?i»iT^PT'*i"iKrftf'f Taresi'i; ii 
^W^ip^ II Hs^RT^f "^ irr«ft[?^=fTr«r: ii 
wrf^^H II w«n^"PTf^'T??^'riM?5iil"»v ^wb^: ii 
^rf^Nf»i;,ii «5?nff^iT5ra!irv ^sffi^^^c'rrHlT^FfT ?RfrwiT^ii 
^f^^il JTrlv^'ilr >TPjii^4irfl*'J?<:?r ^^ '^f '^fJttfft^rrB^: ii 
^f^^ II !nft.ICT«rMt^f irf^jftiM "^rifq^^Mv ^wnr: ii 
wRI^ II ^Tfvsfrr^iftwftn^f H^Jft^'ft:^: ii 

24. Two or more words, ending in any caso- 
^fflx, form a componnd, denoting another new thing, 
not connoted by those woitls individually ; and the com- 
Pouad is called Bahiivilhi. 

W8 fiAHUVRIHI. [ Bk. Ch. I, § 24 

The Bahuvrihi compound comes with the force of all the affixes but 
the first; as sjwjf^ ^J^ = ITlftT^ TfT: 'a water-reached village.' 3rar»frjinfr!| 
'a bull by wiiom a cart is drawn.' ?^«rw7?r5:!r: 'Rfidrato whom cattle is offered.' 
ff^W>?srr ?MT5ff ' a vessel in which rice is placed.' f^ijjif?^: ' Devadatta pes- 
scssed of a brindled cow.' jffTJ^'TtKlf JJIT: 'a village possessed of heroic men.' 

Bihuvrihi compound is not formed with the sense of the first case. 
As ^?tt JHT: ' gone when it had rained.' 

Why do we say ' more than one'? So that there m.ay be compound- 
ing of many words, as in the following verse : — 

' Why was the daughter of the king of the mountains married by 
Siva possessed of beautifully-delicate-locked-hair, and cheap-deer-skin-dress.' 

Vari: — Bahuvrihi compounds are formed of words having the same 
case, so that words not being in apposition are not so compounded; as q^^rir- 

»r«r . 

Vari -.—The compounds of indeclinablcs are Bahuvrthi ; as Ts^fjjf: 
' possessed of raised mouth.' So also sff^f ?jr: &c. 

Varf: — The second member is elided in a Bahuvrihi compound of 
which the first member is a word in the locative case, or a word with which 
comparison is made (tttr). As, gp»^ ^n: ^sTW^T = ^"^ ^TRT: ' in whose 
throat there is blackness (Siva).' ?rRriftiT: 'who has hair on his chest.' ^piTJRJ 
Jtfff^ gisf ^^ «: = ?«?5'Sr: ' he whose face is like that of a camel.' jjrrW' 
' ass-faced.' 

Vart: — Bahuvrihi compound may be formed after eliding the second 
member with a word in the sixth case denoting ' collection or modification.' 
As ^rJ ^nrnr: = i^ff^rw: , ^?T#tTniVTr|??r = *?T^' ' he who has a collec' 
tion of hair 4s crest.' ^jr^RT ft^TTrrifctufrrrJW = ^srfstSKTT: 'he who has orna- 
ments made of gold.' 

Vart ;— The optional compounding of what arises from a verbal root 
coming after Jj &c. should be stated, and the elision of the subsequent term. 
As !iTflt5f "ndinr = nr*. ' a tree of which the leaves are all fallen.' So also 

Tar/ :—T.he compounding of words signifying What exists, coming 
after the negative sri^ should be stated, and the optional elision of the second 
of the terms. As^ Sff^qntpr <pfr ?re^ =5 sjyr.- 'childless.' So also SMF^: 'wife- 

Vart :— Compounds like Mft^nftfT should be stated Us Bahuvrthi. A§ 
MRWffttr JIW"fr. 'a Br4hmant having milk.' These words are indeclinables. 
The word 'asti' h^re is an indeclinable though appearing as a verb, , 

Bk. II. Ch. II. I 35, 26. ] Bahuvrihi. Sdd 

^f^: II ?I»s^ ?tT <Ef»prr T^ WIT «fi**i«ii*niiy^rfv«K*<'5«rr: ?pre?is8 »fif jftff« 

25. Indeclinable words and the words Ssanna 
'near,' adura ' near,' adhika ' more ' and the words called 
sinkhytl. (JN'araerals) are compounded with another san- 
khya word, when the sense is that of a numeral or saii- 
kliya. The compound is Bahuvrihi. 

Thus 3<T?^: (V. 4. 73) ' those who are near ten i.e. nine or eleven.' 
Similarly 3'qfcn': 'nineteen or twenty-one' (VI. i. 142). So also STRIW?^: 'nine 
or eleven.' sT?r??jr: ' nine or eleven.' srfvnK?^: 'eleven.' 

So also two ' numerals ' may be compounded; as, fiyn : ' two or three.' 
fl^:' twenty.' 

Why do we say ' with a numeral'? Observe <f^ Kftf^: 'five BrAh- 


Why do we say ' with an Indeclinable &c'? Witness JiTw^-' "M • 
Why do we say ' when denoting a numeral '? Observe srf^^r f^Rr »f^ 
' of cows more than twenty.' 

f^^^rRTf«I'?T^T% II ^ II ti^tf^ II f^^^-5n»TTfH , «»?fr?T% 

( ^95(59 ) II 

"jf^.- II f^s^TTrfr ^sr?t»Tf% H^flftrt t^ ^t?^?* ^sft^v ^nmt »r^ ii 
'rrP^^ii H^rwft ^Nwr* j^tTR; 11 

26. Words which are the names of the points 
ot tho compass are compounded, when the compound 
signifies the intermediate point, and the compound so 
formed is Bahuvrihi. 

Thus ?%on^[^^ dakshina-pfirv4, ' south-east,' (the direction midway 
between south and east.) "^fMH 'north-east.' 

The word stTT is introduced in the sutra to indicate that no compound- 

g takes place when the words denotnig direction are derivative words 

^^^ primary signification is not indicative of direction ; as ^?s?!pa5Ky#i!tfv 

^'f'^^ftrsi^ ' the point between east and north.' Here the words ^'|- ' east ' 

'fItO ' north ' though denoting directions, are derivatively so, and hence 

^o compounding. 

17ft Bahuvrihi. t Bk. n. Ch. II. § 27, 2s. 

Tart: — Whenever a Bahuvrthi gets the designation of SarvanAman 
(I. I. 28, 29), the first term becomes masculine, by VI. 3. 34; as ff^T°ir + 

>nrf = Tfinu^f 11 

v% ?»^OTf?f ^■^ II ^i» H qr^t^ II ?T9, ^ , f^^, f ffif, 
^'S;^ ( ^WJjftff : ) II 

27. Two homonymous words 1 both being hi 
the locativo case or both being in thf3 instrumental case) 
are compounded, the sense being 'tliis happens therein 
or with that.' The compound so formed is Bahuvrihi. 

The word ?nr means 'a word in the locative case,' and St 'a word 
in the instrumental case.' The word ?rerT or 'similar form' applies to 
both. The word fi?r indicates that the meaning of the compound so formed 
should be learned from popular usage, therefore it means, ' seizing, striking, 
fighting.' All these senses are implied by f^. The word is exhibited in the 
locative case, if the sense is that of seizing ; and the word is exhibited in 
the Instrumental case, when the sense is that of striking; the word indicat- 
ed by the word is Sf ; as ^ttf^Jffif^ =«( 'T^Tf \i ^5" ^^ = 5&[rr*W 
(VI. 3. 137 and V. 4. 127.) ' hair to hair, fighting by pulling each other's. hair'; 
nmrarf^ ' hair against hair' ; ^aj ^jjli^ sjy^if jj -^ (j?i = ^irjrff^^ ' stick 
against stick, fight with stick and stave;' so also T^rfSTTOSft' • 1" the above 
examples the samAsinta Affix x\ 's added at the end by rule V. 4. 127; and ail 
such words are Avyaya or indeclinable. The final vowel of the first term 
is lengthened by Rule VI 3. 137, 

Why do we say ' having the same form '? We cannot form such a 
compound from the following : ffhsf 5^^ sTff? fT ^ "Jfl^J . 

ItT w"! f?r 5^«i»ft5l II ^t II q^ifif u ?|»i, 5if-ffir , ^^^ 

'Wt , ( W?r|3ftff : ) II 

28. The w(^d saha ' together' is compounded 
■with a' word ending with the third case-affllx and the 
•compound is Bahuvrllii ; provided that, the companion 
and the person accompanied are equally affected by any 
action or thing, in the' same manner. ' 

BK. If. Ch. If. A 28.'i0 1 D 
IJV '•^^^^-^"'ATA ,. DV..OVA 

~. ' ~ . ' 271 

Th..s «^ 3*,m^.^^^. -~~ ^ __^ 

accompanied by his son' b»1, ' ■^' ' ^^ changed to « i . i , ~ 

'P-ion(,.-,J^„^^^;_ " s'-s thae this condi.-:To.t'it;d" 

--e-affix,.s «tana. iu ; iS^tLr''"'^' '"''"' -^^^^"^ will, 
^^ ^^ cull,.! J),a„,^^,_ ^ "^^'^'^ ' '^'^^^ t^e compouua .so iom! 

™"'-' co„j..,H„-„„ . ,„]'/7^^'^ 'col'ateral„es.s of reference ', ^V"^^"'' 

'"• '• 'rs„^::;^-'-'->o. diL;;^-:-;^-'- does 

•f^ 'reverence r . 1 '^"'^- ''"''"^ vve ,.,„„„^ '' "' ^ '» "'at 

'"^ cow • bJ ""'' '"' ''y Gurn ' or r^r^'fZ!! "'"P°""^ ^W ^ ^ 

■'^« ^'^^-^'a"!: ZV-"' ^''^^"X ^%t^''"-'-^''- 
n^^„ "'"^ Nyagrodha trees,' So ^T^ ^^ ° ^^'-^f^^ 

'^i^«"»Hl. •4-^)1^ *^'^e placed «rst 

'^■""■•^ed ;;;:;" ^"^ ■■-""-stood here. The,, • 

'°"^*P''oris„J tT"''- °^''"-"'e'.as !;?"''"''"-' «'a„d 

^'■•onofCs. ^"'"'""•-"'^''h-.ouid'h :;:":'!" "-^ i-^- 

272 PURVA'NIPATA IN DvANDVA. [ Bk. II. Ch. II. § 3, 

31. the upasaijana is to be put last in the woin 
Eajadaiita &c. 

Thus mr^sff: ( ?5?iRf rrsrr) ' a chief of teeth ' (i.e., an eyetooth). 
is not merely the upasarjana that is placed last in these examples ; 1 
words which by some other rules would have stood first, stand in t 
list as second. 

1. cnr???!:. 2. ST^TW. 3. fgrSTTf^JT^ • 4- THjIWI. 5. Rr?l 
H?>T. 6. ^5^^^- 7- v^fe^rrgv^- 8. stf-T^ftw. 9. (s^f^^jTii). 
?fnira^. II. T5T«35m?r5r»r . 12. fiu^tHf*"^»i, . 13. frfin'^. 14. snr 
^. 15. ( arrrf^Rf^nF^J^ ). 16. f^?rr<mw?t^. 17. Mfsn^jm. 
jT/n^'^. 19- ^r'iHfnsrr'f^ . 20. ft-s^qi^^^^lV . 21. »rf^«!r»i; . 22. ?rnR 
23. ^r^nff. 24. q«#tff . 25. ^ninif . 26. sitf^js^ . .^7. srovi 
28. snl^. 29. WrrmTH. 30. nT3mii»!;. 31. (»flr3»^5r«^ . 33. ift<nl 
(^ff'TTstra'^ . 33- ( nt^rsT'^rfff'nwtn^ ) . 34. "Rtra^rrii^st . 35. ( qsirasir 
nr^J . 36. f'C'f^- 37' (^^f^srre'^). 38- ^r*r5r»[. 39. [fi^:^ 
40. (%^r5vw . 41. ( fiisnpwi'^) • 42. f^^errfft . 43. ( N?re?rf!r 
44. *rr#nft . 45- ^"^^ • 46. ^r^ifft . 47. srr^srpnfr . 48. j^inft . i 
^in\. 50- ^VV^i or 5TI'iJ*i[fy. 5'- fti^rf^. 52. ftifffbTH. ; 
f^mm . 54- «ff4^ . 55. ^mf^ ■ 56. »?T«rBift . 57. %^ 
58. 5«>i^ . 59. ^Psn4 . 

5^ f^ II 1^ 11 a^tf^ " ^ , f^ , ( ^e««g^^) u 

32. In a Dvandva compouud, let a word caHc 
f^ ( I. 4. Y ) stand 

As fftfA ' Hari and Hara.' So also If^Tsft and ^J^tfi'. Whei 
there are more than one such fir words in a compound, any one may be fixe^ 
upon as first member, and the rest to follow no fixed rule. As <r5*tf ?r^: 

Why do we say 'Dvandva? Observe f^TfTf: which is Tat-puruslia. 
«l'aT?l^'3^ II ^ II Xf^Xm II 9T^^-«^T^-9T^'''^^ 

(^egc^wT^t ) II 

^f%: II asrarTj?rfl ?r€?^<r i?J wjs^ ^f 'r^=firwri[ 11 
sn^^ II ^s'rftw: II 

33. In a Dvandva compound, let what begi»^ 
with a vowel and ends with a short 8T hi; placed lirf**- 



Thus, «»««*'( ' the camel and the ass.' g ^^^mic^J^ ' the camel 
and the hare.' 

Varf: — When there are may such words there is no fixed rule. As 
il^qr^SBT: or fSjT^lTSi'r; . 

Varf:—ln the Dvandva compounds the fSr would stand first only then/ 
when the rule of aTiTTOfffr does not prohibit it. Thus f^fnft or fsjRT^ Here 
H.TT and q-f^ though f§r, do not stand first, because ff^ boginning with a vowel 
and ending in short sr, by the rule of vipratishedha takes precedence (I. 4. 2). 

' Why do wesay 'aiwwithaw' (I. 1.70)? This rule does not apply 

when it is long sir as M^^ + ^i = 8T^|^ or ^THCt . 

^f*?«*[ II flwm^ <nf ^<pr«frft ttks^pi 11 

^f^^ II S^lSTflfw ti Iff ftljtnft-^ < T T T. S ? ff II 

^r^i^ II fl'fll'jiHHisifej' t^f^qnr.' 11 
Trf^aKiT II wjv 5«rm*r: "gTfSrrrrfir T=^??r: 11 
ttRS^ II qitqi i tf s?p<f|tre«rr: "^f^Tnff ^^k^: 11 

34. In a Dvandva compound, that word- form 
whicli|has fewer vowels, is to be placed 

Thus HW+s^lflV = R'5T«n?r'IV; and >Tin5rf§fr5W3Tr: 11 
When there are many words, there is no fixed rule. As jfjg'^'TfHJffejr; 

Vari: — Names of seasons and stars consisting of equal number of 
syllables should be arranged in the compound according to their natural order 
of succession. As t'T^H f^ r fiKftn^f : ; f^f^^nft ; frf^^nfrrpp^ . 

When they do not consist of equal syllables, the shorter should be 
placed first; as ifh!.w*n^ . 

Yart:—k word consisting of light Oagh") vowels is placed first. As, 

Vart: — The more honorable of the two is placed first ; as, qmr!%9T^ 
■"Other and father,' MVOI^ ' faith and intelligence ' ^«nn^ ' initiation and 


274 PURVA-N?PATA IN BahUVRIHI. [ BK. TI. Ch. II. §34, 


Yart: — The castes are placed according to their order: as, i(rsraT«Tf^ 
ft^^pr: ' BrAluiiana Kshalriya Vaisyaand Sudra.' There is no limitatioi 
of equahty of syllables here. 

Var!: — The name of the elder brother is placed first ; as ^rfvrftn^if 

'Yudhisiuliira and Arjuna.' 

Yart-.^Kmoag luiinerals, the less in value is placed first; as fiiir 'two 
and three' ; ^^«."r ' three and four,' 

«»|^^ , ( ^9??^^ ) H 

^r^^F'T II ?tlTWH<s?nfr^?teTni'i 1 1 

35. A word with the seventh case-afflx and an 
epithet are to ho placed first in the Bahuvrilii compound, 

In a Baliuvrihi, all words are upasarjana, and hence there is n( 
rule for their arran'^cment. The present aphorism declares that rule; a' 
aRoS^tra: ' who is black in the throat.' So also ^rfiTBtRI , f^'t^: , ^K»l*|- . 

Yart: — The sarvandmas and the numerals stand first; as ^^tw: 
^l^nt: , fro?: , fs^l: • In a compound formed by the composition of sarva 
ndma words with a saiikhyd word, the latter should stand first; as, W't^ 
vsiim:. &c. 

Yart: — The word fShl may optionally stand first; as »T^!ipt: ^ 

Vart: — After the words n^ 8cc., the word in the 7th case-affix coffl« 
as subsequent ; as JTJ^ftp: ' a hump-necked '; iI^%<T: &c. 

How is then the word ^T?: ' hump in the shoulder ' to bi 
explained ? This is governed by the general rule, and not the excep 
tional virtika. 

f*I55T, II ^^ II Xl^ II f5T«5T, ( ^9^1^^ r^^ II 

^: II ^ST^ '^ ^?5ftf?^>?r# qjl !T^r;?rs^i? n 

nrf^^ II fiTRrr: "^fsfn^ 3jrRT5!raa«!rrf?«f: qr^niin ii 

Bk. II. Ch. II. § 36-38. ] Optional Purva-Nipata. 27^ 

36. Wliat end.s with a Nislitha (I. 1. 26) shall 
stand in a Balmviihi comi^ouud. 

Thus ^=;?r^iT: 'one who is devoted to devotion'; ^fr?i7: ' one who has 
made the mat'; fH%?lf>Tlw: ' one who has begged alms.' 

Vart: — A word expressing jAti (genus), time, or pleasure, is placed 
subsequent; as, J^-^C^ , Tr^nrr?!: , and ^JfrsT: &c. 

Vart: — The words ending in Nishtha or in the locative case stand 
subsequent, when coming after words denoting ' striking '; as ST??Rnr 'ready 
with sword'; ^irgtrrfe: ' holding sceptre in hand.' 

( f^t^ ^i9H ) II 

-37. In tlio compoinids Ahitagni and the like, 
the Nishtha-formed word may optionally he placed first. 

Thus H»ssrr^?r: or sfffgrrrfJ^: ' one who has consecrated fire.' 

I. srr^firftr. 2. m^^m . 3. 3mr??er. 4. irm![>r5. 5- »Nfr<fht: 
6- 'jn'fhT. 7. »TO<fhT .8. 3j?rHrS. 9. irflnf . 

T. IT^SKira. 2. »?^«r5T. 3. (Mr5«j«) . 4. rTTffcuT^w^yjf^ . 

This Sff!??rrflr class is Akritigana; so that words like it? &c., must 
be looked for in this class. 

^«KT: ?B^>n^^ II \t' II inpfiT II ^5Wj:t: , ^vin;^ , 
(^»n% g^^ ) n 

38. The words kad^rah and the like, are 
optionally placed first in the karma-dhdraya. 

,.- Thus qr3rrAf«rf%: or ^(Hf^^t^nr: KadArajaiminilj or jaiminikadirah. 
The tawny Jairaini.' 


Optional Purva-nipata. [ Bk. II. Ch. II. § 38. 

. ssf^. 8. >tV. 9- "J^- '°- PPJ'f- "•■|^3F- '2. ft^fPf. 13, 
RjjTff). 14. ?f«. 15- «f2- '6- '^'^- '7- '^^ '^- '^'f- '9. 
K^ . 20. ^ . 

This sfitra enjoins an option where by general rule guna words being 
ttributes would have invariably stood first. 

Why do we say ' in the karmadhAraya compound '? Observe wm- 
^ »IPT: • a village of tawny men/ which is Bahuvrthi. Here ends the force 
if I. 4. I and II. I. 3. 


II ^^ f§rftm^m^ rl^^' qT5[: ii 

Chapter III. 

1. TliG woi\i ' aiuibliihlte ' moatiin^i^ ' not being 
spycitied 'is to be uudorotood as the goveniliij^ word. 

Wlutevcr will be tau:jlit from tliis point forward, should be under- 
stood to .ipply to those cases which have not been specififd otherwise. The 
case-afTixes like those denotini^ 'object' 'instrument' &c., are applied to a noun, 
only then, when the force of the case-alliK is not otherwise denoted or mention- 
odor exhibited. 'J'he force of a case-affix may be so denoted either by first, 
the conjugational affixes fds^ ; secondly, by the Primary alFixes or f>?T, thirdly, 
hy the secondary affixes rjfcjfT ; or lastly by comj-jounds. Thus sutra 2 declares 
that tlie second case-affix is applied in denoting the objeet, as off? erfrfW 'he 
makes the mat'; mn iT^af^ 'he goes to the village.' But the object can otherwise 
he denoted. Thus by the passive conjugational affix, as ^^rS gj?: ' the mat is 
made.' Here the termination of the verb denotes the object. .See sutra I. 3. 
'3- and 111. 1. 69. So also by the krit affix, as ffrf. ^r?: ' the mat is made,' see 
Sutra III. 4. 70. So also by a Taddhita affix as Tr.?Jf or ^jfrT^f: meaning 
'purchased with a hundred' = ?TS7 sfffer: . Similarly by saniAsa, as UHT^^ ^f\ 
= !frff^r?9K> iTPi: II 

m^xM TfcftTIT II ^R II ^^iriT 11 ^'Rf^ , f|^m II 

wRt: II ^Hficj aprrsR ^r if^nrr ^^ fs:<ftTr \^nf^ w^fft n 

^fHi^JT II aTftrT.-q-R-ff:-?r<Tifr f%*'!rr ^r-iJw-vt'f^ ^ f5[?f^ n 

2. When tlio ol.)iect i.s not denoted hv the tormina- 
wii of the verb, i. e. wlieii the vci-b does not agree witli 

^t, the second casc-afflx is attached to the word. 

278 Accusative case. [ Bk. II. Cfi. Hi. § 3, 

The terms dvitiyd &c., are technical phra.seology of older wram 
marians, and hence not tlefiiied by Pdnini; they apply to the triads of ^ 
allfi.'ics. sr; ^frf^ ' he makes the mat,' ifrit ir»5i?f 'he goes to the villao-e,' 

The words ^n^n: , mr[: , Rm^ and the double forms OT|trft' , Hq'M: 
W^i^, when they have the sense of nearness, govern the accusative. Some 
limes other cases also, as ^^mj iffiT 'on both sides of the village'; g^ ^ij '„ 
all sides of the village'; Pn^f^TJ 'lie to Dcvadalta'; ^'Jt^^ iTfl^'just over th 
village'; aT-.^r'T or srfraf Tjpjl ' just below the village.' 

Varf:~'l'he words arPlrT: , TR-T: boLh meaning ' round ', ^HJfr , r%5rq 
both meaning 'near' and ?r ' woe be to,' and !fr% ' to,' govern the accusii 
tivecase;as, STfif^r JJfTH ' round the village,' itr ^■T^IT 'near the viila.^c', j; 
t^fTf ' woe be to Devadatta'; ^iTf|T?nT;T sjfWTrrfl RfTp-qfrT ' to a hungry pmsoi 
nothing occurs to his mind.' See I. 4. 49 &c. 

^J^ft , ( %MVH ) II 

^ra II 5j'?fi{ f%q^ ^fr^. ^HWj ^nr^ rf ffr^r f?5?f% A^f^ fgrit^ '^ 11 
;]. Ill the cliliaiulas (vcdn), tlio ol)jcct of liu; vcrl 
]m ' to !~,a;Titicc' takes the athx ot tlic tliifd case, tiiul o 
the seeoiul as well. 

This ordains the third casc-aflix ; and by forre of the word ^ ' and 
the second case-affix is also employed as Tf^r^jfifj^fti 3iff^ ■ he sr.ti.slics 
pleases Agni with barley-powder,' or ;>i^ipTf?;T|r* ^?rf^ 'he throws barley 
powder into the fire as oblation.' 

Why do we say ' in the vedas?' In the classical Sanskrit, the accusa 
tive only must be used and not the instrumental, 

3TnT^IinI^^5^ II » II q^Tf?T II ST'rl^T , ST'tl^'^ , 3^ 
( flcT^m ) 

Mf^w - ' 

4. A woitl joined with (or govt^i'iied by) the word 
anttua, or aiitai-ena tsikes the second casc-alhx. 

The anuvritti ot dviliy'i is understood here and not that of tritiys 
Both these words antarA and antarcna are NipAlas. They govern the ac 
cusative. This debars the genitive case. The word antarA means ' "^ 
iween' while anlarena means ' besides that,' 'without,' 'exception, '^^' 
reference to' 'regarding.' As, m»?»?C!J T^i^^rv st r«Rr'53l»'lS ' no'^'"S '^'"' 


11. Cii. in. § 4-6.] Accusative CASE. 279 

rained without exertion. siScirr or STJc^dj ?ff '^ tN '^'fSr^: 'the bowl is be- 
weeii thee and me.' cKfi^l^^r Tf ?fC'i :(T^: "iffr-s^'T ' who else but thee is able 
to retaliate.' 

Why do we say ' when joined with ?' Observe aosfTCT ?lvTi^'Jff^ 

gj?I5rT-^^t3t , ( f|?ftqT ) II 

^frT: II ^5f ?T5?^^j».i7r5?>-?f5:'^ ffftfl'^rr f%>Tf^H?f?r ^!(^ ^n(n ff'^nni^ i' 

5. After a A^ord tleuotiiig tim'^, or length, the 
affix: of tlio 2ti(l ca^o i-; cm|)loyotl, when denoting full 

iRfl'fr^ 'he readb for a montii,' 'he studies full one month,' lira 
^iFJIIofl' ' prosperous-during' the monlli' (aniiiterrnptedly), ?f7f?tr J'^IT: 'flowers 
(liirinij the year continually,' !Rfrf ^fj'^r R'fl' 'tlu' river winding for one kos 
without any broalv,' 5Kf5if "riff; 'the hill throu^li one full ko5.' ^»ir liTf'H' mi'^;_ 
^<T?ir'IT'ir^^ 'O king tlic hall of Visravana is loo yojanas in length.' 

The word STrJT'fl^f'fr'T or ' full continuity ' means the complete rela- 
tion of time or space with its actio;), attribute or substance. 

Why do we say ' atyanta-sanyo^ja or complete continuity'? Observe 
1Rr?T fsrq7t or iBT?:r?^5i??f T#tT: II 

g^TTsrif !f fft?TT a 5 II T^rfff II 'm^^n , frftm , ( ^Mi^srsiV 
i?!i'tnii?»>»f ) II 

f frT: II ^f^fT nnvpj!^ :^f<7C77nr?3r?iT«i!fr"t r^^int f%>T%4^ft- ii 
G. The tliird casc-aili.v i.s oinployed after the 
words doiiotiag the duration of tun« or place, when the 
itccoinplisliment of the desired ol)jeet i.s meant to be ex- 

Ift^Rfr^lvfl-ff: 'he learnt the AnuvAka in a month,' a"r#TrWfmj^: 
I'e learnt the Anuvaka by going over a kos.' 

The word 9TT^»f means 'the finishing of an action, on the attainment 
*' the object intended by the action, but not before." Thus ff5fwr"7R5rT 
"I'^Tl: means 'Anuv4ka was perscveringly and effectually read by him 
in the whole year.' 

When the idea of apavarga is not intended, the accusative case is em- 
P'oyed, as »ira»I'IWr*5fW.- 'learnt for a month, but not yet completed, the 

280 Accusative Case. [ Bk. II. Ch. III. § ■j.r 

^^^vpssfVxt ^RSBT'B^ II l9 II ^^if^ II ^F'ft-^'^^1 
aUT^^-ITf^ , ( «T^T^"5^T« ) II 

7. A iiouu denoting time or placo gets the afli; 
of Uie se^'onth ortln^ titth case, whonthe .sense inipliod i 
that the time or .spae.3 is the interval between one actioi 
and another action (or implies an interval of time aiK 
Sl^ace between two karakas). 

Ex. 3T«I 3^frr ?^Tfr ^? ^jriCRrTfrf ' having dined today, Dcvadatta wi 
dine in or after two days.' Here the 'time' ih the interval between lli 
agent and his power of eating. So also ?f?(ir>I«f^^ra. ^Rjrw m% ^r w^ 
f%».WT ' standing here, he will hit a mark at the distance of one kos.' Here kt 
is the interval between the agent and the object, or the object and the abl; 
tion, or the object and the location. The rule 1. 3. 10 does not apply here. 

f|?l^qT II 

8. The second case-afiix is employed after a wort 
which is joined with a karmapravixchanlya ( I. 4. 83), 

Ex. ^f^?w«t ^T^ftTR^irm?!; ' ft rained on (hearing) the reading oi tli 
Veda by S4';alya.' So also 3Tf»I?511'fi^'^., ^^- I' 

^^^i^f^^ v^n ^Ksiinn^ r(^ w^ II «; "I ^^1^ " ^f^^ 

9. Where a word is gov.irned by a karmapravaoha 
niya in the sense- of 'Jnore than' ( I. 4. 87 ) or 'lord of ( I- 
4. 97) tliero the 7th case- affix (locative ) is employed. 

Ex. 5T»?rra[f'T fffJU. 'A Dronaismore than a KhAri,' srPrJIsrf^ 'T'"' 
'Brahmadatta is the'lord of Panghilas.' The phrase Jre^T-ts^rT rf(^ iadica^e^ 
that both the thing owned and the owner may be in the locative, 

This aphorism debars the accusative. 

Bk. n. Ch. III. § 10-12.] Ablative CASE. 281 

tjflirTtltn^qf^f^: II 90 II xt^tI^ II rf^^ , g?q-3TT^. 
nRfn: , ( ^^JT'T^'ft^O ) II 

10. The fifth case-affix (Ablative) is emxiloyecl. 
when a word is govoi-ued by the following karmaprava- 
elianiyas i. e. ajja, ail and pari. 

Ex. 3T7 orsrr or q-fr q-Rf^^rffTTr t^; 'It riined off or upto or with the 
ixclusion of, Pataliputra.' 

The <tR here lias the meaning of 'exclusion ' ([. 4. 88) being read 
along with 3T<T ; therefore, not liere ^'^ qft f%!sfr?T^ fir^ir (f. 4. go). 

:Sh^\^ , ^ , n^i\ ( ^nr(o ) ( vi^^i ) 11 

11. The .^fcli case-affix (ablative ) is enij^loyed after 
vliat Rocvor is governed l)y a karnia^jravachaniya iutho 
iciiso of ' substitute ' or ' exchange '( I. 4. 92 ). 

Ex. srfHH'^T^TfT: Jlft 'Abhimanyu is the representative of Arjuna.' 
ITPl^iTmfl^ir: H^^'Z5f?r ' he exchanges m.lshas for this sesamum.' See I. 4. 92 
K an explanation of !i^(%fv:r and irfff^rfl • 

n?^'^^^fni f|?ftiTT'qH'5^f 'i's^T?IT*^^^s^f^ ii 9;^ u u^tiH a 

12. In the case ot roots implying motion, the place 
which motion is directed takes the affix of the 2nd 
Accusative) or the 4th (Dative) case in denotin<'' the 
object,' wlien physical motion is meant, and tJie object 
s not a word exx^rcssing' road'. 

Ex. mtj or iTTTf^r »P5a[Rr 'he goes to the village.' But not so in jprer 

'^^TRt (the verb not denoting physical motion) 'he goes mentally to Had' 

■^^ 'T'E^frf ' he goes over the w.ay ' (the object being the ' way '). But not 

'" Hr^if <T^f?f 'he cooks rice ;' (the verb not denoting ' motion )' nor in 

W srsr^ (the verb not denoting ' the object.') 

282 Dative case. [ Bk. II. Ch. III. | lo, u., 

Note: — The word adhvan includes the synonyms of road (I. i.58) 3 

Note: — The prohibition .'ipplies with regard to the going over c 
occupying the road ; so that where a person from a wrong road goes to tli 
right road, there the fourth case-aflfix will be employed as ^vi »r^f?r . 

^: ii ^n* ^ft* ^5«if ffHf^HTisr II 
^=^3^1^ II ^H?ff f^'JR fjr?t^ 3TO»8?rprn II 
^rf^^^ II ^fTemwrt ^m«ff 5^»rs?rr n 
^rf^^«j II 3?Tm!T jm^w^ "^^fi ^Tirnir ii 
^if^«^ 11 ^<T^»t T^sfi sf'Tsjir II 

13. In denoting Uic sampradaua-karaka ( I. 4. 33 
the fourth affi.x: or the Dative is employed after tli 

Ex. 37ritrr«rw m ??rf?l 'lie gives a cow to the teacher ' I^^tTpt fr^ 
' it pleases Devadatta ' (I. 4. 33) ^s^i-ir: ^>rnTf\ (I. 4. 36) 'he desires flowers 

Far/:— The fourth case-affix should be employed when the sen: 
is that of ' for the purpose Iheroot ' as lm^ ?r^ ' wood is for making post; 
^(JSW^ fir'jf ' gold used for the purpose of making car-ring.' r^VTIR ?«fri 
' pot for the sake of cooking.' 3T??^^?ft<^<1»i 'mortar for tlie sake of threshiiu 

Vart: — The verb ^7 and other verbs meaning 'to be fit or a(lc(]ual 
for, result in, bring about, accomplish, produce, tend to,' govern the d;iti\ 
case: as, ^(t( ^f?i^ ^l^fj: ' the barley gruel tends to [)roducc urine." Sell: 

•i^Rf ^<rafl srr^r^ ^r ^wnj: . 

Vart: — The fourth case-affix is employed with the force of ' indicalir 
a portent or calamity,' as. 

^wra ^nwjr ^^^rarRrl^T BrflRt 11 
>ft*TT ^«rhr f%^?rr ffwsrra T^m >iS?t ii 

' The reddish lightening portends wind, extremely red indicates hea 
yellow portends rain and white lightening prognosticates famine.' 

Vart: — The fourth case-affix should be.employed in connection wii 
the word ^?r: as %^[|# ' good for cows.' 

^^"^m . ^, w^f^ , ^fsjH: . ( ^n\) II 

^f?j; II f^jjiirm^^ -^ ?vrfTifrJ!T55VTR^ »Trift; mf^ wrrt ■^ryfr Ttf' 
^srfir II 

UK. II- Cij, Hi. § 14- »6. ] Dative case. 


14. The fourth caso-afflx is omployed ia denoting 
tJio object (karmfi) of that verb, whic]j. is suppressed 
(sfchiliii) in a .sentence, and wliich has in construction 
(npapada) therowitli another verb, donotiug an action 
performed ±br the sake of the future action (kriyaii;ho 
111. 3. 10). 

In otb or words, when the of an inflni- 
tive of purpose lormed by ' tumun ' and 'nvul'dll. li. 10 ) 
iri ,sui)pressed in a sentejice, the o])ject of this infinitivo 
j,s put in the Dative case. 

TTrt'-^r 5T wftr = Tr5?r??ir?S pTH-J^ ' he goes for fruits /. e., to brino- fruits.' 
rills debars accusative case. -So also we have 5>J>^: 5r5ri% 'he goes for fuel.' 
l"he words fjfr^Truhf?^ and im?H!T arc in apposition. The first is a Bahuvrthi 
■ompound of r^n?rr«l + OT7? .and means ' a verb whose upapada denotes the 
lurpose of the action (kriyartha).' Thus in ^vjfTr?^^ 'to bring fuel' ; the 
nfinitivc verb 3Tf?4'T is RtPirillTT? , the object of this verb is^vf:; when this 
■f-ri) is suppressed, it becomes ?HTf^. ; the object of this verb takes the 
ourth case-affix. 

Why do wc say 'of the verb whose upadada denotes the purpose of 
lie action ?' Observe !if%3T frUf . 

Why do we say ' in denoting the object.' Witness ^ai-ifr ^''Jrm ?T?kIt 
for fuel he goes with a cart.' 

•Why do we say ' when suppressed' ? Observe irviRRri? 5r5Tf% . 

l^^\^^, ( ^asff ) II 

15. The fourth case-aiHx is emxiloyed after a 
niide-foi'm which ends in an ailix denothig 'condition' 
f^bstract noun. III. 3. 11.) and having the force of tlie affix 
urn (or Infinitive of purpose). 

B-x. ^inrnr jr^rfsr 'he goes to offer a sacrifice '=^15? snrfw. So also 

•The word WT?i means ' having the same significance as the affix 511'. 
T^:^%^TfT^^t^^tnni^1T^ II <i\ 11 xjl^l^ II 5?*r:-^%- 

28i Dative case. [ Bk. II. Ch. 1^ § ic,, 

10. Tlie fourtli casc-aiflx is employed in coi 
janctio'i witli tile words lumali ' .salutation,' svast 
' j)eace,'svalu1, svadha (terms use I iu offering oblation.s t and l"'itris respectively), alani 'a match for' 'sull 
cdent lor' and vashat a term of oblation. 

Ex. ^r W't- , 5Tf??f f^!>-7{: , ^j^ir^ , i'jsn fqw*^: , 3i»i iT^r iisn 

'Salutation to Gods'; 'peace to the people'; 'svaha to fire' ; 'svadlLl to tl 
Pitris'; 'an athlete is a match for an athlete' &c. The word ^^ inckides i 
synonyms also, as qj: , jj^: &c.; so f«rf<^?3[Rl , ^Tflfaf . 

The '5 indicates that the Dative will debar Genitive, in spite of II. 
73, in the case of these words, though used benedictivley ; as,?7i?ff 'fP-'^ *lWf 

^f^; II i;»r^Hfe sifprrftf^ fknm '^imi f%Hf^ n^rf^ sr^r?? ij^jfur^ ii 

17. In denoting the indii'cct object, Avliich is no 
an animal, of the verb manya ' to think,' the dative cas 
is optionally employcjd, when contempt is to l)e shown. 

Ex. ^ ?fr wcj rT'^r^ ^r H^^ ' I do not consider thee worth a straw.' ^ V 
5^ 5^ra ^r T^ ' I tlo not consider thee worth a chaff.' Why do wc use the woi 
Jff^? Observe ^ jqr rfoj f^fr^rfft . The optional dative will not be employe 
with the synonyms of the verb (jsjjf^. So also the sutra uses the form iTSJt wit 
the vikarana 3;il"r , indicating that it is Divadi that governs a dative, and ni 
the Tanadi tjH ; for the latter governs the accusative only, as ^ jq'r iT'f'P^. 

When contempt is not meant, the verb does not govern the Dativ 

as: — 

sT^Tfr f IT? 11^ , ^Jr^ ^fu^y{jf^t{ j srsyRRw g# if^ 7re?r ttw h TVrrw 

' I consider a rock to be a stone, I consider mortar but as woo 
I consider him to be the son o.f a blind woman whose mother cannot see.' 

So also when the object of comparison is an animate being, it" 
not take the dative:— as ;r ??f IT«TrFr 1^ ' I do not consider thee even as 
jackal.' The case of sf r^'r ?J^ >Tf^ is an exception. 

Fa?-!":— Instead of using armi^ in the sfitra, the word SHr^ff?^ shou' 
be used. The following words belong to NAvAdi class, they are always i 
the accusative after the word jp^ , never in the Dative;—^ 'ship,' W« 'c^'" 
WW 'food/ jpf 'parrot,' and mtim 'jackal.' 

Bk. n. Ch. III. § i8-2[.] Instrumental case. 2s, 

5B?f^<tll^t ^^cftqr II 16 II ti^tfn ii ^^-'^^^ijt: gcftqr u 

i^f^: II ^^fr sK'r'r ^g- ^rr^ ^nt f^nf^ -Isri^ n 
^rf=ff5nT II ^fff'irr R->Tr$ R^srf^l"'Tr5Ttf'5Jrr'T^ ii 
18. Ill (Icnotiug- tlic ugoiit ([. 4. 54) or the iiisti'u- 
mciit (I. 4. 42), th(3 tliii'd cixsc-iiffix is employed. 

E.-c. ^^'^T ^ 'done by Devadatta,' ^r^l ^^t\n 'he cuts with the 
iicklc.' So also, «rjr?=srT ^rfm^ , T^r^r^r fts7(% ii 

Var/: — The following words take the 3rd case. >I^f?T 'oritrinal,' qrar 
'almost,' ifr^ 'gotra,' ^tj ' equal,' fSpTT 'unequal,' fcffCT, 'f'W^IT and ^r^^ as qra'cj 

wlrs: . Tf'^rf'i'^T wr*"^ , ^^t or r^m'^ vri^r^r , r?:5r"i!T ^frfcarrw &c. 

sgf 3^JR^T% II ?<! II U^lf^ II ^f g^ , 37n^I^ , 
( (fcft^T ) II 

|i%: II g^WT wT&jsjvjr? ^rfr^rr 1%h^st^[% ii 

1!). W]i(!ii llio woi'd Hf 'wtlh,' is joined to 
a word, thv. latter l,id<es tlic thh\l ea^e, wlieii tlie sc^n.seis 
limb the word in tlie tiiird ("Lye is not tlie jiiincipiil but 
thu acc(jni|)aniinciit of (he ])i-iiici[)al tiling-. 

]']x. T^fl «^r»TrI: Pi^f 'the lather has come with the son.' 

The same will be the result wi(h the synonyms of ?T^ as, tr^oj ?jr^ 

'ttitli the son.' .So also when the word ^{^ is understood, as IMiiini himself uses 

ill 1. 2. 65 ^:|t w^r &c., 

Why do we say 'when not the principal.' Observe, ^5^ 

^^Iff^^HR: II RO II q9[Tf% H 5|H , 37^-f^^t?: , (<f?I^m) II 
^f%: II %r^T f^r^^Tff^^r T^^rcr r^^^ ;T??^=t#l'3Tr fk^jf^Mf^ 11 

20. By \vJiatsoL'\-or linil), hcing' defective, is 
poiiite 1 out tiie tletect of the pei-son, altf'r that tlie tliini 
f^tsc-aHix Ls employed. 

^\s, ar^ajT ?Unu: ' blind of one eye' TflT tS'f ' lame of foot.' 7rf^?rr sgC': 
^'^- The word aiiga in this su.ra applies to the whole body, whatsocter by 
sason ot being a member of the body is defective is indicated here. 

««ifci^«[3» II ^5 II ^^tf^ II ?c^f?T-w!a3t , ( <f?OtrT ) u 

2S8 Ablative case. [ Bk. III. Ch. II. § 27.2^. 

kSrana and lictu. Here also tho word fjdoRS not mean the word-form hetu 
{1. I. 68) but its synonyms also; as f^ ^^fu^ or ^7 s^^fTTTT or ^i^ R^ra^ 
&c., ^fff . 

3Ttn^% tll'ft II R^ II 'T^lf^ II ^'TT^I^ , tl^^'ft II 

5fiT: II 3r-rr?r^ ^rt?^ i^^'if r^Tf^s^-Trfr 11 

mr4^f{ II Hfii^r"? =€r7?r»i«rR'T 11 
^rf^*'T II sfsiro^R^fiv >T»^^I' ^TEEJtr 11 

^fra^iT II Wq^ffTirJir^ ^<'ll' ^TfiiJir II 

^rPS^'T II w.-vf: Rtffr WTHt "^ ^?frs?rr 11 

2S. WJieu Uk; ApfKirina-kurtikii, (I. 4. 24) is 
doiiotoil, the fifth caso-atHx is cjiiplcnaMl. 

Ex. qrirfrn^arrfl ' tie comijs from the village' (I. 4. 24) ; ^^iiff r%^r3 

(I. 4 25), sp.Tr^r^f'T TrrTTii? (I. 4. .'6) &c. 

Varf: — TIk; fifth case-afli^ is e:n|)loycd in d(Nioting the oliject, when 
the verbal pirticiple ending in ?!ir is elid ;.l ; as qrwfiif^rsr 3«"^ = UWRf^ 
^|ff^ 'he sees from a palace.' 

Vitri. — .\iid under similar circumstances in denoting; the location the 
place where an action is perform .'d is put in the ablative cise, as, strat 
vrTf%??rS'?T^ = >rram'T $7lfr 'he sees from a seat.' 

Vtirt: — In questions and answers, the fifth case-affix is employed; — ^^flf 
H?R? TRfejTsrri ' whence is your Honor coming ? From Patali piitra.' 

Viifi:— That point oftimj or space from which distance in time or 
space is measured is put in the ablative case: — as, »i-fr'J'?'T ^f'^Tf^'f ^'^rf*' 
^iRrPr ' Sankasya is from Gavidhuma four yojanas.' cjirf^^^ 3Tr<T?raClf f'^ 
'Agrahayana is one month from K.irtika. The word denoting the distance 
in lime is put in the locative case, as »Tra . 

7ai-/;_In the above the word denoting the distance in space may he 
put either in the nominative or locative ; as JTfflil'T: ?l'r^RC^ "^'^rfr ^fsr^rPT of 

RPTf^^Tr?! II 

;. II, Ch. III. § 29-31. ] Genitive case. 289 

29. When a iioim is joined with woi'ds meau- 
o; 'other than' or witli arat ' near or remote ' or itara 
iffercnt from ' or rit.* ' witbont,' or words indicative of 
.0 'directions' (used also witli retereiice to the time; 
iTospoudiny to^them) or willi words liaviiig ahahn ' to 
iiul' as the last mem])er ot tiu; compound laiid expres- 
v^o of directiou), oi- wiMi words ending- with tiie atflx 
h or a!u (V. 3. 8G and 87) the flftli case-affix is employed. 

Ex;. ST'jfr, R#r , fri({ , aTirf^frr , Rr^lfl-'ir ^r Nrfrrq; ' different from Deva- 
:ti' sirrr? t^r^^ra ' remote from or near to Devadatta.' The word ArAt 
unhvr 'near or remote ' would have taken the sixth case-affi\ by sutra 34, 
this enjoins 5th case-affix. ^^?T?TnT 'excepting Dev.uhitta.' Ttf arTTW 'east 
he village,' ^rrft iTrfm 'nortii of the village,' >|ff a|-<!iir?r ^g?fl. ' the spring is 
)r to Slimmer' qr^ 5I?JlT^-f aflffi^'to the east or west of th.^ village' frwTf 
Cjrf^ Tf 5rr»n?f 'to the south or in the eastern direction of the village ' 

The words like m^ &r,, formed from the verb anchu are also ft^^if: ; 
ir separate enumeration shows that the sixth case-affix ordained by the 
;t sulra does noi come after them. 

^^5cii^«cq^5T 11 ^0 II tr^tOr ii tj^'>, arcrsg^- 

30. Tlic sixtli case-affix is emido.yed wlien 
ed in couriectioii with words ending- witli affixes hav- 
i' tlie sense of the affix atasuch (V. ',]. 2S). 

The affix STftH^ is ordained by V. 3. 28. 

Ex. iTW??! f f%-oRi; g^ltq: ^r^rtrTTfr^r 'to the south or north, fore 
't, in or above the village.' 

Ti^im ij^m II ^'3 II Tf^rfn ii ^^^ , fl^ftm ii 

31. With a word ending with the atHx 'enap' 
5. 3,5), the second case-affix is employed as well as 

- sixth. 

Ex. ;f^^ iippir trm^ it ' south of the village.' 


CASF.AFFIXFS. [ BK. II. CH. in. § 32.34. 

^PtT II v^% Rr-Tf TfTf f?t^ ^f'i' ? sf^r f^Rrr^^frr »T=sT?rrt^f "Tjr^fft- -^ k 
0-2. When joined with tlie Avords ])VLtiliak 
' witlioiib,' vlua ' without ' and luiiiil ' Avithout ' tlie third 
ca-se-aittx is ein]:)]ojud, optionally (a-s avoU as tJie tilth and 
the second). 

Kk rrffrsTR'^ m ^ f^=Tr ^.TJIfrr^r ^ ' without or different from R"im;i.' 
Tliis sutra may bedividrd into two parts: — (l) JiTT f^TT =TrTrPt: (2) 
^jjf j;jf^ffjffjT . By tins arrani^'ement we can read dvitiya into tile apliuriim. 

g;i:3t "^ ^i>r^cij5^i;f^qtj^ra^5i^H9i ii |^ n ^%m n 

33. WJi';n express in;^- an insti'Uinent-karalva, 
optionally after the words stoka 'little,' alpa 'little,' krirli- 
clihra ' difficulty,' and ka' ipaya ' soni",' the; flftli casc-aHi.v 
is u.scd, Avdien they do not denote matciial ohjects. 

Ex. ^iir'Tra; tnwiT^r "TTjr. and 3T?<rr?^: or st^^^h^ &c, 'lie got nil 

casiiy &c. Biit?Hr*^r^T7?^. , ST<-7TiTvj7r >T^: &c. 'Iviiied liy a iiltle poison.' Nj 
option allowed, as it qualifies a siib.^tancc. So also ?fr^ i<^ ' I'c loosens. 3. 
little.' Here ?iTr^ is used as an adverb and not as an instrument ( ^m) ■ 

f;nf5ff«T^: TjiwaifTT^W II ^« II ^^tOi II f^-3»f^- 
SR-3T^: , W$i , i^^rT^Wm , ( tr^ifTft ) II 

84. When in coiyniiction. Avith Avords having' 
tlie seiLse of dura'distatvt,' and antika 'near,' the si.vfcli 
case-affix is optionally employed. 

Ex. irm? iTR^^r ^r n^ %x fira^T, ^ym, ^t^m, f^«^ ?r#r v ' the t<^i''-''' 

is distant from or near to the village.' 

p,K. II. Ch. III. § 34-36. ] Case-affixes. 291 

The force of llic word 3T??rfir«?Tf is to indicate that the 5lh case-affix 
f.„i|,lt)yed in the alu-rnative, would have run into tin's sutra, had we not used 

• anyatarasyam.' 

sa^^r: , f^^v , n , ( ^^^ ) 11 

rfffffltft II 

35. AChu- tlio "vvoids huving' IIk; scnrte ordfa'a 
'distant,' and antika ' near,' the «ocoiul casc-allix isii.scd 
ii \\-('ll as tiu! JU'lli and II10 third. 

Ex. ?r?rr? 5?m gr 5Tr«i^^ and vr'^^^f?! , aifirTcKfr or 5t^«r tnmv . 

This rule applies only when thcbe words have their original significa- 
tion and do not denote a subst.uice. Oliierwise the proper case -affix should 
bo ciiiploycd, as SK' f?4fr: , 5rm "TU $r? • 

■^ , ( |;^Tf^^l^*q: ) II 

^r^ II ^tTifr r^Hf^^i^sri^T^^rr-cr m^i =^^ra ^rrf?n^Ty>-?rv 11 
^rf%f ^("^ II ?fwlK'if^ ^Ffrf^f'TT^H'iT ^•T(!WTO»s?rr=r»5; 11 • 
m^i'Tf^fifT II wp.^qpjJisfiif ^ ^^^\ ^^^^.i^ 11 
^fTH^Ttr II gErrr^r?r"^f =^r ^rc^Ktl^ TfiT'fl' ?r=fTrs?rr 11 
qrrTT^T, II H^frrr^RTfr^if '^r ^rr^?^ ^TT'tf ^^^k^^ 11 
^rNr^BiT II ?rfs;'<-5!if9 =^ ^H^t ^^fF^arr 11 
^rr^^ii II f^fi^^rt^JTJssTTq^ ?rsr«if ^rf^w 11 

:)(). TJio sin'(;ntli rnfjc-ainx is emplo3'C(1 when 
tlio sonso is (hat ol'loc-alicni (I. 4. -i,">; as well as aller tho . 
worcl.s meanino- ' distant ' or ' near'. 

I^x. ^\& 3Tre^ ' he sits on the mat' 3if?rT^ ??' ^r mn^^ ' near or distant 
'"■om the village.' ?lfr:=??f 7=^1% 'he cooks in the pot.' Thus the words sr ' 
and 3Trffr?s take four case-affixes, namely the second, third, fifth and seventh. 

Va-r/: — Words like ar^JKn'T ' wlio has learnt,' *T?7ilr^ ' who has com- 
pfcnendcd ;' /. e., words formed by adding ^ to the past participle in sffr , 
"fvern the locative of that which forms their object: — as STvfMt sJtRiT^ 'versed . 
I" '-rainmar.' irfnrftj^ ^(h^ ' well versed in sacrificial rites.' STTET?^ S'=?f« 
'^■ell read in the Veda.' See V. 2. 88. 


Case-affixes. [ Bk. III. Ch. II. § 36.38. 

Vart.^The words HPI and STHP? govern the locative of that towards 
whom goodness or otherwise is shown; as ^[n7r gW'RfPJ Tf ' well behaved 
or ill-beli;ivcd towards his mother.' 

]rj,^.^._Xhe Locative absolute is used in cases other than those 
specific<l in liie next sulra, namely, in cases where the action done or suffered 
docs not indicate the time of another action; as ^.5'sr ^g-W^ fffTf 3Tra^ ' the 
poor are silting, while the rich are eating,' ^Rryisr Hraf^l ^-sCr H^^ ' the rich 
are eating, while the poor being seated.' So also vice versa. 

Yart: The Locative is sometimes used to denote the object or 

purpose for which anything is done ; as. 

'Man kills the tiger for his skin, the elephant for his tusks, thechamari 
cow for her hair, and the musk-deer for its musk.' 

T\^ -g ^ig^ WHr^5S(^»|^ II ^is II ^^tfat II 1^ , ^, 
HT^H, W^-^sa^'i^, ( ^F'l^ ) '< 

^wift ftri^4^r?T II 

37. By the action (l)liavii) of what-.soever, tlio 
time ofanofcJief aetioii i.s indicated, that takes the sevjiitli 

This is r.ocative Absolute, lifsr ?J!T1RT« »m: 'the cows being milked, he 
went away' ?>rviRfrTJl- 'and returned when they were milked' STiJT^ %Jim\ 

Why do we sav 'by the action of whatsoever'? Observe ■iX^Vi\'^- 
n5j=#. Why have we used the word 'action' twice? Witness W?*^ 

■( ^F'f^ , w^T Hm^s'n'T^ ) II 

38. The sixth ease-aflix' is employed (as well 
as the seventh), wlien disregard is' to be sliown, after 
that l)y whose action the time oi another action is in- 

This is Genitive Absolute, x^-. ^fa TT RRrmK ''" ^P'"^ °^ ''°'' ''''^'"[""^; 
he went away.' The force of this genitive is that of the English words no- 
with-standing ' ' in spite pf ' ' for all,' &c., 5T??r: TOT f7 W- ^^^ ^f^*'*' 

BK. U. Ch. III. ■! 38-41- ] Gf.nit(VE case. 393 

Manilas witre killed like so many beasts, Rakshasa looking on/ (not-with- 
btaiuling that Rak.sliasa was looking on). 

of). TJk; sixth and tin; sovciifli ra^n-afTlx(?s aro 
ii.;c;I after woi'ils "\vli(iii [hoy are j'oLiie*! witJi svainiii 
']iLi^l(;r,' i.s\'ara ' lord,' adliip.iLi ' ruler,' daya la ' an lioir,' 
slkdiiii ' \vil-iu;ss,' j_jratil.>liu 'a surety,' aucl prasuta ' be- 


r^f ifr^ ^r f^mf or {j^^rr ' master of rows.' .So also ir^rTr"Tlf%: or 
siraf'itTM , i^f TfJtr? or jffT ?r^rf , ii^r or xtj^^ jjf^f , 5Tf?r>r &c. 

Tlieso wor(K naturally would have governed the Genitive; the present 
sulra ordains Locative as well. 

a^grTiJ^cST^T 'g!%?»Tqm II \iO II TI^Tf^ II W^tR- 

40. Ill conjunction wttl"! tJio woi'ds ajiikta 
' eiig';VLi,-o.l,' and kus'tla 'skilful,' when meaning- (3ntiro 
;il)-;()i-|)' ion. in :in engag-ejiii'iit, tlie sixtli and the scvcntli 
(-■aso-aHlxos are used afier a word. 

Ex. Mf^^fT. ^JJ^r m ^T-^KVI ^I'Tjr"T??T ^r ' deeply absorbed in mat- 
making ' 

Wh(Mi not moaning 'deeply absorbed,' the eonstrnction is different j 
as stt^tfT "ft JJOf? 'the cow is slightly yoked to the cart.' Here the seventli 
Cdhe-aflix only is employed. 

'THg fngk^'l^ l; 81 II ^^Tf?! II iIcT:, ^, f^^^^l'T^, 
( ^^'t-lH^ ) II 

^f%: II ^r R^gfroT CTtT: <!r8t»;i tf^'f FT>i^f >nr^: 11 

4i. The sixth .vnd the seventli case-anixcs 
'^i'« 11 sed after those words I'roiu whicli speoUicalioii is 
luade, (us of an iudividuai (rom the wlicde class). 

■894 Case-affixes. [ Bk. II. Ch IH. § 4,.^^ 

Ex. im nt^ V ff"^ ^f^ftn: 'among cows the black one gives much 
milk.' "ITsJIRf or ^H^■m '^^^'^C- Tl^: ■ 

A nirdhirana or specificalion is mads by separating one from the 
many by reason of its genus, quality and action (11. 2. 10). 

trsgfi^ ftn^ II «^ II ^^\f^ 11 ^^^\ , fiiH^ , ( ^ls^^ 

^f^: II ?TRT(?r.ifriirrM$ f%iTTiw^ ?i?r: T^Hf Rrnnrr^^r?! 11 f%>mfr f%H^ n 

42. The fLl'tli case-affix is employed wlioit 
the thh)g .specifled is different or divide, I from (and not 
included in) that from which .specilicatiou is intended. 

This debars the sixth and the seventh ca^c-affixes, a.-;, »ir*r?:r: Tr^frT- 
^^^■■^(■. HeKtrrt^rr: ' Mathura is more beautiful than PAtaliputra.' 

^gfji^'Jiwm^^JTt 'sp'arij^: 11 «^ 11 q^^ifst 11 ^^. 

ff%: II ?rM f^ji ??3^P-^rf ^r'T'i^fjif iF'srTrTr^r ^TTtfl- f^i%4^r?i t =^3, 

JI-%: m^ II 

43. In con nnctiou "vvith the words sadhu 
'good,' anduipnna ' skllU'iil,' when they denote res[)0(:t, 
the seventh case-affix is employ .'d ; provided that the 
■word prati is not tisctl. 

IRtR' 3^T; orRrT'^: 'good behaved towards his mother'? But w^^lfffSlf 
•ffrfT irfSf ' Dcvadatta is good behaved towards his mother.' 

Why do wc say ' when respect is denoted'? Observe, )9(r<l|?frrrJT- 
' the servant is good towards the king.' Here it is a bare statement of a fad. 
The exception applies not only to ifJi but to other prepositions, like 

^ft , 9T^ &c., as, Jirar "tR- wr^V^Ti: 11 

Jlf^^cl^T«n Hrf^^I n , II »» II tT^ifn II jrf^H- 
9^^T«ri , HcOtJT , ^ , ( 9H»ft ) II 

44. In conjnriction with the words prasita 
'longing for,' and titsnka 'gix^atly desirous of,' the tlilnl 
case-affix is used aftei- a woi-d, as well as the seventh. 

Ex. f^srat f^jqr V 3?g^; ' longing for sleep.* *$: or ^Hv nT^n- 


II. Ch. III. § 45-47- ] Casr-affixes. 495 

5f at ^ ^fq: H HH II T^tfn H fat , % ^, ( ^T(t 
flF'f^ ) " 

45. When ai\ affix d(3claring tlie time of an 
Asterism is elided by lup (IV. 2. 4); the seventh and the 
third case-afflxes are used after the word, wliose affix is 
so elided. 

Ex. jis^T 7's$ qr qi^Hldft^rnr ' when the moon is in the Asterism of 
Pusliya, let him drink milk.' Sec Rules IV. 2. 4 and IV. 2. 6. So also H^nRf: 
TWr?^ ^^X^ "TSfiTl'TTI . But not so here <f^r^ ^^f?r ' he lives in PanchAla'. 
Here the country is meant, and not a star, though here also there is elision 
of the Taddhita affix. 

Why do we say ' lup elision '? Observe iqrw Jf?: 'the planet in the 
Ma^liA.' Here there is no elision. But why not in sra'jwi: , STtrfrfrT^r. Be- 
caubc they do not denote location, which is understood. It is when location 
is expressed by such words that we may use the third case-affix in the 

wf^r'rf^^T^fef qft^mg^H *nt h^i'tt ii 8^ ii ti^fn h 

^f^: II JirffTTft^RTtfirt- f5T^Tr# fflTrtiRf^ T^^rt sTiprr firHf%4^f^ ii 

4G. Where the sense is tliat of the ITomiiial- 
stem (I. 2. 45) or of gender only, or measure only or num- 
boi- only, the first casc-afflx is employed. 

Ex. ^e^: 'aloft; TT^: 'below,' ^mxt 'virgin,' ^: 'tree,' af^ 
' owl ,' jfroi: ' a measure'. By 'number' grammatical number is meant; 
as^^: 'one,' ^ 'two,' 5f^: 'many'. 

The sense of a PrAtipadika is to denote mere existence. Genders are 
three, masculine, feminine and neuter. Measures are such as drona, khAri, 
atjhaka&c. Numbers are singular, dual and plural. The Nipatas which do 
not denote anything are also Pr4tipadika. 

^^vi% ^ II 8(s 11 ^XT^ II mv^% n ( Jwm ) II 

47. And when the sense is that of addressing, 
tliG first case-affix is employed. 
Ex. 9 m '-0 Ram' f rr^ , ? cw: II 

296 Vocative CASE. [ Bk. II. Ch. III. § ^g. 


VIW^\ ) II 

■liS. Tlu! Avord eliding Avitli the lii'st c;iso-afHx, 
in tlui .souse oi addrcs.siug, i.s caLlcd Arnautrita or N'ocativo 
^V1II. 2 .78,1. 

( W''f*'>?'*l^n^o ) II 

4!). Ill tlio sMHc ()(' v<u-alivo, th(! siugidav 
immbei' ol'tJic tirst casii-allix is calletl Samlmddlii. 

The vocative lingular is t.illed sainbiiddlii, when it is eniployed in IL. 
vocation. Thus VI. I. 6y dcclire-. ' alti:r an inlli.-ction b.ase cMidini; in 
^3= or in a short vowel, a consonant is elided il it be; that of Sainbud.lli, ' 
as t ni II 

nvz\ aj^ II \9 II tj^rfn II ^'i\ , ^^ ii 
fe>ir^H^r<T II 

50. Tlu; sixth casu-alli.x: is (Mnploj^nl in tiiu 
reniaiiiing cases, that is to say, where tliei'o is a scinc, 
such as the lulaltou h(jtw(;oii property and its owner, 
&c. differout Iroiu that of a word related to a vcfl) 
aud iroiu that of a _\oniLiial-steni. 

Ex. TfiT: 5T'7. 'the king's man' <i3jr: Tff: 'boast's foot' Ptl- ?* 
lather's son.' 

^jf^^4^ m^ II \% II ^^ifn II w., ^fk^^^ , ^^ ' 

( ^H^ ) II 

^f%: 11 ^r=n^rr^w?iTt?TRm^?T m:^ ^rc^ "sreff^f^i^^Rr ii 

51. or the verh m jna, when uot used in tlie 
sense of ' to know,' the iustniincut takes the sixth cti^i'- 

Ex. tpj;fr Jipfr^ ' he engages in sacrifice with honey'. So also af 
«tift%. The verb gr when not meaning ' to know ', has the significance o 


II. Ch. IlI.§5>-54.] GENrrivR CASE. 297 

< to act, or to engage in;' or it may denote ' false knowletlgc'; as, ?Tf^(^ r^JT: 
!t:?r?^^r- Compare I. 3. 45. 

But not so liere ?^r°i <TiT siprff^ 'he recognises the son by the voice.' 

5^f^ , ( ^isa^ ) 11 

52. Of till! \el■^)H having tho smisc of r(3niem- 
l),TLng,' (rt(Uiilv) and of daya 'to givi^' * to j)ity ' 'to 
protect,' 'to move,' and of isa ' to rule or 1)0 master of,' the 
object takes the sixth case-atiix. 

i'k. iirFr W.-^{n 'he remembers tiu mother,' ^f7^?i:^ 'he gives clarified 
butter,' m^trr^mci^i 'he can not rule his limbs.' lUit not so here iTT^ijoi: w:f?l 
because iTl here is not the object. The word ^sf is also understood here. 
■So that the cases not otherwise provided for, take this case. So that Jjmt 
?irf?r is also allowed. 

^^: nfd'Ic^ l> H^ II T^TR II ?5^: , uf^'T^ , ( ^'ff^ 

^^ ^^ ) II 

^f^: II 5Kftt: ^^r°i ^r:^ v^^t f^q^frTt sTf^Tt n^jwr^ T^ f%*lf% 

iiwrrr II 

53. Tlie object of the; verb kri takes th(! .sixth 
ca,so-anix, when it mL^aiis ' to imx)art a new quality or 
virtue ' (1. 3. ;)2). 

Ex. iTvilrs^t^rTf^^ ' the wood gives a new quality to tlie water' (or 

ho prep ires the wood and water tor sacrifice). (By VI. I. ijg, ^ is inserted). 

When Zfmn^ is not, the second case-affi.x is employed: as ^ 

The word <tq- is also understood here. So that we have also ^v:firT^fW^ 
.l^^ft II 

^gutfjIriT HTai^^HRT^gg'^ II H« II ^^f?r II '5^-31^t'iT , 

^f^: II ^WUW ^i?t?f Ht^'^Tflf HW^<?^rCfff sTft^n^^mf ^^ICJ mK^ 

Trr^^ft II sn^fr ?fftp-^itftrn ^'^^^ II 

2P3 Genitive case. [ Bk. II. Ch. III. § 54.56. 

54. The ol)ject of verbs having the sense oi 
ruj 'to afflict,' with the exeo])tioii of the Causative verb 
ivaraya ' to be feveiisli,' takes the sixtli case-affix, when 
the verb expresses a condition (i. e., wlien the subject is 
an Abstract noun). 

Ek. 'iinv ^3T^ fri'. ' the disease afflicts the thief "^W^rrTJrRt STPHT: | 
Why do \vc say 'when the subject is an Abstract noun'? Observe srff 

fjr^ifj^^iT.'H 'the river breaks the banics.' So also not here ^t 5^T?r^ ^c; 

' the fever burns the thief.' So also when the verb Httrr is used, ^r «rrnTif;% 

The word ?rT is also understood here. Thus "^r^sif^ rlTT: II 

iSl^ ^it ) II 

m ftf^a Ttf r^^f^ H7f?f II 

55. Oi the verl) natli when meaning 'to 
bless'; the object takes tlie sixth case-affix. 

Ek. fVJHf TW^ ' he blesses the honey.' But TR^^riTT'rfl^ , MT ^'fl'- 
5rr>ffsf 'he solicits miiiavaka saying (child) son, study.' Here qT«I does not 
mean to bless, and so it takes the accusative case. 

^ififflruf^HiS'ST'^Rr^r f?<jiim 11 HS it 'T'^tOi 11 inft- 
f*mf 'n-TiTcr-^T^r-ft^f , ff hi^ih , ( ^nf^ mit ) 11 


5G. Tlie object of the verbs jasi ' to strike'; 
'to hurt,' Jian ' to strilce' preceded by ^ and ar , nat to 
'injure,' krath,' and 'pLsli,' when tliey mean, ' to injure', 
tal<:es the sixth case -affix. 

tJ%, f75?fK^f , 'he injures the thief.' 

The root srff belonging to the Churadi class should be taken, and not 
DivAdi. fT with the prepositions pra and ni may be taken inany order. 
The root !ir*^ takes in the causative vriddhi irregularly. This verb is Bhv^di 
and falls into the subdivision ghatidi.^and is called there a f^ verb ; all fif. 
verbs shorten their penultimate before the causative affix fij^ (VI. 4- ^'1' 
Thus IBW is an irregularity. 

BK. II. CH. III. § 56-59. ] GtNlTIVE CASE. 299 

Why do we say ' when meaning to injure? Observe tJi^T: f^Hfz ' he 
pounds the barley.' 

The word ^fsf is also understood here as '^r5'5iTm?rl% . Only these 
govern the genitive, not so here 'qVr TfTRrT , "^C ft^^rf II 

ST^ifT^: 'g^T'^qt: II \9 II tj^lf^ II 5qq^-tjoft: , ^^ii^^V: 

( ^1'Rf^ «rt3^ ) II 

,"57. Tlic object oCtlio vet b.s vy a valiri and pan 
wlioii they are -synouynioiis, that is when thoy mean 
' deiiliiig' in sale and purcliasc transactions' or ' staking 
in ganrhlin.c;',' takes tlic sixth case-affix. 

Ex. JT'Tff 5?rw?ti% or qi^S ' he deals in, or stakes hundred.' 

Why does not the verb 7"i take the affix sir^r? It takes srrw when mean- 

!»■/ 'to praise or honor,' and not in the sense of ' gamblintj, or bartering ' &c. 

Not ■^0 hero ajt7f^f sJTT^rfH 'he tiirows the dice,' jffsrtrrfT totrj-^ 'he praises the 

Drahmanas.' The word ?fisr is also here understood, so that we have jjri H'^^ 

'lie stakes a hundred.' 

f^^?fr^^^ II \c II tr^iOr ii f^^: , r(^^^^ i (stiJi^iift: 

,5S. The oliject of the verb div wlien having 
tlio uhovc-mentioned .sense of 'dealing' or 'staking,' takes 
the .sixth case-alfix. 

Ex. ^pi^7! ^t5?(f?f 'he stakes or deals in hundred.' But not in Krsi"r 
^f(% 'he jokes with the Brahmana.' 

The yoga vllibAga, when this root might well have been included in 
Hie last aphorism, is for the sake of the succeeding sutras, in which the anuvfitti 
of (?7 runs, and not of others. 

f^fli^tqiern II H« II ^^Tf*i II ftflt^T , g'^^n ^ ( T^vm' 
^^^ ^^f^ TiTsat ) II 

59. Tlie object of the verb div when having 
tlie above-naentioned sense of dealing or staking, option- 
ally takes the .sixth case-afflx, Avhen it is preceded by an 
'il'asarga (or pn^position). 

800 Gknitive case. [ Bk. II. Ch. III. § 59.63. 

l'^. 3j<T("!r ?T^ ^r TH ^Ti% ' he deals in or stakes a Inindred.' 
But no option is allowed when the verb is simple as in the last aphorism ; nor 
docs this rule apply when the sense is not that of dealing or gambling. As 
^JOT^f !fi% ?l»Tf?J 'he throws the missile.' 

^^^^ ^nm ) II 

^fr[: II jfrgtiiTrlrT? T%'t f?^fi^u^7 jpn'fnr 5frrr*" fk^^f RrTi^^^Hr 11 

(30. The ol)joct of tin''. vtM-1) div Avhen havin^c 
the abovc-meiitiouod sonso oi' 'dealing' oi- '.stalviiicr' 
takes the second cnsc-ullix in the lifaliiiiitna litofatnrc. 

Ex. iTPT??r n^?: ?IHr?rr ?t5^: (M.iitr. S. i. 6. u) In the Vcdic literature: 
the simple verb div takes the accusuive instead of the genitive. And with 
upasarga it is The anuvrilti of the word ^H does not extend to this 
sutra, or the following. 

^^■^^. , ^^?(T-^«J^T^ ( ^f^ ^^f^ ) II 

01. TJie ol)j('ct of the verb ]n'eshya and hrulii 
(inipei'attvc singuhif ol' l)i\-adt vei'b, mcttnuig ' .send ' ami 
' iittei',') denoting saei-iticiairood, talves the sixth casc- 
alHx, when making ollefings to deity is meant or wlioii 
deity is the rece]")ient. 

Ex. smrt e^nr?^ ?f%q^R7r^r ^f^fri^'Jlf? ^^V V ' send to fire- as oblation, 
the goat, the fat, and the marrow.' IJut not here:— STIT^ 3[fif ^r^rW ^fflT?/''? • 
Because the verb is not prcshya or bruhi. So also not here STIT^ nPTwri; S'^ ■ 
Because it is not an oblation. Not here too Hfirr-T^RI jfrrm ^is^ . Because 
the recepient is not a diety. Compare VIII. 2. 91. 

V(!ri:—T\w rule docs not apply when the word JtRst?! ' sf^t out 
qualifies the word?ff:as; ^syrfff'-^tr.Sf'f ?MTf^T: qfel?f ^s?r 'send to In'l" 
and Agni the oblation set out for them' &c. 

^«^f% ( ^^ ) 11 

f Rf: (I 5?i;% (^"srt "mt-^ii 5r#l' firHf^ir'f^fn srf!W 11 

TTl^^iT |l Biasiijf '!|W«ff ^^JTT it 

r Bk. n. Ch. III. § 62-64. Case-affixes. 801 

G2. In the chliandas tlie sixth case-affix is 
employed diversely with the force of the fourth case- 

Ex. J^'TiTV?5'*ra : or =^'!rTO ' to the moon, a male deer.' ifftrr SBTPiiW 
fR? Hf^^ ^T^T^fTT'T or TTPrfW*-^: ' to you lords of the forest, are lizard, 
kalaka bird, &c. .So also ^r^r«ir 3Tr l?«iq; (R. Vcd. X. 136. 7). 

Why do we say ' diversely ?' Observe f?'5'^trr5^ , RsH^ f??ft . 

Vari: — In the Veda, the 4th case-affix is employed in the sense of the 
jixth: as TfT ^^'n ft7f% W^ '^rWfiTRlt 'who soever woman drinks with a woman 
n her courses, gets herself in menstrua. .So also Trrftff *T(7frr ?R^ 5^ra?'r 'who 
rleans her teeth, her teeth become black.' ?rri'3rf% fis?lf?r JR# ^f^- 'who pairs 
icrnails, her nails become ugly.' So on, in ^rrirT^rR^ ^"T: ^rJ^^S^TE-jR^ 

m\ , jn ^TTT'T s#n;rft ?t^ i^rsffrr 11 srfs^r^ ■mK. (T. S. 2. 5. i. 7). 

I^g ^^ II ^ H XT^^ II 11%: , % mi.^ , ( ^tat ) II 
<T(%: II ?i^»jf?fr: JK^or ^fHX^ 5?ff% gf 5fl ^'^t f^rftr^^ II 

G3. The sixth case-atiix Is diversely emi^loy- 
Jilhithe chh.andas in denoting' the iiLstrumeiit of the 
i'crb yaj ' to sacrlftce.' 

Ex. q[?r??T or ^t^arsT^ 'he sacrifices with butter.' tff'RJr or ^t yfif^ || 

liT§ , 3?f^^?:^ ( ^ ) u 

64. The sixth cast!-affix is employed in denot- 
iig location (adhikarana^ atlor a word denoting time 
kalii) when used along with a word ending- with an 
iffix having tlie sense of kritvasnch (V. 4. 17) ' so many 


Ex. "Nrf[i!#fJg)«T& 'he cats five times a day.' In short, 'words 

icanmg so many times, or the numeral adverbs of frequency, govern the 

cnitive of time in the sense of locative' As ftrjfrJ'ft?? ' he studies twice in 

Why do we say 'having the force of |«?5r^?' Observe srfy ^Ht 
"« sleeps in the day.' 

This rule will not apply when the adverb of frequency is understood, 
expressed (prayoga) as in ^{k ^^^- Nor when the time is not meant, 
*■• ^re^tnjTint j^ ' he eats in two brass vessels.' So also when location is 


Genitive case. Bk. II. Ch. Ill, § 64.66. ] 

not meant: as ^xfl 3=* • The m being understood we nave fe?5^>ftt . 

05. The sixth case affix is emi^loyed after a 
word, in de noting- the agent and the object, when used 
along with a word ending with a krit alHx (ITT. 1. 93). 

Ex. f5^^^ff gilf?I?re?f 'the composition of Kalidasa.' 3Tr??n Jtrrnrf 'the per 
former of sacrifice.' So mn- jjTVir^f ' your turn of lying down.' ^i m 
qrr *ftl r^^ ^^ • ^"^ "°' '" ^"'''^f ' cutting with weapon.' 

Why do we say ' krit?' Not so when a Taddhita-affix is employed a: 
^!m€\^i . In other words, tlie genitive in Sanskrit is both subjective inc 

^qw;^ ^^f^ u %,% H ^»T^niB^, %^^, ( ^f?r ^^ ) n 

^rf%^T II ^'? f^^TTTT II 

GO. When the agent and the object of the ac 
tion denoted by the words formed by krit-affixcs, arc botl 
used in a sentence, in tlie oljject only, the sixth casc-afli^ 
is eiiiployed, and not in the agent (the object is putii 
the genitive case and not tlio agent). 

sfr?(ji^f ir^f fir?r.HTt7r?i*1 'the milking of a cow without a cowherd is 
wonder.' fniw $ sfff^^ >?i^'r l^^'^T ' The eating of rice by Devadalt 
pleases me;' 'jm: ■TPT rfm^ ' the drinking of milk by Yajnadatta.' 

Yart:—' When the agent and object are both used, the agent is pt 
in the Instrumental, or genitive case, when, as some say, the knt ternnna 
tions are of the feminine gender, or as others say, when the terminations ar 
of any gender; as, f^f^r ^fffri: fff^rf f*i!Tr ^r. ' the creation of the world , 
Hari is wonderful.' ^RRR^^TRfWRtP^OT afl'^^ ^ 'the dissertation on wof 
by the Acharya' f^rP^rr? ^^?«t ffRf: "nfcj^: or qrfmf^ 'beautiful is the strm 
ture of sutra by Panini.' Apte. 

r BK- II' Ch in. § 67-69. Case-affix. 


^f^gfr II t4?i* >Tr^^7^»s7R^ II 

Tf^^ II ifTf^r^nTra; ra>^ 11 

G7. The jxist nai^ticiple ending in tP when 
iiscd ill ttic sense of tlic jn'osent tense, (III. 3. 187 and 
18S) is used with the g-cnitive. 

Ex. CT?rf t/5T?i; ' honored by kings,' srjS^TriT TlfTt: ' I alon« am re- 
;arded by the king,' 

Why do we s.iy '=!Tr '? Observe sfrfsf 7^«rPT: ' rice is cooked.' Why do 
ve say 'when denoting the present tense '? Observe iTfif Ttn: ' gone to the 

Vari: — When used as abstract neuter nouns, past participles are 
isfd with the genitive, as l^rr?^ sTfi 'the dancing of a peacock.' e^HRT fRrw 
tlie laughing of the student;;.' gmrfsfrsi^'T s^TrftTT 'the screaming of the cuckoo.' 
IVlien, however, agent is desired to be particularised, the instrumental case is 
employed: asgi^"^ ?Rl?T'T ■ 

This sfilra debars sutra 69 by which genitive is prohibited after 
VishthA affixes. This is an exception to that sutra. 

[^^ ) II 

G8. Tlie ]iast pai'ticiple in r^ is nsed witli 
tlio genitive w]ien tlie former expresses location (III. 4. 


This also is an exception to the prohibition about Nislithd contained in 
l'3. 6q. As Tf^ M IHl ftldH ^ 'this is their seat.' f?^r 5jfq# 'this is their sleeping.' 

In connection with verbs taking two objects, both take the genitive 
:ase, when a word ending in krit-affix dmiotes the agent, as they would have 
iken the accusative: as, #arJ3;^?I iTfre^ =&^: ' Chaitra is the leader of the horse 
^' the village.' When, however, one is the principal, then the object takes 
''>« genitive: as, ^wrJifR^r ^W 45r; , ' Chaitra leads the horse to the village.' 

H ^yt^tann'^HT^s'S^m ii ^<! ii Ti^if^ ii ^, ^-i-h?5- 

«ia?T-f^HT.^^^.^l^^, ( ^H^ ) II 

'TfrT: II ?! gr ?^ 3Ts?nr f^BT ^5iif ^^ vif^\ u^^ ifH f%>Ti%r* H^Rr ri 
trP^qfiT II ;j^ jrffwtj ;ir^»?ri!rn!rR!iffw>T: ii 
^rr^^KHii sTsssnmf^t^ m^'r^WHrTur'Tt^: ii 

304 Case-affixes. [ Bk. II. Ch. III. § 69, r^ 

G9. The sixth case-affix is not n.sed to cix 
press the a^^'eut oi'thoohjcct, A\iicii tlie woi-d is govern 
ed hy an Active Participle ending in tlio affix ^ , ov^ 
01' 3^, or by an Tndecliiiable, or hy a Past Parfciciplo ii 
tJT and tR^J. or hy a word ending in an allix .having tlu 
sense of?5r^<n' hy a JSVnin of agxuKy formed hy ^|| 

y\ftpr tlie.'he words, tlic InstrumcnUl case must be employed to denot 
the Agent, and the Acnisative c.ise to denote the object. This sutra debar 
Genitive wliicli ■^^oldd have come by II. 3. 65. The word stRI is formed b' 
5? 4 7 + gr^ = ST + ar^fr — ar^ . 

I. The word ?j means the substitutes of w /. (7., the Present Parti 
ciples in 3Tfl- , ?TR^ (HI. 2. 124), cffR=^ (ill. 2. 106) fUT (III. 2. 107) f^ aiK 
f^ (III. 2. 1 72). Thus afffsr T^T , "t^r:, T^fT or ^P'sr^rfr , q-Rr: gpfi; , ?f|iit 1 

3. The affix ^ is enjoined by III. 2. 168, as, ^ (^^pf^: , srlr^ ^hW' I 
The prohibition applies when a word ending in 5:^'^ (HI. 2. 136) is Uu 
governing term ; as, 5is=?rPT5i^fcs^: II 

3. Tlie affix^efris ordained by III. 2. 1.54: as stfiTH^ mrr"TOf rvTSTT? h 
Vart: — But tlic word qfrj^ in secular Sanskrit, governs the Genitive 

as ^reJlT: ^5^: ' lusting for the slave.' 

4. Indeclinables formed by |[fl_ affixes, as, ^i ff?Tr , STf?^ H'lfr I 
Vart; — This prohibition, however, does not apply to the indeclin- 
ables formed by %H^ (HI. 4. 16) and ^\ (III. 4. 17), as, jrr ?J^^r?^rvjf 

jrr ^:T«r f%^r fTrir^r'T (I. i. 40). 

5. NishtliA /. e., tK and :flR7<T ; as sf'M ^fl'^ l^ff fiW'^ • 

G. The words formed by m^ affixes (III. 3. 126), as, jcffr^frH^I 

7. The ^^ in the aphorism is a pratydhara, formed by taking the 
irof:[R:(lII. 2. 129) and the H^ of ^^ (III. 2. 135), meaning the affixes 
jjr^J?; (III. 2.128), 'STRJT (III. 2. i29),-?j,T (III.2. i3o)andiri:(ni. 2. I35'- 
As iHR T^TH-; , 5T»^!TR; , siTvfl^'T , qiiiitiiiH , ^ 5Rr^ , ^f?frr St^tTTWrT, I 

F<7?-i';— Optionally so, when the root ft^ takes the affix ^€ , as, =* 
or ■gk^^r feqsr 11 

3i%fltMf^^^riwi4^: n (so II ^^tfir II w^-f''^'' 
smm T^ ^1%^ H?^ II 

J3K. II. Ch. III. § 70-72. ] Case-affixes. 305 

70. The sixth case-affix is not used when tlie 
word is governed by a verbal noun in st^ denoting' 
I'titurity, oi- in fq; denoting ' futurity and indebtedness.' 

The affix 5T^ , such as it^5I , ^»T &c., denote futurity, and never 
denote indebtedness. The affix f^ such as Rf^r (HI. 3. 3 and 170) denotes 
botli- Thus cdi *rr5St S»Tf^ ' he goes to make a mat.' sfl^'T Hf»n^ STStrfT ' he 
gocb to eat rice.' So also with ^ , as, mn «i»if or irnft' ' he has to go to the 
village.' ?j?t fRtt ' he owes hundred.' 

Why do we say ' when denoting futurity or indebtedness '? Observe 
TfmHI STT^: ' the cutter of barley.' ?r^f 'fl^W- , M^nc^f ^^ ^i!^ II 

Why is the Genitive employed in the following ^q^j?R?T Tt^K: , TTTHTrTf 
^cff:? The words <^r^ and ^cR- , though formed by sr^ (III. i. 133), are not 
lormcd by that 3T^ which denotes futurity, viz., III. 3. 10. The present 
tutra relates to this latter STff , and not every sr^ in general. 

gifUTHT ^^f^ ^ II tog n q'^rfir n wm^J , ^^R , ^ , 

( ^^ ) II 

^frr: II f mprr st^f't ^'Sft'Tr <t^ ^nf^^^frr, h ^4[ct 11 
'tP^^'i II 3>T«rJrr(ft fr?t «re^«ir Tf^iipllr ^r^s^r: n 

71. Tlio sixtli is oi'tionally em^^loy- 
ed in denoting the agent, (hut not tlie object), when the 
Avord is governed by a I'\itnre I'assive Participle (kritya). 

Ry II. 3. 65, verbal nouns, (krit-formcd), always govern the Genitive 
in denoting agent or object. The present sutra declares an option as to 
.'igonts only, in the case of those verbal nouns which are Future Passive 
Participles. Thus H^^: or w^rTf ^?- ^^s«I: (III. I. 95). 

Why do we say ' in denoting the agent '? In denoting the object, 
no option is allowed ; the Genitive is compulsory. As if^t TfR'^: gtHfJ II 

Vart: — The prohibition of the Genitive should be stated in the case 
ot the Future Passive Participles of those verbs which govern two objects. 

Thus ^sstrr iTTfT lan^rr ?^^^ , ^rf^m rnnwrn ^^r^T ii 

5^T^'cn#^*ri«Ti <j?ftzjTJ^?icn:wm ii a^? ii v(^\i^ n 

^«?^ ^jTfjj^fr II 

72. The third or the sixth case-affix naay 
optionally be employed, when the woi-d is joined with 
another word meaning ' like to, or resemblance '; except- 
^''g g^ and ^iTWT . 

J06 Case-affixes. [ Bk. II. Ch. III. § 72,73, 

Thus f?^ f qf ^ or 3«ff vn^*! , ^f^ tq^JT or ?q^?sr II But witli 
IHT and ^vn the Genitive must necessarily be employed. As nm' §"<TfTT5?r 
iTfttT , ;j<THT ^"re^ *T f^^ II 

Though the anuvritti of qr was understood in this sfltra from the previous 
fitra, yet the repitition of si^iiHi+'MI'T is for the sake of the subsequent sfitra. 
The word ^ in II. 3. 73 attracts the word STS^mTf^ni; into that sutra ; but had 
he word 3i?i)»<t<tr'^ not been used in this sfitra, then the word ^ would 
lave attracted the word <i^\nj instead, which is not desired. 

On this sutra. Professor Aptc says: — 'PAiiini says that the words »t?7r 
nd ^vn can not be used with the Instrumental. But this is against good 
sage: as, g^rf 'I^rfir^f^ 9^^«m (Kum. Sam. V. 24), ^«r g-^f 'ETTT^rtf (Raghu- 
ariisa Vlli. 15). ?'F5i7Jf ^f%%t^ TR^r (Magh I. 4).' 

miff , ^ , wfajft , 9TT3^-*T5-"Hsf-f «II55'l^-Sl'5-f?^:, ( QTTqcfT- 
^f%.- II sTrf?Tf^ i^'WRrar'T srr^'wr fg- w %u^ 0^ ^^ fpj f^A ^iit i i ^tff 

73. Tlie Ibnrtli a.s well as the sixth case- 
ifSx may he employed, wJieii hles.siug i.s ir^telKled in coii- 
lectlou with the words ayusha 'long lif(',' madra 'joy,' 
ihadi-a 'good fortune,' ku^ala 'welfare.' .sukha ' happi- 
less,' artha ' pro.sperity,' and hita ' good.' 

The =^ in the .sutra makes the employment of Dative optional : in the 
Iternativc \vc have Genitive. 

7«/V:— In this sutra sn^iwr &c., include their synonyms also. 
ThussTTws^^qifTir^ H^rrw or sfr^sn l^rfTt^r >nfrfrii Similarly ftK 

5rff 11 

Why do we say when ' benediction is intended '? Observe sn^'S'f 
IVrre^r Wl: ' the austerity is the cause of the long life of Devadatta.' Here 
lerc is no option allowed; and the Genitive case is only employed. 


Chapter IV. 


1 The compound Dvigii (II. 1. 52) is singular 
ill luuaiber. 

The word ^^f^^ is a genitive Tat-purusha compound meaning ' the 
expression for one,' that is to say, it expresses the sense of unity. The rule 
linrefore, enjoins that the sense inherent in a Dvigu compound is that of 

This is confined to Sam&hAra Dvigu i. e., an aggregate compound 
taken in a collective sense. As, T^ir^ ' an aggregate of five cows,' q^flsft 
(IV. I. 21.). The sense of Dvigu being that of one, it follows that it retains 
the singular numl)cr even when further modified l)y other affixes, and used 
as an attributive and though no longer a Dvigu ; as, <r^7^1tf JTtHTr II 

5^55 j|if^^«i%HTfT^m II R 11 q^if^ II pj: , %, mfw?- 

^'J-%TT-3TfT'rT»? ( TJ^sr^TT ) II 

ff^r: II JiRpr^jpif 5?s ^^rq-:^;rf, ftqr^pfjrrq-f wfrr^Rf =^ ii 

2. A Dvandva coraiwuud tools singular in 
number, when it is compounded of words signifying mem- 
bers of the animal body, players (or singers or dancers) 
aud component parts of an army. 

As,iTTf*r7r^' the hand and foot' RjfrKl'T ' the head and neck ' iTr?f^^- 
'"^"^^ 'players on the mridaAga and panava (kinds of drums)' ^fJr^rrtC^ftfir 
the soldiers on chariot and horse.' #f'inrr?«<rfr^nr^'T , ?:f?i:wr?Rr»r 1 1 

This rule applies to cases of SamfthAr-i JJvandva or aggregate 
vandva Compounds only ; and not to Itarctara Dvandva (II. 2. 29.) 

808 DvANDVA Compound. [ Bk. II. Ch. IV. § 2-^. 

Ill the Dvandva Compounds of animals such as elepliants, horses &i-. 
the singular is optional; (II. 4. 12.) The present rule also gives us an indi^x 
as to where we must make Sam.lhAra D\-aiKiva and where an Ilaretar.i 
Dvandva. The Dvandva compounds of words signifying members of animal 
body, players or army, are always and solely Samah;\ra Dvandva. The 
compounds of words like ^fV^Jt^t 'curd and milk' (II. 4. I4.) are purely 
Itaretara Dvandva and can never be Sam;\hara Dvandva ; while compounds 
of words denoting tree, animals &c., (II, 4. 12.) are optionally either Sttm.'ihara 
or Itaretara Dvandva. 

arg^T^ ^t^nisrw II ^ II ^^xfh II 9»55T^ , ^^"it'iw t 

3. A Dviindva conipouiid of wortls signiiyiiig 
pcr,sons helong'ing to the dilfercnl; Yedic-Scliools when 
the s('n,so Ls that ot'i'opetitioii, is singular. 

The word ■^rrci means a school or branch of any of the Vedas de- 
signated by the name of the person who founded such a branch and hence 
means such a person. The word sirf^r? means repetition hy way of explana- 
tion, illustration or corroboration ; that is to say, when a speaker demonstrates 
for some special pur[)oses, a proposition which had already been demonstrated 
before, that is called anuvada. 

This aggregate is \ised with the aorist of the roots ^tir Jind fT only ; as 
3finr 5F7'Trr»TrT'I 'katha and k.'dapa arose (again, further demonstrating their 
doctrines)'; JRifHffr ?R5q^«ITt( ' katha and kauthuma established again.' 

Why do we say Svhen meaning repetition'? Observe Tfif:- cK?5\r5fW 
or SR^lf; ^i^oKVuiir:, when demonstration for the lirst time is meant. It is the 
aorist of ??u and jw which takes such a Dvandva and not any other verb or 
any other tense of those verbs; as:— aprf^?^: ^rssffTi^rTT: and gf^^W 5i3^r?5r"tr- 

Note: — This sutra is translated thus by Mr. lyangar, ' Aggreg.Uion 
alone is admissible between words denoting peiso'ns belonging to the differ- 
ent charanas of the Vedas, when they are used along with the aorist derived 
from the roots sihS. and iii, in the sense of recitation of the charanas as al- 
ready learnt, as distinguished from learning them the first time.' Pf'' 
Bohthlingk's transi.ition is, ' The Dvandva Compound of the names of Vedie- 
Schools is singular, when such a school is repeatedly mentioned equally along 
with another. I 

II. Ch. IV. § 46. ] DvANDVA Compound. 309 

Why do we say ' Yajur-veda sacrifices ? Observe Si^-T«(r 'the Ishu and 

g;n I (^'5, ^^"^^^^^ ) 

^?fi: II 3T*.^fai5'7rr=q?rr 3T5?r^R7'TQ^fliT:fT^f Z'2 iT5i^^?rr?r 11 

4. A T^viiJulva compoiul of words denoting 
s-ierUlces (kratu) ordained by tiio Yajui- (Adlivaryu) Veda, 
is sjngulav, provided tbey arc never used in tlie neuter 

As, ST^fi^TS'^ 'ihe Arka and Asvamedha sacrifices,' Hrar^r^tTT 
'llio Sayalina and AUrafra sacrilices.' 

Why do we say ' Yajur-vi 
Vajra ceremonies,' 3'3j'»T55T5ifHft M 

Wliy do ue say 'wlicn not in the neuter gender'? Observe rrsTHTflif?'^ 
'the Rajasuya and Vajapeya sacriiices.' 

Wliy liave we ?^<Ti'OJHra)' ? nerause the word 5pg: is a technical 
term applying only to and not any sacrifices in general. 
Therefore, though Darsa and Paurnainana are Yajur-veda ceremonies, they 
not being Soma ceremonies, the present rule does not apply. 

(STvqqTTcfrjfsrUfiesr^sqrTTm 11 \ 11 q^lf^r II 3?va?tj^cT: , S{f% 

^f%: II m^ra^^ ffr.^'HT ^'^m^^^^r ^^m^^t srrc^r ?rq-r s:?3r p^ir^g-:^ 11 

5. A Dvandva cojni")onnd of words donotin;!: 
(porsons wlio li ivestndiedi subjects, wliioh in tJieir<.)i'der 
of study are not remote from eacdi oMier, Is .singular. 

As, "Tf^af'T'R'^ ' a person who has studied the pad.i arran;.;c-nient 
and a person who has studied the krama arrangi-meiit ; so also ^ff^T^f f-^^RJ^ . 

Why do we say 'order of study'? Observe rTfffT^f 'father and 
son.' Why do we say ' not remote '? See ^rrrjTSftt^fiirriljV ' sacrilice-knovvtr 
and the grammarian.' 

^Tfar^mnTTt^ ti ^ 11 ^^rffr ii ^xfh'. , wiTfii^Tij , 
( 5'?, iq^^e ) II 

G. A Dvandva compound of words sigiiify- 
^'^g jiUi (gcuu.s) wliicli are not names of living Leiugs, 1.8 


DvANDVA Compound. [ Bk. II. Cii. IV. 8 6 

Thus wnrrfr^ ' the probe and the knife '; vfRI^^f^ ' fried rice an, 
barley cai<e.' 

Why do we say ' words denoting genus '? Observe 5r?|^7r^if?^ 
'Nandalca and Pincliajanya.' 

Wliy do wc say ' not of living being ? Sec mTOT^Rr^^T " BrAhmana; 
and the Kshatnyas.' 

Thi.s rule applies to the jAti or genus names of substances (ss^nrrm' 
and not the jati names of qualities and actions. (irCTRfTJirJrrrfr), Thus ^t^^- 
»I"-T?7?rf: 'colour, savour, odour, and tangibility'; JITm^g^WrfirrrRr ' goin.. 
contraction and expansion.' 

Even with jati names of substances, the Dvandva compound takes 
singular, only when the objects are .spoken of collectively as a class ; when, 
however, the individuals belonging to a class are indicated, the proper number 
should be employed ; as, ^ 55(73 ^frRST^rfT TfrarXl 'in this bowl are the 
badari and Amalaki fruits.' 

The words 3r;fff 'genus,' ^sji 'substance,' jtcJ 'quality ' and f^r 
' action ' are technical terms of Indian Logicians. Jati has already been ex- 
plained. Substances are nine: earth, water, light, air, ether, time, space, 
soul, and mind. Qualities are twenty-four: colour, savour, odour, tangibility, 
number, dimension, severalty, conjunction, disjunction, priority, posteriori- 
ty, weight, fluidity, viscidity, sound, understanding, pleasure, pain, desire, 
aversion, effort, merit, demerit and faculty. There are five actions: throwing 
upwards, throwing downwards, contraction, expansion and going. 

^^ , '^m, st^titt: , ( 55^9 ) a 

i?r ^^?^^f% II 

^ff^affT II sTirmr p^nr Tnmtif ff^^tff ^^jr^^: 11 

mf^'mn ii T^mfraf ^mm ^fm^ ^tks^t: 11 

7. A Dvandva compoimd of words of different 
genders, deuotiii<^ name.s of rivers and countries, but uot 
of towiLs, is singular. 

Thus jfTTHft'W 'the Gmges and the Sona.' ^rr: + W^f^N = ^^^^ 
' the country of the Kurus and the Kurukshetra.' wi^rrr^ft anf^f^ wyWJ » 

Why do we say ' of different genders '? Observe ijrrnijt 'the Gang" 
and the Y4muna.' Both being feminine gender, so also ws^aifirr: H 


i. II. Ch. IV. § 7-9. J DvANDVA Compound 311 

Why do we say ' rivers and countries'? Observe cKgf?qw'^l ' the hen 
and the pea-licn.' 

Why do we say ' not of a town? See jTr*W^fWf^flK^ , Jambaba and 
Salukiiit' vviiich are the names of two villages or grama. 

We iiave taken the word ' river,' as the word 'country' does not in- 
clude ' river.' So also ' mountains ' are not included ; as a5lf^ril«:>-J1Ts^ ' the • 
Kadasa and the Gandham4dana.' 

yafi: — The prohibilion extends to villages and towns (grama) but not 
to cities, (Nagara), as tj'^KdKlr^^ ' the cities of Mathura and I'ataliputra.' 

Varl: — When a compound consists of two words, one a town and 
the other a city, the prolubition applies ; as tfpil^fr^f? ' the city of Saurya and 
the village of Ketavala.' 

^^3153^: n ^ II ti^ifsT II ^5-^5?fi^: , ( 5»5 Ti^«l^5j^ ) II 
^f%; II wsnTfrr Trf^^r S'J ^^^^'^ffr 11 

8. A Dvaiulva coiupound of words .signify- 
ing small animals, is singular. 

Thus ^^rrfsfTfl 'the louse and the nil '; s'^TT^RT'T ' the bug and the 
mosquito.' The word WSST'tT means an animal of a very small size. Some 
say that animals not having bones are called WSTTTrrr , (invertebrates; ; others 
say, those which are small in size ; others say, all below the mongoose are 

^^f % f^d-q: sjtI3f?J^J II «S II ^^lOl II ^^t, % UJVt^: , 
«II73fa^: ( 55=5:, Tl%^0 ) II 

fRr: II ^f w^r%^ fWrN+fisi^Hf 5rs?Rf s^j ?^r«^^ 11 

9. A Dvaiidva oompoTiml of words sigiiifyiiig 
tliose animals onlv^ among- whom there is permanent 
eiiinjty i. 0., natu}-al and eternal antixmtiiy or quarrel, is 

The word f%fhl means enmity: and ?rraf%^: means permanent. 
Thus, iir»rR">T^^l ' the cat and the rat'; 5[W3T»rr5l'^ ' the dog and the 
jackal '; »rf^;r^5;f. ' the snake and the mongoose.' 

Why do we say ' natural and eternal '? Observe J^TrfFS^rrsi^fR^r: 
^5ifnt?^ ' GaupAli and SAlankdyana are quarrelling.' 

The force of the word ^ in the aphorism is that of ^r ' only.' Dvandva 
^■•ipounds of such animals only are invariably singular ; no other rule, even 

312 r?K. II. Ch IV. §9-11. ] DvANDVA Compound. 

ifotliLTul^e apjjlicablc, would apply 10 such compounds. Tlius rule ij say^ 
that Dvdiulva compounds of beasts and birds, is optionally singular . That 
rule (by I. 4, 2.) would have set aside the present rule. Put ^ prevents thai, 
and 110 plural number is allowed in case of beasts or bird^ that arc 
naturally at war; as s^^iTf^^pT . ' the horse and the buffalo '; aKr5St51J?r'^ ' the cruw 
and the owl.' 

10. A Dvaiidva, (^oiiipotind oL'word^ diMiof [::;;• 
tho?e classes ot'Sudi'as who liavo not Ixh'Ii ox[i(dlcd Jiom 
tlio connniiuloii- of higlior cdassos, is sinLi,-iil;tr. 

Thus, rffrr^^t''^ ' t-lifi carpenter and the black'sniith '; T5T^vt?HTi5'; 
' the washertnan and the weaver.' 

The word HriffRl^r nieans one not expelled (from the dish). 

A .Sudra who can take food from the dish of a higher ehiss, without 
permanently defiling that vesbel, is called an .\nirvasita Sudra . 

Why do we say ' not expelledV Obseive =^tr.=I^=T'Tr. ' the Ch.i'id.'ila 
and the Mritapa.' 

«»^'»T. 5'50 I" 

11. Tli(> wortl f^-avasva, aiul othci's ai'c also 
Dvandva componiids which take tJie siiiguJai- imuibcr. 

Thus n^nc^T ' the cow and the horse.' So also JlTTf^^'I • 

^cKK. 6. ^sjr^RT'T . 7. ^STi^nw^ . 8, j^'jhnT. 9- ic^^^^r*''!; • "'• 
^rOTncT. II. ^ratfrrOT*-'^ • i^- ^rrrfl^^^'T . 13- ^'s^'ar'T. 14- ^'^' 
Tm! 15. »nrniiff. 16. mrTcrirtt, . 17- ^w^^- ■ '^- '^'^^Vi'^'^'i- "^ 

?^ajT^. 20. ^'5'TnfSiT. 21. STHq-rsirl'T'^ • 22. C^-'TSr. 23. ffflt^W!, 
24. ^jit^T^ . 25. W^rftiniffl'T . 

F«r/:— In this list, the forms as given, are singular ; but when ' 
same words assume different forms they may take either number. 
nm% or ifr?^ . In this form of jfT and wc^ the next rule applies and optw" 
is allowed. 

DVANDVA COMPOIND Fk. II. CH. IV. § 12, I3. ] S13 

12. A Dvandva compomul of ^vor(ls being- 
the names oftrees, wild animals, g'ras -5, corn, condiment, 
(lomcslic beasts and birds, and thecompnunds asva-vadava, 
jiurva-para a,nd adbaruttarn, nre optioniilly sin,L;'nlaf. 

12 Thus, fCvT'^'fri'T or s^JJljfW: ' the I'laksha and the Nyagrodha trees'; 
^jqrrfr or ^rgreirfr: 'the Ruru-dcer and the spotti d antelopes '; ?lfTT^r?J'T or 
grjT^t^rr: ' t'i>; 1^'isa i^rass and the Kasa grass ', jff^^r^iT or Ht^^'H'jf. ' the rice 
and the b.irley ' ?Pj^<Tfr or # ' the curd and the butter ' >frTf?^«I or qT: 'the 
cow and the bul'lalo '; {^{xjft^fSf^^fl^ oc W- 'the Tittlrl {a kind ot part- 
riik;e) and tlie Kapinjala birds ', 3T3;-?'=r?7'T or ^r: ' the hiiri-e .md the mare'; 
TxtT'TTT or ?' ' the lirst and the '; ST'-TfrTfC^ or r ' the upper and lower.' 

Varf. — The Dvandva compound of words denoting names of fruits, 
irmy, large tre"s, wild animal-;,, s'nal! animals, grain and grass, 
is bui gular, when a large nu'iibi?r or quaiiLily ol these is sjjokcn of ; that is when 
a Lirg,', number of them is taken collectively, the compound is singular, 
otherwise not ; as, ^^CRt?^ frf^'rl: ' ,i hadari and an Amalaki fruit are here'; 
rwwijffr?!' 'a charioteer and a horseman '; aiT'l^f^rV ' a Plaksha and a 
^'yagrodha tree '; ^r^?T) 'a Ruru and a I^rishata deer '; ^q'^ s^f'tsy ' a Hansa 
ind a Chakravaka i)irJ '; ^r^ff^.T ' a louse and a nit '; sffR^f^ ' a brfhi and 
Rva grain '; ^jj^Rjl' ' the kusa and kAsa grass. 

fiwi%fii5 "srTyff^tp^TJigfTftr ti 'j^ ii T^ifH ii f^nffim^ , 
^ , 3THfvt^?:T!j-grf% , ( firmtiT 59^^ ) u 

13. A Dvandva coraponnd of words of con- 
trary signiflcations, bnt n(ifc heino- tlio names of con- 
ci'ote sxilistnnce.s, is optionally singular. 

Thus ^7ar«"n»!; or ?j|'fflr«^ 'cold and heat'; ^?!r|:?!f or Higr'S ' pleasure 
^id pain '; sfrf^fiijTOf or 3?lrf%fr»IT^ ' life and death.' 

The word (^r<ff^^ means words of contrary significations. "^ indicates 
^'e anuvfitti of the word 'optionally ' from the last sfitra. 


DvAN'DVA Compound. [ Bk. 11. Ch. IV. § 13. 

\^ Wliy do wo say 'of contrary fignilkatiops 7 Observe, 5KI»npn^ 'In. 

airi ang(;r,' wl-.icli arc nol of contrary significations. 

Why do we say 'not fjeing the names of substances'? Observ 
^t^f'S 7?^ 'cold and warm waters,' whicli denote substances. 

( 5«?» ) " 

f frT: II ^jfif sn^fR JT«?s:q-f(CT ;T'5r^??r?ff 11 

1 4. ^I^he D viiudva compounds like 'dadh ipnya 
&c., aro not singular. 

Thus ?fvripT?ft 'the curd and the milk '; ^rf^'^vj^ft or irrofiT'sft 'Hit 
clarified butter and the hon(;y.' 

With this sfitra begins prohibition of singular number which previous 
sutras would have caused. 

The follow iiig is a list of such compounds: — 

I. ^pji^t. 2. ^f^H^^t or ^J^Jm:i^^ . 3, ^si3fni?fr. 4. r^- 

t-iTf^V 5. ?^f-^^r»3^. 6. <iR:5rr?':^f^!K> . 7. n? r^frolf . 8. ^^:^. 

9- fyirarMii rsfTrfprrirEf. II 10. ?r?rr?T<T?fr . II. M-irsfTO'r . 12. #Vm«7. 

13. H'.^iTriT^|- . 14- ^.^g-sjg^. 15. HrxfT^r^r^. 16. ^^^ . 17. 
gj 3rar^ . 18. m^^ . 

^f%, ^ , ( 5T 5^^9 ) II 

^1%: II sT/vr^nrof^f^trfru., «■ ff ^wra^jml^JfiviT: ri^^tn^r t ffm^ r^^wr^ 
s^ir ^•qr^^^^ciii 

15. A Dvaudva compoiiiid denoting a flxcil 
number (etavatva) of concrete tliiug.s (adliikarana) is not 

As, f3T ^<fr5T: ' ten sets of teeth and lips '; ytT^Ttf^^TfTRgCT: ' t«" 
sets of drum ;uul panavika players.' Compare II. 4. 2. 

ikw^} ^^i^ II "1% II tr^fji u faimtri ^^% {^fk^\^^> 

^c^ , 5^5: V^-HO ) II 

^ffi: II 3Tpi?jrTO?ir?rT^t^ mt^ f^m ^^ ii^f^^c^f^ ii 

16. A Dvaudva compound, denoting an ap- 
proximate number of concrete substances, is optionally 

BK. H. Ch. IV. § i6-iS. ] Samasas. 315 

As, ST^ ??ffr^ or ^TWTf ?''ftSf: ' nearly ten i. e., nine or eleven sets 
,f teeth and lips '; g'Tf^f Trlfjp^mcDf^^ or ^q^jjT Trlf^^PlPift^^r: 'nearly ten 
nine or eleven) mriddiiga and panava players.' 

An indeclinable, when compounded with a numeral, may either be a 
Bahuvrihi or an Avyayibhava compound. When the compound is singular 
n form, it is Avyayibhiva, and when it takes proper number-terminations, 
t is Bahuv/ihi compound. As, gq^jf ; giTf^jr: (II. 2. 25). 

?3= ) « 

^f^^ii 9T?rfcr?tTrTT rifir fin: ngprr Hfs^rt 11 

^rf^^'i II ViS^^. feniTfifS-: II 

TTf^^i; II sTTf T^rv m =sr fien: Ra-^rnr ii 
TrP^sFHii Tr^rrf^w: !if?ra-'f)r ^^s^r: 11 

17. lb, iiiimely the J:)\Lgu of the Dvaiulva 
^Dnipouud, with i-egar'd to wJiich singular luiniber luis 
'ceii ordained by tlie above inilos, i.s alway.s a neuter 

As, ?^iq^H 'an aggregate of ten cows,' •rrf^iTT^'T 'hands and feet.' 
^raRk'T 'head and neck.' 

This sutra debars the operation of the rule by which a compound 
:ets the gender of its subsequent member. See II. 4. 26 

Vari: — A Dvigu, the last member of which ends in shorter, is eraploy- 
il in the feminine gender only ; as "Tsg^Tfr , f^r«ft . 

Varf: — A Dvigu, the last member of which i.s a feminine word end-?r 
ng in 9TrT[ affix, is optionally feminine ; as, "ng^qjir or "T^Jaff . 

Vari: — A Dvigu, the last member of which is a word ending in stt , 
5 optionally feminine and the H is e!ide<l ; as, <T^?t^iT or T J^rivO ' , 

Var/: — Prohibition must be stated in the case of Dvigu compounds 
nding in in^ &c., "r^tinr^ ; ^5 »PT ; f^^B . 

9»5tni)'Hrag 1 1 16 II xr^rim ii arsmft <am: , ir , ( «ref- 

l^J II 

ff%: II ST^T^HOPTV ^Tf€r sTT^^i^Jf Vf?f% II 
^rr<i^ II ^''^TWf^Tp.^fTTg-: S'l^s?,^ II 
TfM«H II cfrr: ^«fl(5,<(Jir§: pgft^s^pf t| 

^r-^H II riR^rr^nff'TOTRf ^^i srr^niffer^m ^ q^Ti>«*rr 11 

316 Samasas. [ Bk. II. Ch. IV. § iH- 


18. All AvyayibMva (II. 1. 6.) compomul is 
also ueizter gender. 

Thus, arf^fer ' pertaining to a woman '; so also, a'TsgTrRr, S^TrnfipT .Sjc 
But for this rule, an AvyaytbhAva compound would have been citliei 
without any gender, if gender were to be regulated by its first member, wind; 
is generally an indeclinable, and which is the principal member in the com- 
pound ; or it would have taken the gend(-r of its subsequent member, lik(. 
other compounds in which the last member is principal. 

The force of =^ is to include cases not mentioned already. 

Var/: — Neuter gender is employed after the word ^ preceded bj 
<Uitf or af^T ; as 3inr(f»T ' sacred day '; ^ff^H ' lucky day.' 

Vari: — The word "TiT is neuter when compounded with a numeral or 
an Avyaya ; as f^fdl , "g^^iip^ , f^'WT , ^"TM^ . 

Vart: — Adverbs, qualifying verbs, are put in the neuter gendt-r and 
accusative case ; as H? T^i?i ' he cooks mildly,' ^riWT l^f^T ' he cooks well.' 

1 9. A Tat-purus]ia conipoii iid, with the excep- 
tion oftliat wlucli i.s formed by tlie particle iiaii, ami 
of the Karmadharaya componnd, become.s nenter gc'idor, 
in the explained in tlie following sutra.s. 

This is a governing sfitra and regulates the sense of the succeeding 
aphorisms which show when a Tat-purusha may be neuter. Thus, }frgrn#I^ 
or. !rr(ll. 4- 25); but ?OT^ rrsrr (the compound not being Tat-purusha); ^V 
(it being a compound with 5r^=ST) ; and "iTTraTT (it being Karmadharaya. 

^smi ^'i^tscftjiiTg II ^0 II ^^tOt 11 ^^m , ^^, 

gsjln^ . ( cTrJ^^: ^^^^ ) II 

>nfit II 

20.- Wlieii denoting an appellative, a Tat- 
purusha compound ending with the word kaiitM 
' town,' is neuter in gender, provided that it is the nam" 
uf a town situated in the country of the Ui^lnaras. 

3K. n. Ch. IV.§ 20-22. ] Samasas. 317 

As, ?ft:rrf^^'«I'T 'the town of Sau^Sami'; 8<ri[C^!=«T'T 'the town of 


When not an appellative, the form is different; as, ^'<UJeh*tfr . So 
also if the town is not in the country of the Usinaras ; as ?r%'?>?«jr . 

This debars the rule (11. 4. 25.) by which a compound gets the gender 
of its subsequent term. (For accent see Iv. 2. 124.) 

21. A Tat-piu'Lisha oomiDouiuI eudiug- witli 
thn words ' upajua' (invention) and 'npakrama' (com- 
nicncemeiit) is neuter in gender, wJien it is intended to 
oxpres.s the starting- point of a work wliicli is first in- 
vented or comnieuced. 

As, "TfiCrfgriTTrafrTTr^ s?irafniPT ' the grammars Kaldpa &c., had 
their commencement with Panini's invention '; Rfr^iTTlf ?s^iT"f ' VyAdi-inven- 
rd Diishkarana '; STR^frwr !Jr?tr?: 'the palace is an invention of rich folks.' 
TfftTSfrTffcT >Tffrrf% 'the measures are the invention of king Nanda.' 

Of course, when it has not this sense, the neuter gender is not em- 
ploved ; as ?^^T?fl' K^- ' the chariot made by Devadatta,' ^TSTT^TH!^ Oi: 
the chariot commenced by Yajnadatta.' So also the sense may be that of 
invention &c., but when these words are not employed; the neuter gender is 
lot used ; as ^f^Htr^Ji'^r^l: ' the slok,-\s invented by VAlmiki.' N. P. Prof. Hoh- 
tillngk gives <Trf°r?^<TirT^ra* s^TT^r-n'T ' The Crammar omitting the time of 
lay is the work invented by Pinini, (VI. 2. 14.) 

"^^^ ) u 

ff%: II 5ra-F?WP7^r T^tf^fwT^r H^^ ?i»?^ tp^m^ n 

22. ATat-p irusliacompoundeuiing with the 
\vord cliliaja 'sliadow' is neuter in gender when the 
sense is that of protuseness of tlie thing indicated by the 
Eii'st term. 

Tiius, S7?Pr"a[RPT ' A crowd of locusts darkening the sky.' ^^[gj^ ' the 
"garcane shade t. e., groves of sugarcane.' Otherwise, ^wr«sr«tr ' the sha- 
'°w of a wall.' (VI. 2. 14, accent.) 

318 Samasas. [ Bk. II. Cu. IV. § 23-21 

The sfitra 25 gives optional neuter; this rule enjoins invariable neute 
when chhdyA has the sense of profusencss. 

^[«t KTsimg^^l II 5?^ II Tj^rfji 1 1 ^^1, x\mi'^vn 
^\ ( cic^^ei^^^ ) II 

>n-|% II 

23. A Tatpimi.sha comptnincl ending with thf 
Avord .sal)]Ki 'conrt' is nenter, pi-ovitled tliat it is ijrecedtMi 
by (a word synonymous \vit]i) tlio word liaja, or by ; 
word denoting- anon-linman being. 

As ?^?rTT' the King's Court.' f^^c«*r'l_ ' Lord's Court.' 

But in tTJRPir 'the King's Court,' the word is not neuter ; fo 

synonyms of rnrr are only to'^be taken and not] the word-form ^TiTr ; at 

apparent exception to Rule I. 1. 68. 

So also rTT'^"'^ ' the Court of the Rakshasas,' fT3Tr=TO>P^ ' the Coiir 
of the PisAchas.' 

But in ^r??rHr , t^Tranr &c., the word is not neuter ; for the wok 
non-human has a technical significance meaning Rilkshasa or a monster. 

l«SUraT ^ II ^8 II Tf^xik II ST8ITST, ^ , ( rl?q^' 
1^9^ ) II 

^,w II srrrri^n- ^ m ^m ri?i=?TtrnT^f ^^^^f^r^r >i?i% 11 

24. A Tut-jnirnslia compound ending with 
the word sahlia, Avlien it does not mean a liousc, but 
means concourse, is neuter. 

As, ^^H"! I ^rtft'^W^ ' the concourse of ladies and slaves ;' otherwist 
ST;ri«T^>ir ' the poor-house.' 

f^Mmi %HtI'CT'«^iTiTaiiWTf^JiT?rt'T 11 R^ 11 tj^iffli 11 

fwTOT, %5TT-lTT-;5;TTT-9]nW-f^9!TT5!llT , ( H^^^ , a?^^: ) It 

^f?j: I eqr «Tr sfr^rr Tmt f%xrf ??§^^?R?i^5^ srjflsiffHTflf mm (w^ " 
2.5. A Tab-purusha compound ending wit^ 
the words scjui 'army' sur^ 'wine,' ciih&ya, 'shadow', A^^*^ 
'house' and nisd 'nigixt,' is optionally neuter, with the 
exception of tliat which is formed by the particle wau 
(II. 2. 6) and the karinadharaya compoimd. 

Bk. n. Cm. IV. § 25-28. ] Samasas. 319 

As JTWCJ^^ . irr<MUll+lTt ' the BrAhmana army,' ^nr^r"!;. sf^rr ' the 
barley wine,' »-*|«bm»^ , srg«T«5nrr ' the shadow of the wall/ jfnijR^r, »ft:crr?5r 
' the cow house,' ^^fsr^ , ^q'f^W ' tomorrow night.' But ST#^r ' non-army,' 
rr'W'fr good army,' the former being negative and the latter karmadhdraya 
:ympound. For accent see VI. 2. 14, 123. 

^^g%f 555rr?3^'si^: H ^8 II ^^^ II q^gT^-%f^, 

^f%: II iK^ «r%^ »T^Rr ff'Sfzr fR^^^sre^T ■n 11 
irrPSsff^ II fe^iinrrTvrrpJ^rrWir^ srrtwtr)' jfrKwi: 11 

26. The gender ofDvandva or Ttit-piiriisha 
•uriiponnd is like that ol the last word iu it. 

This applies to Itaretara Dvandva or coupling by mutual conjunction 
If^j'TT'itrf^^ 'those two (fern ) the cock and the peahen ' H<4\1*^?ff%fff ' those 
WO (mas ) the peahen and the cock.' The SamAhdra Dvandva is always 
euter. So also in Tat-purusha compound not especially mentioned in the 
irevious aphorism: .\s ST:jftoT<=^: , STstntaT?{l' ' half a pippali ; M-'|5Klr5JT!i{|' . 

Vart: — Prohibition must be made in regard to (i) Dvigu compound, 
2) compounds with WT , 3TPT*T and, STrj, and (3) compounds with G.ili words ; 
"'I <)^9KTr5T: ' PurodAsa prepared in five cups '; JTfa'sftft'ff: ( ITiT + jftf^ssr ) ' has 
ilitained living.' MfmsftrTSff:, STwIsffRr^: ; (%'s^?jrr*?: ' gone beyond Kau^iambi. 

11%: II aiT^rrnft: "jl^fsry' >IT'fI II 

27. The gender of tlie compound of the word 
li^va 'horse' and vadava' a mare,' is like that of the 
^rst word in it. 

This applies where the compound is not an aggregate by rule II. 4. 
3 ; in th,-U case it will be neuter. wn[5r?¥^f%»ft ; s^^j/T^S^T , si^fTsf: &c., (in 
very number and case) ' those two (mas.) the horse and the mare.' This is 
n exception to the last and general rule, by which the gender of the 
xljsequent terra, guides the gender of the whole compound. 

320 Samasas. [ Bk. H. Ch. IV. § 28.3 

28. Of the compounds 'hemaiita^ii^irau' an 
'ahoratre' the gender is like that of the first word ; intl 
Chhandns. (vedas). 

?i?<TRTfijn^?Rf >if"rrf»r , sifrtrt fi inr; 11 

This aphorism debars the general rule given in II. 4. 26. 

This applies to these words in all cases and numbers, not being co 
fined to them in the dual number, though exiiibited in the slltra in the du 
number, as:— "J^WTPJ^RT: , STTTTfTr: J^^ , aH^il-HrofteW: ' The white fortnig 
is fuel-wood, the black fortnight is the dung-cake, and days and nights a 
bricks (of the altar of sacrifice).' 

Why do we say 'in the Vedas '? Observe ?.?t f»r5?ff|Tf|TT, s^ftirnrrf^ 
50^. In the Vedas the ordinary rules of gender are often set aside; this 
an individual example of the universally exceptional nature of the Vedi 

^1%: II rnr sTg: ST? f?$t jf% »ip:sp€ i i 
m.''^^ II M^TT^r?^.- 5>ftr?f ^tke?^!; 11 

29. TJie Dvandva and Tatpnnisha componm 
ending with ratra and ahna and aha are slacken of ii 
the niasculLne. 

These words refer to krit and SamasAnta affixes. Thus the word n 
is formed by rrf^ -t- st^^ (V. 4. 87) ajg- is formed by V. 4. 88 and si? by V.i 
91. The general rule II. 4. 26 also does not apply here. 

flTTT: , f^rrf : ' A space of two or three nights ' Tqty: , sfTtTg': , T^'ll 
' the forenoon, the afternoon and noon', gnr: 'two days' nrf:, ' three days.' 

Vari: — The words H^fHR &c., are masculine, as Ustthr: , ws^' 
^tWfX^: &c., 

(3nn^r 'jns^*? II 39 I r xwrfsr ii ^^^^^ , n^ig^ ii 

H.f%: II snv Vi^ STJW^Fffsry^ Vf^y^ II 

30. The Tatpunisha word apatham ' a l^^fi'' 
road' is neuter. 

STTiTf^^H ' this (neuter) is a bad road ' wivf^ Iff* »?: ' the fool roapis 
on wrona; roads.' But smfj^j: a (masc.) ' a roadless country.' Here ll'' 
compound being Bahuvrthi the word is masculine so; also STTOT Tfft II 

BK. II- Ch. IV. § 31. ] Samasas. 321 

( ^i^^\ ) >< 

31. TJie words 'ardharclia' &c., are spoken of in'iliue aiul neater. 

As Si»j#: aiul a^vi^iT ' half averse', tfpjTf: and ifJ->j?TiT 'cow-dung.' 
■|]05e twofold g'lidcrs sometime, convey different meanings, the masculine 
arm having one meaning and the neuter, another. Thus ixi: ' treasure,' q-^: 
r 'j^ 'lotus', ?fj?r ' treahurc,' and jf^ir or ^<s: ' conch-shell,' WfT: or jjhw 
>host.' But when it is a noun, it takes the gender of the word it quali- 
es. 0?^T7: or «?:-T^ 'salt'; but when it is considered as a derivative word 
leaning 'born in or belonging to the sea' it takes the gender of the word 
qualllics, ?rnr: 'best' ^rr 'compendium.' So >J^: and q§fl . 

I. s|)j4. 2. ^ffra'- .3- ^TRT. 4. ^qfintr 5. ^wr. 6. ag^fq-. 
. i^m)- 8. ^rri?. 9. Tr3;<?r. 10. jht. u. «rtr- 12. i^jt. 13. ^^?vt. 
4' Ta. 15. n?. 16. ?T<^. 17. cK^ 18, r?7^. 19. w«r. 20. sTs^r- 

Ift. 2r. ?5-J, 22. cKJUJ^rT 23. mtj 24. IJfT. 25. S't<r. 26. !!7H. 

!7. -q^. 28. vrif. 29. ^i>^ ,30 iTf?^. 31. jTfRPT. 3^- «rrT- 33- i^S- 
4- T^r. 35- ^r'^- 36- fm- ^7- ?f,5^. 38. f?»T 30. rsTW. 40. «?». 
0- rqr^Tnr. 4«. «rt- 4-2- Tnr 43- ^^- 44- ^'^^^ 45. srhspr. 46. arrs?!?. 
/• '^95. 48. itm- 49. ^frii-sr. 50. qrPr^. 51. ^rscif, 52. ^tt^tct. 
3- (^rt^rrtfr) si. jfra. 55. ^:^^^ 56. qs^. 57.?jt?5. 58. ^ftw. 59. 
,^- 60. (?rs). 66. ?jtv. 52. ^^^. 63. r^. 64. (gi«t.) 65. jRiTj. 66. 
it^it. 67. ^^^. 68. ^^tS■ 69. ^«>f. 7o. tI. 71. ^HfT. 72. ^ftr. 
3- ^4 74. 3TT^n[r- 7.S- s^rT?. 76. hj:^. 77. fsniT. 78. Hrafw. 

) ^»T. 80. ^tT. 81. q?tT. 82. 5??I. 83. fffrff. 84. ^^. 85. PriiT 

^- (<?f?i). 87. ira^ 88. »Ta. 89. ^. 90. W5T. 91. ?jTRr. 
'• ^rsf. 93. spT. 94- ft^W. 9.5' ^- 96- "f#r- 97- ^- 98. 
^- 99- ^f?^ . 100. ^u;-*! . loi. (^?) . 102. fjj^ir . 103. ^nv^. 

'4' (^^511. 105. fRJTcK . 106. (irdltrl*). 107. ^Fm . 108. SF«ir. 

"9' (T-^ . no. qy. III. ^(r?5? . 112. f^rcte . 113. (^5?). 114. 
If- 115. Kjr^j. 116. RfpfT . 117- STTSTT. Il8. ijqitr - 1 19. fFft^. 

■°' (?«?ra). 12 J. fr?5?s . 12.''. 7?T?ri . 133. 121^, 124. (?nrm-). 
^ riT?!!?, 126. Rr?j- . 127. Tt?^ . 128. fqo^tT^. 129. »ir>!r. 130. 
'^- "3". "irsT'^r. 132. ^. 133. I^fi. 134. ftsrr^ . t35. ««n:. 
3- ?vr^. 137. 3T!tf^. 138. grT^w . 139. ajr^. 140. qj^r^. 141. 
^^■) 142. nsrrvT 143. (^^arw.) 144. ^strs- MS. ?r- 146. ftrr. 
^7' (rtff). 148. (*?t). 149. («r3(r). 150. 9QjrH . 151. f?<T . 152. ^|. 


Samasas. [ Bk. II. Ca IV. ^ 3,_ 


??t . 


(^•) »55- ^"TST- '56. Tni^T • 157- •nrST. 13 




160. ?fnT. 161. "TRc^ • 162. ^flfr . 163. % 



. 165. 

yr. 166. qn. 167. rr«?. 168. 3T»^r. 169. ^ 



• '7 

(. «r»^. 172. (S5^>. 173- ^T. 174. !Jrf 



, 176. 

#prr- 177- ^tnff. 178- f^^- '79- ''''^'ir. 18 


. 181. 


. 183. (JTRT). 183. SRf. 184. ^5ift^. 185. ^ 




^a. 188. §?. 189. 5trR. 190. gpntT. 191. ?? 




(<:,iH). 194. (TTT). 195- ^W. 196. f^Sctr. 19 

WT . 


5Ufi ■ 

199. '5TT. 200. <T^^ , 201. (?ft^). 202. {^^^ 


Tr?r^ . 


( Trr5^ ) . 205. ^isr^ . 206. ( IT^5T ). 207. (^F^i) 




(^^). 210. ftfir . 211. Htfl^. 212. (Mn 




MT'?!. 215. 5>R. 216. ff . 217. STRPf. 21 


. 219 

• ^.*- 

220. fft?J . 221. ^IR. 222. ( rflH^T ) . 223. OTi 


^ ■ 


fo:5?(r. 226 ?jq«J- . 227. KPffgr . 228. ?ry. 22 




231. «r4?^ • 232. ^. 233. w^s^ . 234. li 


«y5f . 


%^. 237. JfSTRT . 238. ^5fix. 239. ST7n|. 24 

<^ ■ 


3T^^ ■ 

242. HIIT^II 

32. In the room of idam 'this,' in case of it 
re-employment in a, subsequent member of the sara 
sentence and referiing tgthe same thing (anvMe^a) tlier 
is the sub ;titution ot aswhicli is anudatta i. e., gravelj 
accented, when tlie third case-affix and the rest follow 

The word sTf^tjj means literally .saying (4desa^ 'after' (anu) c 
after-say or re-employnient. 

31<r (actually sr) replaces f?iT in all cases except the nomin*'" 
and the accusative, when anvidesa or repetition is implied, s?^ replace 
the whole of ??»! by 55 and not only the final ^. Anv4deia means repcatm 
in a second sentence with reference to the preceding in which it has alreaci 
been used. Both pronouns, the antecedent and the subsequent, must rete 
to the same object. As, snv^jrn^ BRT*^ Trf'TT^hir , wjt sTP'atniJT'^"^ 
'These students studied in the night and they have read in the day ak" 
The substitute s^ will replace ni. even when the latter takes' the afli 
»W=^ (V. 3- 7» ) 

BK. II- Ch. IV. § 32.34. ] Samasas. 853 

»T^ SrTRf ^J^TPJ 9%, snft ST?$ ?jfcfi?iTf7 5ff 'Give this student a blanket 
and g'wt him also a cloth'. ^^ ea'RI V^^ V^< ^^ sj^ U^ ??>?, 'this 
student's conduct is excellent, and his wealth is great.' 

Sc also when the affix st^^JV. 3. 71) comes after the Pronominal 

The mere mentioning in a subsequent sentence is not anv4desa: it is 
tlie employment again of what has been employed to direct one operation, 
to direct another operation. Therefore the rule does not apply here:— J^^ 
^1 , V^^ ?rjrfTT>T 'feed Devadatta and this Yaji'adatta.' 

^r^: II ??rflrj?^rl9Tf%<!r?resr ^^vr^^ H^f% sr^frrT^^ni^: ttw: 11 ^t -qrPr 

33. In the room ot it?,? incase of its re-em- 
oloyment there is tlie substitution of the gravely accent- 
Mi ^ when the affixes ■sr (V. 3. 10) and ^ {V. 3. 7) follow 
lud the affixes h and ?i^ arc anndatta also (gravely ac- 


Thus ST^r 'here,' and STriw 'hence ' in the following:— ^^^r; jjr^«^ 
m: ; STtrr ^? ^m ST^7«lf l ' We live in this (etasmin) village, \appiiy, 
lerefore let us read with full devotion in this (atra).' ^^re^^ifSRT^s^^frjvff,:^,' 
^ Hfr nrr^TO'?":?!^!'!^ I ' Learn from this student Prosody and also learn 
on. him Grammar.' By rule V. 3. 5 sr^ is declared to be the substitute' of 
^^■, its repetition here is to indicate that this STJir of anvildesa is anuddtta. 

fl?ft^T?1?#5T: II ^a II n^if^ II f|?ftin-7T-3iVfi , ^^:, 

?^: II 

VrW^R II ^f?fil SI7"qeK?KW^^ ^TTISJr'T, II 

34. When an affix of the 2nd case orjrdns. 
^^•)or3ft^ (Loo. dual) follows, ^;t which is anudatta 
'the substitute offhand ^9 in the case of its re-em 


Ardhadhatuka substitutes. t Bk. II. Ca IV. § 34, ,, 

The word ?fJ^is also understood in this sfltra though it was not so in 
the last. This skipping is technically called ' frog-leap.' Thus;— fjf or ^g,, 
afft^^rnnr , ^<ft 55 ^m^rnt<^.im^ ' teach this pupil Prosody, and teach him 
Grammar also.' ^Hfj ot ^^^ 5r^>1 Crf^tT^f r?rr 'swt ^^^Rtt^t?!^ 'this pupil 
studied in the night and he studied in the day also.' h{^: or 5?T^: g^nr^. 
V^n S[ft?J^ , H>^ ^55t: H^gT ^4 ' the family of these two students is respectable 
and their wealth is great.' 

K«;-^— The word ^^m^ neuter and singular, is also used in anvddesa: 
as, '1;^ ^(rj«rrsr?I sr^rrra^ ' bring this bowl and wash it.' The above three 
Sfltras regulate the accent only of certain pronouns. 

3?T|TiitH% II \\ II A^\^ II 3?t|-vit2$ n 

wRt: II t[^ 3r^^»r5wft««nH??»?r^^* tf??is?j»j 11 

35. The clause 'when the affix is Ardha- 
dhatuka ' is underetood in tlie following aphorisms up 
to aphorism 58 of this chapter. 

Thus it will be taught in sutra 42, ' that ^ is the substitute of f^ 
when fiRF follows.' The words ' when the affix is drdhadh4tuka ' must be 
read into the sfitra to complete the sense. The result will be that in the 
ardhadhatuka ff!^ namely the STT^fffw^ or the Benedictive mood, ^sr is re- 
placed by ^^ , but not so in the Sarvadhdtuka f»»^ i. e., the Potential mood 
( fVPrfsiy ). Thus, Benedictive ^?frfr 'may he kill' ; but Potential fsjji^ let 
him kill.'' 

The word smf ^TfT^ft is in the 7th case ; the force of this case-affit 
here is not that given in I. 1.6G. i.e., the sfitra does not mean ' when an 
ArdhadhAtuka affix follows.' But the 7th case has the force of indicating 
the subject, the meaning of the sutra being ' when the subject is an Ardhadha- 
tuka affix.' The result of this explanation is, that the various substitutions 
enjoined hereafter should be made first, and then the respective aflixes 
should be applied. Thus whenever we want to affix any ftrdhadhAtuka-affi" 
to M^ ' to be,' we must first substitute J^^ for it, and then take the proper 
irdhadhAtuka-affix which would come with regard to >t^. Thus we can apply 
?t?r to >T by rule III 1.97 which says: 'after verbs ending in vowels «rf" 
applied.' But this affix could never have been applied to MH which ends m > 
consonant. Thus we have HsiPT . So the substitution does not depend upoi' 
any particular affix, but Ardhadhatuka-affixes as a class. 



ftfe , ( anl-viTH^ ) II 

|ft: II Mfr ^r»vmt3jlf Hff% ?«rr<r "TTti: ?l^ro|t =5 fern JJ?^^ II 

3G. The word srfi^ is tlio substitute of 3i^ ' to 
eat; when tiio affix ^t (VII.1.37) or an ardhadhatuka f^ 
affix beginning with ?r follows. 

HiTn?t ' Having eaten.' ( JI + s?^ + f?i<t = r + spvr + sr)- So also 
Hi^ ' eaten ' ( st? + tTt = 'ii'vr + w ). 

The f in iifhr is merely for the sake of articulation and is not an 
anubandha, otherwise there would have been the insertion of the nasal t 
( yi ) . So also the f in q-f^ &c., is merely for the sake of articulation. But 
W? + tU = 8T^: ' food ' is an irregularity. 

The employment of p^p^ in this sutra indicates the existence of this 
Paribhish4. ' A bahiraflga substitution of ??t<^ supersedes even antaraiiga 
rules.' Because in case this maxim did not exist, the substitution of sjrq' for 
11? before F?t^ which is taught in this sfitra, would follow already from the 
Kord f^ (before that which is distinguished by an indicatory ^') in this rule, 
'. f., Tfi^ would (by maxim 'that which is bahirariga is regarded as not hav- 
ng taken effect, or as not existing, when that which is antaranga has taken 
■fleet ') first be substituted for H? before Tfi- and F2i<^ afterwards for ^. 

Why do we say ' before affixes beginning with n 7 Observe *m^ ' is 


Why do we say 'before affixes having indicatory Hf '? Observe 
^^SF^^I^l^ II \^ II ^^^ II ^^-^%: , V?m ( a^J, 

'^ym ) II 

^frT: II wfs' fffr ^ "nrafj^ nm arrwjt >Tqf?r ii 
^f*^^^ II ^R5jHrtj«^7?r'P!rR't ii 

37. When lun (aorist) or san (desiderative) 
follows TT^ is the substittito of s^^ 'to eat.' 

•?«r^, HM««r»j, »?Tre!T 'he ate.' Thegj in q?^ fs servile and indicates 
!>« substitution of w for f%5T of the Aorist (III. i. 55,) So also in desidera- 
'^*' as, f%pmiRr, firaww: ft^mifwi 'wishes to eat.' 

Vart: — The verb v^ is replaced by qsar when the affix *to follows 
""» + »jf+»f^=,j^^+,r<» = atr^: ' voracious.' 

326 Ardhadhatuka-substitutes. [Bk. II. Ch. IV. ^ 3?.^, 

'STsiTjtg II ^6 II tr^fjf u TTsr-arft:, % {^i, tj^, we) 

38. And wlieu the affix tr^ and s^r follo^^ 
iror is the substitute of a??. 

tn^: ' food, grass,' H^ + q-si =5Tra + H (III. 3. 19). iJ^TW: 'voracity. 
If + WJ + W = fl + ^^ . 

5r|^ ^5^f% II ^<; II "cj^ 11 sf|^ I ^'^ft , ( 3?^:, 
m^, sne ) II 

^1%. II 5??Rf ff^ 5?5i»r|t ^^w sTrSriY H^f% 11 

30. In t]ie chhandas (V^edas), ^m is diverse- 
ly siibstitnted loi' m^. 

q^flRriT'T I 'EfP^^M'i I (Yajar Veda Vaj. S. Xv'lll. g). Sometimes it docs 
not take place ; as sTrffriW v.^^ ^^ ^V\^ ■ 

The word ^51 is used in this sutra and the word STnnTr?m'i[ in Ibc 
next. There is evidently difference between the senses of these words; other- 
wise PApini would not have employed them in such juxtaposition, had they 
been synonymous. For then the anuvritti of ^Ifw in the next sutra would 
have been sufficient. The following verse indicates that difference. 

' Sometimes they are, where there is no express rule for their ap- 
plication ; sometimes tlicy are not applied, in spite of an express rule for 
their application ; sometimes they are optionally employed or not, and some- 
times there is some other result, licence permitted by the rule,' Thus in 
«RfirT there is not elision of the penultimate. 

%OT5qrl^^^W^ H 8fl II tJ^lf^ U fkfk , WIH5CW1. 
( ST^;, TWB, w: ) II 

40. When f5T! (Perfect) follows troi is optional- 
ly the suhstituto of sr^. 

m^m or STRf 'he ate,' stvT^; or sir?^: 'they two ate,' W: or WITJ:' they all 
ate.' The word ^PfTW: is thus formed:— q^ + MJ^ = «m -f «T^ + WJ^ (^ 


II. Ch. IV. § 40-43.] Ardh.^dhatuka-substitutf.s. 327 

, 8) = «r + «f^ + »rn?»_ (VII. 4, 60) = -«[ + q^ + srg: (VII. 4. 62) = •sr + 
^ + H5^(Viri. 4- 53)"= sr + ^^ + siw« (VI, 4. 98.)=3r?T5: (VIII. 3. 60). 

^W ) " 

^f%: II t^ «r f ^<i ? ^ T r >wRt Ms?mr?^t fsrf? Tr^r: 11 

41. When fa? follows, ^ is optioiinllj the 
substitute of t^ 'to weave.' 

In the Perfect tense thus we have two roots: Let us first take $5^ , 
Then we liave regularly t + f%? = f + tcrs? = ^. The roots in 5 , § and 
Kt are treated like roots ending in srr thus: — 

Sing. Dual. Plural. 

1. jrV ^R^ :rm 

2. ^Rrnr or ^rv , ^^: ^? 
3- n^ ^75: ^f: J 

In this case samprasarana or- 
.dained by VI. r. 17 does not take 
place by VI. i. 40. 

When however we take the base ^^, the 5 being for the sake of 
articulation only, we have the following forms: — ^[^ + 10?^ = ^^ + ^ + s^ (VI. 
i,8) = T«r + q^ + s? (VI. I. lj)=^m^ ; the ?r is not changetJ into f by VI i. 
38. In this dual we have ^tt + 3??m = g^f + sjft: (VI. i. lO = 5 + ?^ 
+ sij- (VII. 4. 60) = ariW: The afifix 3m?f being fsjrw affix by rule I, 2. 5 there 
ssamprasArana before reduplication. Thus we have a^RT , 3>"JrT: , gpT: . 
Further by --ule VI. i. 39 before f^ftT aflixcs ^ may be optionally substituted 
'or T , i. e., ^^n: or 3r^: and gr^: or 3r?r: I 

fiiT V^l %% II \tR II ^^iffr II f 5T: , aiv, fs% ( ^ 

«"!% ) II 

f ^: I ' ????vTMr#vT ???ntift^ *^fa foTlr TTrf 9Tr>-s »Trg* 1 1 

42. if^LS the stib.stitiitc ot^^ 'to kill,' when 
Hie ardhadhatuka fe{? (Beuedictiyc) folio w.s. 

T.^?f ' may he kill,' ^JfRtinT ' may they two kill,' ^Ktfm: ' may they all 


! The substitute *<? ends with short sr , this ST is elided. This elision 

'"S like the original (sthinivat I. i. 56), in forming the Aorisl gr, we have 
\+ I- f»^.-= siq>ftflr . Here zero being sthSnivat prevents the vfiddhi of 
^ ' which otherwise would have taken place by VII. 2. 7. 


gfe n II «| II a?{ifH II 5%, n (f^T, jj^, we) n 

^f^: II gf? ^ <rr^ f^ ^ fnnRr^jjt >wf% ii 

43. And when ^ (Aorlst) follows, qi^ is the 
substitute of ?;t . 

s{^'4\H ' he killed,' STTltSri; ' they all killed.' The division of this 
aphorism from tlu- last sulra (yoga-vibhAga) indicates that the next rule 
applies to Aorist only and not to Bcnedictive as well. There is no option 
in Bencdictivc Atmancpada. 

44. WJicn Atmanepada affixes follow, V^ is 
optionally the substitute of^^ in the ^J Aorist). 

Thus stttT*!? or sff?tT ; sTf^fw^fT'T or Hrf^rrTfi ; mt^Rtw or sTr?w?T. 

The verb ?!I becomes Atmanopadi when preceded by W (1. 3. 28). 
Bysutral. 3. 14, the Aorist-affixes in the Atmanepada are flatter ?!rand 
by VI. 4. 37 the jt is eliiled before f5K?r afBxes, then by VIII. 2. 27 the € 
is elided. Thus 3Tr?5T + Rf^ + ff = srrfW . 

^ nr ^ II 8H ii Tr^ifn ii ?it: , tt , ^f^ , ( we ) » 

ff^. II f"fr ir f?jrafrr?3fr m^ ^f^ fK^- n 
^[(^^•1 II ^€^^ fr?i ^TK-s^Jj^ II 

45. nT is the substitute of the root^o^wlien 
51? follows. 

^m^^' he went; (II. 4. 77) STifHr^ 'they two went' srij: ' they all went.' 
The repetition of the word ^ in this sutra though its anuvritti was comuig 
from the last aphorisms, indicates that there is. no option allowed even m the 
Atmanepada, nr being the invariable substitute in all the Padas. Thus sWf^ 
>R<rr 'you went.' The form M«Tf?I is thus evolved sf + irr + RT^+l.'''^ - 
(II. 4. 77) 

Vari:—m is the substitute of fSR 'to remember' in the Aorist, as it is 0^ 
l^. Thus wnnrn. ' he remembered.' w^irmw^, W^- The root |^ belongs 
Ad4di class. 

11. CH. IV. 5 46-49] Ardhadhatuka-substitutions. 329 

( T^j: ) " 

46. When the affix iV (Causal) follows, irfir 
is the substitute of ^tn when tlio sense is not that of 
'informing' hvit that of ' going.' 

jpjTiRf 'makes him go' iilwiT:, flH^fhf &c. But sinrranl% 'causes 
to believe.' «f^»rnT?rf?f- The f of nfff is for articulation. So also f^ to 
'remember '; as, arf^'raRT N 

irft "^ II «i8 u ^^^ n ^^^ , n , (j^'-, ^^^ , 
rf*[: ) 11 

^f%: II ^ fK^ f^i^NHPi^^ f]f^\^ H^f^ II 

47. And wheu^R: (DesirlerativeJ follows, irftr 
IS the substitute of gj when the sense is not that of 

f^nrf^ft ' wishes to go ' f^r»ift<sf?r:, fswRw^. But srqfjT^ifjftfq^rffr ' he 
wishes to inform the meaning.' So also with fJT , as srfafJnrRwfil The yoga- 
vibhA<ia indicates that the anuvritti of ^5T only runs in the next sutra and not 
of fcj . The form is thus evolved in the Parasmaipada ; jr\+ ^'^ = »I'T + ir^ + 
5j (VI. I. 9)=»T + n^ + w (VII. 4. 60) = -sr + JTir + « (Vil. 4. 6j) = sr + ^n 

+ ;j + <f (VII. 2. 50) = fjUlMt T, and then we add the personal terminations. 
^f^SC^ II 84. II ^^TffT II f ^: , ^ , ( ^fflf , nfJi: ) II 
^f%; II ?rv H% "TTBt »TftTr?3fr H^fw n 

48. And of fs^ ' to study,' nfJi is the substitiito 
when ^n?. follows. 

srf^rfsiThtt , o^t, o afS ' he wishes to study.' The root?^ is always 
preceded by the preposition 9?% • TIr.s will be Atmanepadi by I. 3. 12 
'ntl [. I. ^6. The form is similarly evolved by the application of rules 
VlI. 2. 58, and VI. 4. i6. 

iT^^flsf? II 8« H v^\^ II m^^. fef? , ( f^O 11 

830 Ardhadhatuka Substitution, [Bk. II. Ch. IV. §49, 5, 

49. JTTs^ is the substitute of p^ when ffs? (Perfect) 

The substitute being like its original (I. I. 68.) JTT^ would have been 
.Atmanepadi, even without the indicatory, ? . Why has then this ? been 
added to it ? The object is that in the sfitra I. 2. I. iirr there should mean 
this substitute 1713^ and not the verb irr^ ' to go.' 

Thus we get sifvrifif ' lie studied'. ftrfSrwirr^ , «RnTfi1*. See VI. 4. 64 
and in. 4. 8. 

^f%: II aff= s% ^ TT'T frr f^nrr »iT?rl^fY H^Rr ii 

50. JITS? is optionally the substitute of ^y^ 
when arJAovist) and ^ (Couditioual Futiire) follow. 

Let us take the case when »tt5 replaces fw ■ The affixes of frs' and 31 
are treated as fg^fi by 1.3. i. and then by the Rule V[. 4. 66 (When an 
Ardhadhatuka affix, beginning with a consonant and distinguished by an 
indicatory ^ or S= follows ; then let f be the substitute of long sff of the verbs 
termed ^ and of m , ^f , iTT, IT, ?r , fl'f), we get tfimt€ (Mf^T + s? + »ff + 
cn ) , Mi^ifWfftP^ , W|',?|tftqw . In the alternative we have 9p.^ , aii^iimn^ 
and 3p-^rr . 

So also in 51^ ; as ST».?riffs^ , 8n?t»fN$?fr'^ , 8n?f»ff«?rftT, or in the alter- 
native, si>.^ii?f?I , sp.^^tir'^ and w^«r»fT • 

^ <i ^ivV , II "11 II ^fn II ^, % ^^^tPf^ , ( J^', 

»ITT;, fwi^T ) 11 

^f%: II "ftg^ 'W^STT -^ <iT?r ?5t f%Hr<irr nrrr^ijlr i^ ii 

51. in?^ is optionally the substitute of ??, 
in the causative ftj, when that causative takes the affix 
san (desiderative) and chaii (Aorist ). 

s?W5mT>TRrsrf% or sn^rrf^f^ff f* 'he desires to teach.' The form is thus 
evolved: iir + pi^=»rrR- (VII. 3. 36); then by the rules already stated, w^ 
get the above form with the affix ir'T . sn^nft«I<r^ or sii^frfqtRi; 'he taught.' flie 
# is changed into MT by VI. i. 48. Thus? + pPJ = W + Pr^ = Hf + > 

+ f = •nft . This rule applies to the desideratives of causatives and aoris 

of causatives. 

BK, II. Ch. IV. § 52-54.] Ardhadhatuka substitution. 331 

sW^vT: II H^ 11 rt^lfk II WEJt: , w: II 

52. >j_ is the substitute ot the verb sro ' to be,' when 
an firdhadliatuka afl3.x is to be applied. 

Hfffrr ' he will be,' w^?lw 'in order to be,' >i(%rf!?nT ' must be.' Now 
the Perfect tensejalfixes are also ArdhadhAtuka affisca (III. 4. 115). The Per- 
fect ot«5r is thcrcforc.the same as that of w, namely, ^vT^ &c. There is, how- 
ever, an !m;)ortant exception to this rule, namely, when SWT is employed as an 
au.-iiliary verb in forming Periphrastic Perfect ot other verbs. In that case 
6i?r forms its Perfect tense rei^iilarly, btw , STrtTrT: , STRT: &c. This apparent 
breach of the present sQtra is explained by taking the term f>>r in III. I. 40. 
as a Fratyaiiara including ff , ^ and st0 , and if 3T3 could not form its Per- 
fect in the regular w.iy, its inclusion in this Pratyahlra would be useless; 
hence we conclude, that as an auxiliary verb, *|^ forms its Perfect regularly. 

5r%T irft: u S^ II XT3TT% H W^:, irf^:, (we) II 

"jf^.- II ffr ^f%rr??fr H^f^r stt^^ir* fk^ 11 

53. ^r=? is the substitute of ST 'to speak' -vvhen any 
ar.lhailhatuka aifix is to be applied. 

^=^r 'he will speak,' ^tK»T 'in order to speak.' The f of ^P^ is for the 
sake of articulation only. The substitute being like the principal, ^ is 
Atnianepadi when the fruit of the action accrues to the agent, as ar^ ' he 
spoke,' ■i^'Uri ' he will speak.' 

%w^'. ^i5» II «<8 If TT^f'T 11 ^flrs^ :, '^Tiw, (we) 11 

^^tt: II ■qfws'- ^^rmfl^flr vRfir BTr^t^rrg* 11 

^tt^ II ^3f# sTRitvfr ^'frsar: 11 

^rf^SR^ II SPET^IV irfiwvflr ^tTTS^I: II 

54. ,5?(nT is the substitute of n%? 'to perceive, to 
tell,' wlieii any arahadhatuka affix is to be applied. 

STf»l^?(r ' he will perceive or tell '; wnrrn»T ' in order to tell'; »?ns«(in»«»»l 
'must be told.' The substitute being like the principal, =^J^3r being always 
Atnianepadi (I. 3. 12), ?s?tm would have also been always Atnianepadi. But 
'" that case the letter sr would have no scope ; it therefore follows that JRtni^ 
's not always Atmanepadi, but under conditions mentioned in I. 3. yi. 

33Z Ardhadhatuka substitutions [Bk. II. Ch, IV. § 55, jg, 

Varl: — This substitute is also said to begin with c|^w instead of ?5^ . 
Thus vn^^rrar , »Tra5(jT«fr , s^n^flM . 

Vari: — Prohibition must be stated when meaning ' exclusion ' ; a; 
»^1f: WI^TT: ' bad men should be excluded.' 

Vart: — Prohibition must be stated when the aflixesst^ and ij^ follow: 
as fn^t rr^W: ' the Rftkshasas are cruel.' This is Vedic Sanskrit ; modern 
S[«TCT:. The meaning of the root "^ here, is 'to injure.' So also ft"!!^"!: Tfirj?!. 
here the affix is ST^ . 

Vari: — Substitutes are made diversely in denoting appellatives and 
not qualities and in the Vedic Sanskrit; as *j«fl 'food' (here the substitute iifi\? 
does not replace *ff); q^aKH^' killer' (^^ being substituted for ?^ before (i^S); 
»Trt ' body ' ( ITT is substituted for fCJ before the unAdi affix PH' ); R^WCJ. (liere 
^^ is not replaced by «s«rr before ^ff); sifiTTH 'a court yard' (hereSTiT is not re- 
placed by s^ as the next sutra 56 requires). 

55. imn{ is optionally the siibstitnte of ^t^y when 
fpri (Perfect) follows. 

Thefsil^ also is an Ardhadhatuka affix and by the last sutra IRT would 
always have been the substitute of -^STithe present sutra makes this subs- 
titution optional, as Hra's^t , MT^'S^^. and srt'^il^: • In the alternative we 
have W^^ , HTT^rTr^ and siT^'g%i' ; ' he told &c.' 

?T^5m.^ii ^^rrfr^^tH^S f^^^fs^t^ 11 

56. ^ is the substitute of tlie verb srw ' to clrivo,' 
' to lead,' when an ardhadhatuka affix follows, witJi 
the cxcci)tion of the affixes ^^ (111. 3. 18.) and wl 
(III. 3. G9). ' I 

W^5>: ' driver,' si^tr"l7?r: . 

Why do we say ' with the exception of ^p and si<]r'? Observe ^\ 
+ *r^ + ^ = fl'ffsr. 'society'; 7?ni: 'driving out ': So also with 9V{, as m^ 
' a multitude or herd of animals &c.' ^1T: 'driving out of cattle.' See III. 3- ^5' 

Why have we used i\ with a long i ? For the sake of forms like 

^iim■■ kc. 


i. II. Ch. IV. § 57, 58.] Elision of Yuvan affix. 338 

F<7W:— Prohibition must also be stated (along with ^n^ and M<^ ) of 
the affix ^ff\ , as ?r»T5?tr ' a meeting, fame.' 

j/ari: — The substitution is optional before Ardhadh4tukas beginning 
with a letter of ^ Pratyahftra (all consonant except ^ ) as sj^ or sfff^fW 
ntsri^or srrf^HH . See VI. 2. "144 tor accent. 

m q^ II H« II tr^rf?! II 9T, ^, (3?%: ^, we) 11 

57. ^is optionally the siibstitiite cfsr^ when the 
affix V (III. 3. 15 &c.) follows. 

This declares an option in case of the affix i=^, the word V in the 
Sutra referring to this affix ; as, si^?i=i: or unffT ?"?: ' driviag stick or whip.' 

^^jRrnT^fsT^T f f^ ^nf^^t il \c II n^rtn h T^I-5^f^^- 

^f%: II tRiRTrwwf%^'fnria;»TiMf?ftRV Tt^Pisfr?^^ ^ wtRt 11 

58. After a word ciuUiig with the Gotra affix 071 
(IV. 1. 151' and after a Gotra Avord denoting the de.s- 
ceiidaut of a Kshatriya or a Eis]ii (.seer), and after a woi-d 
ending with a Gotra affix having aii indioatoty ^,the 
affix sror and pr employed iu forming g^q; (IV. 1. 1G3) des- 
cendants, ai'e elided by the substitution of s^ n 

I. Thus by sutra IV. i. 151 (the affix iRf comes after sg?' &c., in denot- 
ing descendent) we get ^1; + "n- ^K^: (VII. 2. 117) 'a grandson of Kuru.' 
This is a Gotra word (IV. I. 162). Now in forming a word denoting a lower 
descendent than grandson, we add a Yuvan affix. Thus cKV^iT + Tstft^. i- 95). 
Now this X^ is elided by the present sfitra, and we get the form aslTB^f: which 
thus means both a Gotra and a Yuvan (IV. i. 1G3) descendent of Kuru. So 
that ^sjt: is the name both of the father and the son, 

Now it may be objected : ' the word qfirs^r: belongs to the firwff class 
and by IV, I. 154, it will take the affix %•>< . Do we, what we may, the 
form will be aRyrssrwN: (VII. i. 2.)' To this we reply, the word a?^<s?T: which 
*« see in that list of ft<I[ &c., is notjthe word gfksjr: which we formed by adding 
•W under rule IV. i. 151; that Tik^di word is formed by ijjf under rule IV. i. 
'72. and 13 confined to Kshatriya. The ^hrstf: which we have taken, denotes 
* Brahmin Gotra formed by IV. i. 151. 

834 Elision of Yuvan affix. [ Bk. II. Ch. IV. § ^s. 

2. Now to give an example of a word denoting the dcscendcnt of a 
Kshatriya. We take IV. t. 114. which tells us that ' the affix WT[ may be added 
to the words which are the names of Rishis, or of persons belonging to the fami- 
ly of Andhaka, orVrishinis or Kuru.' The Andhaka family is a Kshatriya family, 
and ^^TT?^: is a person of that family. Then :c?rir?* + H"^ = ^^PIT?^: ' a des- 
cendant of Svaphalka.' This is a Gotra descendent. In forming Yuvan des- 
cendent we have ^^nr^^ + 5>i • Now this f3i must be elided by the present 
sfitra. So that :[^PK?sf;: means both father and the son. 

3. Now to give an example of Rishis family. The sfitra last mention- 
ed IV. I. 1 14. will also hold hero. We take the word qftrr ; and 9filB-l-si<X= 
irrfilS': ; the Yuvan aflix %ti will] similarly be elided after this ; and thus the 
word qrRrff: means both the father and the son. 

4. Then to take the example of Gotra word formed by affixes having 
indicatory sr . Thus sutra IV. l. 104. declares 'the affix s^sj comes after the 
words f^f &c., in denoting Gotra descendents.' Thus f%f -t-anT"!?: ; Then add 
fS^ to denote Yuvan descent, and we have tf : + S^jr . By the present rule 
this %^ is elided and thus we have If: both for the father and the son. 

The above examples show the elision of the affix JjT . Now we 
shall give example of the elision of the affix siirr . Now rule IV. i. 154 ^'V^ 
' the affix fir^ comes after the words Rnij; &c., in denoting descendent.' Thus 
Rraf -i- f%»I =§cKra(^: (VII. 1.2.) Then to form the Yuvan descendent we 
add snn by IV. i. 83. Thus ^^Pff^r -I- s^t; • By the present sutra, this siq is 
elided, and we have ^^^r^ff^: both applicable to_the father and the son. Other 
ej^araples can be multiplied. 

Why do we say 'there is elision only after these- words '? The 
Yuvan affix will not be elided after other words. Thus rule IV. I. 1 12 says>- 
'The affix 8?"^ comes after f^r^ &c., in forming Gotra.' ^?3 + siT. = ^^ 
Now thi^ is neither a word formed by IR( nor is it the name of a Kshatriya 
or a Rishi ; nor any affix having ^ goes to form it. Therefore the Yuvan 
affix ?^will not be elided after this. Thus g^r? + XH ('V. I. 95) ^V?' 
'son of Kauhada.' 

Why do we say ' affix denoting Yuvan descendent is elided ?' An affi^ 
not denoting « Yuvan descendent will not be elided. Thus the pupils 
^m(Xn are called Jrmo-ljt: which word is thus formed: ^PRTT + ipf = ^' 
K%.ff: 'a descendent of Vimaratha' (IV. I. 115). Then to denote pupils we 
add H-^by IV. 2. 11 1. Thus ^»rtt.^ + M-Tt =^rffrv'!r: ' a pupil of V4marathya. 

Why do we say ' Yuvan affix wc; and fw are elided 7 The other 
Yuvan affixes under similar circumstances are not elided. Thus the i« 

BK. II. Ch. IV. § 59, 60.] Elision of Yuvan Affix. 33& 

(jesceiident of ?rfw (grandson of w) will be ?RIR(«l: Here the affl-x fr^ (IV. 
I. 101) is not elided. 

Viiri: — All Yuvan affixes are elided after Gotra words not denoting 
Brahmin Gotras; as ^Rr: applies equally to father and son; nwifpT: father, 
jff^fsr: son; »^i:^R: father, sH'J*^: son ; HPrjfsT^rq-: father, HFlT^n^IV: son. 
Here, first ^31 is added by IV. I. 173, then "K^n; to denote Yuvan descendent. 
Then this "jrcrr is elided by the present Vartika. 

ftmt:) II 

^f%: II l?j r^»nf^«iv a^MJijfltfl ^H^fir 11 
50. And after the ■words 73 &c. there is the w^ elision 
of the g?r7 aihx. 

T'twrr + 8i<T = $?5: (IV. I. 1 18). 'The Gotra descendent of Paila." 
T5I: + fl>»i (IV. I. 156). The present rule intervenes, and the Yuvan affix 
ftnris elided; so q<=j is both a Gotra and a Yuvan word. Some say that the 
'Paila &c. words are formed by the affix ?»f ; (IV. |. 95) and then the 'uk- 
clision of the Yuvan affi.x would be valid by the next rule 60. They would limit 
the scope of the present sfitra to cases where the Gotra of the people is not 
known, the Prachyas not being indicated. 

I. $5T. 2. ^nvrff . 3- wiT^r^ . 4- ^rwRrif^ . 5. rr?f«r. 6. 
'Hfci. 7. s^% . 8, sTffwftr . 9. 4^?^ . to. »?t^jrf5T . n. srhprfssr • 
u. My^fer. 13. I^wrfr. 14- ^ir^'f^^ • '5- "fwRr. i6. vftfirf^. 
17. nPi . 18 sifTf^ . 19. s?rirr?Hrf% . 20. ArfnT^nr ■ 21. »lt^f^ . 22. 
tsrare'qr^: . 23. ^nrm . 

f^: nT^9 II ^9 II ^Tf?c [\jm, m^^, i^, g\) 11 
^: II ifl*?t^fr?s?ff'g^5i?!nnpr ot vrrfif 11 
60. After a word ending with the Gotra aflQx i?^ {TV. 
1- 05) there is luk-elision of the Yuvan affix, when the 
Gotra of the peoi)le called Prachya (Eastern) is denoted. 

"rramr + 11 = «ir»rniTR': ' the Gotra descendent of Pann4gara '; after 
this the Yuvan affix iK?ir(IV. i. loi) is elided by the present rule, and so 
''RrnrrR:: is both the father and the son. So irrfqKf^r: father and son. The word 
""^ here qualifies the wprd Gotra understood and does not show that it is an 
optional rule in the opinion of Eastern Grammarians. When the Gotra pf 
Pt4chyas is not dejifted, tb^e is no elision. Thus ^tRt: and fnirr^'!!: ' son of 
Dikshi.' -" ■■ •' 

33G Elision of Yuvan affix. [Bk. ii. Ch. IV. § 6i, 6 

5f §T?«if%«j: 11 %% II v^xik II ST, B^^^fg^r:, (gf^, ^n) u 

Gl. After the Avords ^rm and the rest there 
is not hik-clisioiiof the Yuvau affix. 

^f^i5T: is the name of the father and 5?|¥^PJT^IT: is the son of th( 
former, formed by the Yuvan affix <k^^(IV. i. ioi). 

I. <iVff5? . 2. vrrrf^ . 3. "nrftr • 4- n^ . 5. Isfrft . 6. hft 
^. v^\m . 8. ##r . 9. #fl-ftf. 10. I^l^fw. II. t^f?r. 12. h^rv ■ 13 
^nrffsir. 14- ^^- i5-*fsi>. 16. I^f . 17. siT5?iTfn. 18. srrytyrii 
19. "{S^rr^rft . 20. srt^fH. 21.3^5:%. 22. iTrH?% . 23. ^firfV. 24 
jirsr?f% . 25. vf>^^ . 26. ^{?i . 37. MfflcnSf. 28. wrr^r'a . 29. Mwfr 
30. ^i^Isf . 31. sTfRr^*Tf^ • 3^- 'ft''*T • 33- sKK-jirl?! . 34. ^m[^ . 35 
^rr^. 36. I^Rtii 

HST'f^ af3 %%^^^m II ^^ 11 xi^fiT 11 crsT'W, ^Jf , 
^^-^n, g^f^qT^, (^J II 

G2. There is luk-elisioii of the fucm (I"V. I. 
174) affix, "wlieii tlie -word is used in the plural nTimber, 
provided that the plural number is taken by the base it- 
self, and not by its standing as a compound epithet depen- 
dent upon another -word, and provided that the base 
is not used in the feminine. 

STflp: = sT<i + stotCIV. I, 170) 'a prince of Anga'; plural iT^fr: 'tlif 
princes of Artga.' The affix MCr is elided by the present rule, and tht 
Vriddhih vanishes with it too (I. 1.63) ; but arr^^r: 'the princesses of AAgs.' 
plural of srfift ' a princess of Aftga.' But fiwrfJl: 'he to [whom the prince oi 
Vanga is beloved' forms its plural fij^r^iTf: 'they whose beloved is the prince 
of Vaftga,' there being no elision. 

»I^T%qt ifA II ^^ H tr^f^ll iR^-snf^:, ^% ('5J 

63. After the word in« &c., th^re is the It* 
elision of the Gotra affix, when the word 'of itself and 

gK. II. Ch. IV. § 63, 64.] Elision of Gotra akfix. 337 

not as pai't of a corapoiiiul epithet dependent on an- 
ofclier word, takes the plural ; b^it not in the feminine. 

«ft5ff + H"^ = '«T'?3>: 'a descendeiU of Yaska not nearer than grandson.' 
In the plural, the affix is elided and the form is ?rf^r: ' the descendents of 

«r?^^: II 

I. jRi^ . 2. WW . 3. ffST . 4. 3T«r?«niT . 5. ^m- w/r . 6. jfi^d . 
7. 0?riTT . 8. qr«^?j?rr . 9. ir^t»T . 10. ^jrorh^ . n. T-ifs^ . 1.2. Tt^I' 

ST| . 13. ^^irai^T . 14. T^f^SfiV . 15. f^rV . 16. cB^ff . 17. STSWfW . 18. 

fipnr . 19. rrft^'sr . 20. ^T|p:^^■ . 21. sf^w. 22. ?f?^. 23. »m^ . 24. 
t«f^ . 25. Tis^n:? . 26. 5<RifrH^ . 27. P^tj? . 28. 37frH«3?5 . 29. w»5ri?«»irT . 
30. *lrr>rR. 31. ffi^qnrf. 32. fRirriRr . 33. ?ft^«ir?i . 34. m^rr. 35- "t?^ • 

36. tJ^. 37. HWSf Jf . 38. Hf%i7 . 39. >ir'f5?5 . 40. ^TT^ . 41. >II«r5?I . 

7f%: II Tf^rjsTV »fhrir??r!R=r ^«r ^^snE^r^lfsr^?^ 5>i h^ 11 

^r^f^ni; II ^rsrr^tqrr^^rs^^ 'f^^ >ragr ot^'j^^ttt't 11 

G4. And tliere is luk-elision of the Gotra affix- 
es tt^ (IV. I. 105) and sT^t (IV. I. 104.) when the word of 
itetilfaud not as part of a coniiooniid epithet depcjidcnt 
oil another, takes the plural hut not in the femiuiue. 

jnj- + ^ = jjp^: ; plural jpif: ' the male descendents of Garga'. So 
also t(^j: ' the male descendents of Vatsa'; the singular being, qrWf.: Similar- 
ly, r^ + ST^ = #^.- (IV. 1, 104); plural f^f: and not ^^: ; similarly »tH 
singular ; 4t^: plural. 

But these affixes arc not elided when th e word forms part of a com- 
pound. Thus, fsraJTP^: ' those to whom GArgya is beloved;' fsiTnl?! : 'those 
to whom Baida is beloved.' 

These affixes will not be elided in the feminine. Thus, irr^Jf: , ^^i 
'cminine plurals. 

Of course these affixes must be Gotra or patronymic affixes, otherwise 
there will be no elision. Thus iff + '!I>T = ff«T: ' living on the island,' plural 
»"^:; here the affix nrf is not elided as it does not denote a Gotra. So 
''^ + ST»^ = sftw: ' the pupil of Utsa,' plural 3ih«r: . 

F«r/:-^In forming Tal-purusha compound of the singular and dual 
R^nitive, the affix 'ffs^-aaid 80^ are optionally elided. Thus »if4^ 's^^r'nrWf- 

^5* or m^^ , «Trv^: «^pr = »rr»««Kw or »r»f «5t . 

338 Elision of Gotra affixes. [Bk. II. Ch. IV. { 65, 66 

Similarly ^^^ or If5!ft: sgW = lf?K# or ft?*W . 

Why do we say 'the affixes ?n^ or STS^ '? Because other affixes will not 
be elided in forming fRJ^ compound; such as srry^fVI 

Why do we say ' singular or dual '? Because in the plural mtn 
rompound these aflixes must necessarily be elided and not optionally ; thus 

Why do we say ' in forming ?i?55^ compound '? Because in forming 
other compounds, these affixes will not be elided. Thus, 3'I'nT»5 which is aa 
STstrjffHr^ compound, meaning »Tf«f?^ ^pfW . Of course, it is only in the Geni. 
tive fRT?^ that this rule is applicable ; it will not therefore apply in ^^>n^ 
ff^T^ &C., as TCHIM'S: I 

Go. And after the words sr^^r , ot , w»?r, ^55, ^ 
arfir-T^r, tliere is luk-elision of the Gotra-allix, when tJie 
word takes the phiral, hut not in icmiuiue. 

Thus the plural of srrt^r ( 9Tf% + 5^ IV. i. 122.) the des- 
cendent of BTf^, is ST^PT:, the regular plural of STf^T. So also, singular 
»nn^:, plural ^»Tf:; singular 5|fhtl:, plural ^wr: ; so, TfeffT:, ifRWT:, STf^JT^:- 
In all these \he affix has been elided. Thus flij + 3T>t = ^mT- 'H'c 
descendent of Bhrigu. Of course, it is only in the plural number that the 
Gotra affixes 55> and ST"I are elided, not in any other number ; so we have in 
singular aTrt«r: HPTf:; dual srrt^ »inf^ ; plural HR^r:, ^^: &c. 

But when these words are part of a compound, the Gotra affixes are 
not elided in forming their plural. Thus f^^TT^r: or fj^wf^: I 

In the Feminine plural the affixes are not elided. Thus:— 3Tr*«f 

Vmn- 1 

w»^w?fi» 11 

66. There is hik-elision of the Gotra-allix r! 
(IV. 1. 95) after a word containiug many vowels (a poly- 
«yllahic word) which denotes the Gotra of the people 
called m^ and ^m when the word takes the'plural. 

Bk. II. Ch. IV. § 67, 6S.] Elision of Gotra affixes. 330 

The plural of <r5rr»TT(t': isqWHITT:, there being elision of fy ; so also ifir- 
fsmrr: plural of iirf«T^f6i:; so the plural of ^(^fsfr: is^f^ristT: 'the descendents 
of Yudhishthira. But IfSR: and ^M: not being polysyllabic, their plural will 
be i^Pf- and >n«^: ■ 

Why do we say ' when denoting the Gotra of PrAchyas and Bh4rat- 
as'? Because when denoting the Gotra of any other people, these affixes will 
not be elided. Thus flTHRfn: plural of ^srrf*:, yffWfRRT: plural of irf??RTf%: • 

Though the BhAratasare Prdchyas, its specification here is to indicate 
that, wherever ' Pr^chyas ' will be used, it will not include Bhiiratas as in 
V. 4. 60. Here the Yuvan affix of Bharatas will not be elided. Thus arr^fiT: 
lallier, 3TT1jqT'^''T: son. 

G7. Afte'v the words nr<T^ , &c., there is not 
luk-elision of the Gotra affix, wlieii the word take.s 
the i)hiral. 

Tills prevents the application of II. 4. 64. Thus triWI + 9T5r = «fr<T5r'r:, 
plural ifh-f^r: ; singular ^T-, plural i^q-qr: . The iffTW &c.. belong to VidAdi 
class, viile IV. i. 104, and are the following: — jftTTT, RtsJ , f^^f , HifT , 5T!C?r, 
3T?<nT , T^TPT^ and X^n^. The remaining words such as fitH &c., should not 
betaken in this sub-class In the case of fRTT &c., the Gotra affix must he 
elided in the plural by Rule 64. Thus ?lr?fr: f^^ncrr: &c. 

f?r«fe?T?iTf^w^ S^t II ^c II ^^ifn II fag5-f^?Tgr-3?if^«i: , 

^f%: II RT^rf?>-?ri f5ifri?rf?»-irv sfX jfr^rswJiJii^r ^^ ^»i; >iTf?t 11 

G8. Affcerthe word.s Vri^ %a? &c. when used as 
Dvandva compound, tliere is the liik-elisiiiu ot the Gotra 
iifflxes, when the compound word takes the plural. 

Thus f?T^ + (qr^ = W^^r^r (IV. r 154). Its plural is ^^araifm: I ^^t^ffif: + 
^^tTRITsr: = f?I^?^qT: I There is elision of Pir^ . So also ^miK: plural 
'f"aT7T: (IV. I. 95) + >fftryfr«TT: " T^rH'tl'nn: ; there is elision of fT{ (IV. 
'■ 95)- The followipg is a list of such compounds. 

I. f^^fftnt^. 2. ^«srHir#tritfr. .? yr^rrwiw (^T^T^rr?rJTr: + prri^RSTr.. 

• '■ 99 . elision of irg^). 4. MhShHi^r. ("TTS'^'I: ^ 5nr?J>?t . IV. i, 95, elision 

840 Elision of Gotra affixes. [Bk. II. Ch. IV. ^ 6g. 

of m^). T^ffTCTJIfTfCTST^r:, 6. 3-SW^i5r>Tf: ( ^S^^. IV. 1. 95. + gST^HT: IV, i, 
ii2, then the elision of ^5^ and sr^). 7. styjTfSrt^^jrr: (the elision of ts^lV, 
9.95 as in 4). 8 JT^PJ^Jr: (sf^rwniiTsr: IV. i. is* + Fsf^T^T: IV. I. 95, elision of 
pR-Jlfand ?^ . 9. «jraff ^^?»rf; (elision of fr^ as in 4) 10. fi^'trf^Rfrs'TOffn: 
(elision of fi^ ) 11. STrJT^JJ— ff^CW: (sTff?Tt5:?r: IV. I. i05+?rarc^«r; IV, i. 9.5, 
elision of both ?nT and ysT). 

gj^UcW^m^ ,3^555 , («|2 g^^5^ ) II 


GO. Aftei' the woids^ ^^ Sec. tlicre is option- 
ally hik-elisiuix ot tlie Clotra afli.K when the \vor<ls takt; 
the plural -whethci' they eutur into a Dvandva com- 
poiiiid, or arc n.sed sepaivitely. 

Of the words belonging to this list, three have already been eniinioratcd 
in the group of Tika-kitavadi of the last sfitra. The elision is in tlie 
Dvandva compound of these three, but when used separately the elision is 
optional. As, 37^«=W5iT:, «S'^r^t^)J?5r:, ir^'TTf3r;Tfr"TO??n:. But the plurals ol 
sfM^PRTIt:, the Gotra-derivative of gr7^ (IV. I. 99) is ST^Kr: or srVq^vr^PTT: ; of ^ttt- 
qtrar: isfPT^: or ^mr^r^Rr-; of VIW^ is ■nr^m ori^T^f^:. The plural of ^rr"mi5i: 
is sjfft^OT: or ^rfTfR'T. jThe plural of ^scjtfsTR: is frarrrftpTr: or ^rfscrfrspnc. 
The plural of frscj^:??:: is fisnr^^frr: or ^n'n^??rT: . 

Of the rest of the words belonging to this group, there is option 
allowed, both when they occur in Dvandva compound or when used alone 
They are as follow: — ■ 

I. qnrsiT^ • 2. sv>^ix^ . 3. »Tf^; 4 m-s^ . 5- ^f^s . 6. Twr 
^. 7. igrrtsTsr^ . 8. 5j5ir^5i . 9. <ra^5T . 10. gstrr"! • n. ^^^fw^r. 12 
q;[ ^ .i t .^ a • 13. r^Rnr • 14. 5i»i?fl'5;>^ . 15 w^rira . 16. frsim^r . '7 
^^ . 18. <r^<fr . 19. sTr?3^ . 20. ^RrraK • 21. stsg^. 22. s^^aiT . ^3 
sT^fq»H^ . 24. !?[?if?>JT . 25. srfiPT. 26. 8Tnf*ti??T. (27. ^,3n:* • 28. ir^ 

29. «»Tra?R . 30. M^S^I^ . 31. q^?! . 32, STiJT? . 33. B^SPq . 34. 5<H^ 
35- ^ra . 36. ^tp^ , 37. (q^5|. 38. TOlC^ci . 39. H^ . 40. !Ji?nT'f 
41. ?fiT^ll5) II 

<R^«5tl^t: , 3!»lft?T-f fn^r^i^^, {555 §n^, W^it «fSi:) II 

Bk. II. Ch IV. §70-72.] Ri.i.siON op- Case AFfiXF.s. 841 

70. There is luk-olisiou of the Gotra affixes 
jjcT and ^r''^ ot the wonls stui???! and ^tftss^, when they 
take the plural ; and tho words arjiftn and j^if&gq-w are tlie 
sulistitntes of tlie ba^e.s .sj remaini)ig afotr the elision. 

The plural of 3Ti*R??r is STT^fTT: (a^ if it was the plural of 3T»r!%f ) and 
of-«yin^'«T: is ^i^T^f:. The affix STiT (IV. I. 114.) after STTT^JT and tlie affix 
5>^(1V. I. 105) after ^P*^??! are elided, 

'I'he "H in cF'o5rf=3 is indicatory and regulates the accent (VI. i. 163) ; 
the word ^fo-j^ has udatta on tlie middle vowei ; and its substitute will also 
li.ive the .'same accent. There is no elision however in STfT^flf^ir^f^r 
(IV. 1. 8q) Sfi^f&^^rnrsjW: (IV. 2. HI). 

gift vTTHPifaafg[*^: II i9^ II ^^\fk 1^: , vim-nif?mf^- 

71. TJiere is luk-elision o± the case-affix of a 
word when it gets the name of a root, or os a crude 

A noun is changed into a root ( m^ ) when it is made a denomina- 
tive verb. As 'T'fl'JT'% (HI. i- 8; he wishes for a son of his own. A noun 
which forms part of a compound becomes a crude-form (I. 2. 46) ; as i^re-fMW: 
'having recourse to pain'- rriTJ^: 'king's man.' In all these examples, the 
case affixes have been elided. 

Thus <Tiri;^3(^ = ^'ff^rll , here the 2nd case-affix is elided. ^1^: 

Why do we .«ay ' when it gets the name of >TnT or STff^Tr?^ ? 
Because when it gets any other name, such as STJ- &c., the case-affix 
is not elided. Thus ^8T:, W^'- I 

aif^jiwf?r«T: am: II i9H II ^^tfn ii 9?f^-ni|f?i«i:, vm , 

(wO «» 

1%: II sT^siijRp-^ arTT??! mt ^ ^'n II 

Y2. After the verb st? ' to eat ' and the rest, 
there is luk-elision of the Vikarana ^^ (III. 1. 68). 

Thus »Tf^ -i- ?J«^ + fw = 8T;% ' he eats'; fPfiT ' he kills ; ife' he envies. 
The Ad4di verbs belong to the second conjugation. In this class of verbs, 
therefore, the terminations are added direct to the root. 

,^^2 Ec.isiOM OFJ' Sap.' [Bk. II.Th IV. § 73.^5 

7;}. In the Ohliaiulas { Vodas) there is diversely 
the luk-eli.sion oi the Vikarana tj^ (ITI. 1. OS). 

riiere is cli-.ion in other conjagations tlian AdAdi ; and there is some- 
times even no elision in Adadi verbs. As |if tfirfft ' lie kills Vritra." ?^ + t\x^ 
+ ^ = ^H^ instead of ?^ar I So also, ar.? ST^m instead of ?ft. (Rig. V, I, 
22. 5). In these cases the Vikarana IT^ iias not been elided. 

In some cases the ^TT is eli<led as ^TT'-T^ Tf ?fr. instead o( mtp^ || 

v^sT^ ^ II i9« It n^x^ n'■^^^., 3?m, "9, (^^^f^i) ii 

?f3 II 

74. Ani] there i.-^ diversely tlie liik-eli^?!*.)!! ol 
n^JllL 1. -2-2} when the affi.\' H^(Tir. 1. 134) follow.s. 

By using ' diversely ' there is elision of ^if^ when other affixes than 
H^ follow, both in the sacred and profane literature; as ffr?[^: '[much cutter' 
(5?f<=r!r + <STf) ; "ff^T. ' much purifier.' flTfaff: from g« ' to'drop.' ?#-7W: from 
^i^ ' to fall,' the #1- being added by (VII. 4. 84) 

So also TT^ is elided before other affixes than st^; thus ^re(%«it 
5Tra<ftf?r , 5WRl'7f^?f,'?l II See also I. i. 4. 

^f^Ttf^'fa: st^: II ^\ II tr^lf^ tl 5flfir-3? f^«T: , Sf^:, 

(»I^:) II 

^fH: II 3r^f??jTT?i^ grrTrt^ 577- acg A^T^ 11 

75. After tiic verbs ? 'to sacrihee' and other-!, 
there is 6lu-elisiou ofthe Vikarana jTtr(lTr. t. (JR). 

These verbs belong to the JuhotyAdi class. iTfrfe 'he sacrifices' (Ml. 
I. 10). ^5| causes the reduplication of the root. So also f%>}!?t ' he fear;- 
(f^r^i^ from friT ' to purify,' he purifies. 

ai|5J ^P^ftr II ^\ i» ^^f^ H ^^^'\, ^5^f% , (wtr: «§•) « 

70. Ill the Chhandas there is 61ii -elision of 
^r^ diversely. 

Elision does not take place where ordained, and takes place where 
not ordained. ?ff?T f!t?rfpr (instead of ^^fw ) ' he gives pleasant objects,' "Trr" 
instead of ^i?rf»t . 

Bk. n. Ch, IV. § 77, 78] ' Elision of ' Sich.' 34-3 

So also there is ^Ju-elision ot the vikaranas after roots other than 
those belonging to the Juhotyddi class. Thus; tgiji f%T(«? , ^rf^n? PiT% - 

77. There is hik-eli.sion of the affix %^ (III. 
1. ^^4) in the Piira.smaipa(la, attcr the verbs jtt ' to g-.j,' ?iu 
'(,() stand,' the verbs called ^ (I. 1. 20), trr 'to drink' and ^ 

'to be.' 

JTT is the substitute of ^_^ (H. 4. 45). fti"^ the affix of the Aorist is 
elided after these verbs in the Parasmaipada as s^jfiw 'he went,' ST^mH'he 
stood,' STijn^ 'he gave,' 3T>Jffl,' he held,' arTPT ' he drank,' aT>I?<;^ 'he was.' 

Varf: — The verbs »rr and 7r in the aphorism mean the lir 'to go' 
(which is the substitute of 5CT , and not jf- ' to sing,') which also a.ssumes the 
form irf , and f; ' to drin'K ' and not it ' to protect.' The verbs irr ' to sing ' 
iind 71 ' to protect ' will form their Aorist with f%-^ without its elision ; thus 
Hura'ta ' he sang,' aTTRffH ' he protected.' 

In the Atmanepada the (kc% is not elided ; thus STimraf ^JH^ t'TTHT . 

3ii: , (fti^: xj;c^^ fsfHi^n ^t) 11 

^r%: II smJ? ?Tr s[r m fm^n ^rrrf^r ftr^: tt?^^ f^Hrsrr ^ h^ ii 

78. After the verbs srr ' to smell,' ^^ ' to drink.' 
[ft KTT ) ' to pare,' gjr ( ^t ) 'to cut,' and m ( sT ) ' to destroy,' 
tliero is optionally the elision of f%^, wlien the parasmai- 
;'ada term inations are employed. 

Thus M^ or sniRftw ' he smelled ;' a^qifj or STORftfl ' he drank ;' ^ujtfl 
I" ^f^\ 'he pared,' aT«8[IW or ST«5r?ft^ ' he cut' and srerw or srWRflW ' he 

estroyed.' "" 

There is no option allowed in Atmanepada ; thus, ST?rf«W WH^ 
»f'^=T II 

The root 1?^ is a Ghu verb, 'and in its case, the f%i^ would have been 
'^'^ by the last rule also. The present declares an option. 


Elision of ' Sich.' Bk. II, Ch. IV. § 79, 1 

(f%^:firHmT f n ) ii 

Y9. /Vlter the vorb.s ^_^ ' to expand, and others 

there is optio'ially the luk-elision of f^^ when the 

Atman^padii iilli <e.s ?r and ?iw of the second per.-^ou follow. 

Tlius 5T?m (VI. 4. 37) or Mnws? ' lie txpanded," smm: or wraf^sir: ' tliou 
didst expand.' Similarly sraRI or 3T«f%s? ' he gave.' H«W: or ST«f%W ' thou 

didst give' 

The roots rfT and «»^ must both belong to the Atmanepada, and not 
to Parasmiipada. Hence ill the Parasmaipada there is no elision of ft?!^. 
Thus, 9TfIR«? 'I^'T ' you did expand.' 

g n, «rrfiT II ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ MantiM portion of the Vedas there 
is luk-elision of the si^ni of thj Aorist (& Perfect), after 
the verbs nm 'to tiat' gc 'to be crooked,' -tit 'to destroy' ^ 'to 
choose,' 'to cover,' ??^'to burn,' verb.s ending in long nr, %% 
'to avoid,' ^ ' to make,' nm 'to go' and it?, 'to be produced.' 

The word fsi is the name given by ancient grammarians to the affixfs 
of Perfect tense as well as the Aorist, or it might be common term for all 
tense-alTixes. Thus from ^^ wc h ive ST^iT in the sentence, WT'^ r??ltr S^ '^ 
(qsfr'>J<fr«^'3f5^rqW£:3Tr-vi^T(^(Ydjurveda XIX. 36 so also Rig. l.S2.i]. 

From the verb S we have mgf^^i^ f Tl. • From siHT we have JTCT?, 
in the following verse V^: ^€\ 3KW ^f^' 5Tt!TS;»J«l«r I ^f "fmsicm^ " 

(Rig. 1. 18. 3-) ^ , 

The word n in the sfitra includes both ^3; and ^, as the woro 

^T in the following «?! srWf^ 4vH ^Wili^' 1^; «5<r' t^r sn^: I ff^ ^v'?' 
»7^ M?if f%sr.- fliSM ^rr5TOav f% ^: ll (Yajurveda 13. 3). ^ ^ 

From ?? we have «m^ as in wr««5r>pft' tf^^^WT Tf^lTift: >!««' ""^ 
WP^sB II (Rig. VI. 6 1 . 'j 4). The word ^tn^ means verbs ending in long Wf as A 

'to fill.' Thus, m. wriTf5?»Tff!ftaK ^wriVar T^ur^rff.' i srnrr w^ ir«pfl- m*''^" 
*j^ Miw iTimta^ '^ II (Rig- •• II5' 1) ^ 

The root W% gives us <p* as in the following verse:— W >fT »tR»J«?'*' 
OTT W »lk>?«Wn «?»{ <5R-r'*Tm:ll (Rig. VIII 75- I2)' 

BK. II. Ch. IV. §Si-83] Elision OF Tense AFFIXES. 34-5 

From |f we have a^iffT as in the following verse ^m^ ^^' ^^_ ^: Sf 
?r^r'T^1'TI ?_t»'?f.- ^4' W^TR* t'f ^^(^r- ll (Y.-ijurved.i 111. 47), 

From m we have STniT; as in the following verse: ^#f ^ Wf r>T#«^\ 

ttcW 3n»{^f^ M^"i^ 1 5:^?wf«t ?^ ^f?* <rTrt»f f^v^r ^r?Tw 11 (f^ig. VI. l.i ). 

From 3fT we have Mint as STiHT 9rr ST^ST ^^- ■ This is an example from 
Ihe Briliman literature, as the word irw in the sfitra refers also to the 
Braiiinan literature. 

^m II ii II a^TTH H arm:, (%: , ^3f) n 

^f%: II stiit: <1T?^ 5H sS^^H^f?! II 

81. Tliei'C is luk-elision in tJie room of tliat 
f oiiso aiH.K ( fm ) wliicli comc.s after ^n of tlic l^orfcct. 

WT i.'> used in forming Periphrastic Perfect ^ff^?& 'he endea- 
voured. Hero, after the verb f^fiT all tense-affixes are elided, and the Perfect 
of ^ is added to form its Perfect. Similarly *?H«ii , *wH^ II 

ssJTsmT^^lti: n c^ I) ^fff II 5fl?trm?f, wtr-iT;, (^) 11 
^frf: II s^stnrrjTure^rrr: ^rv g^ Tffk 11 

82. There is liik-(.4ision of stft; (the feminine 
tei'iiiination) and «q- (tlie case-alBxe.s) after an Avyaya 
or Indeclinable. 

Thus, !f*r ^. I M I fllH, 'in that hall'. Here the Indeclinable ?nr ' there,' 
does not take the feminine termination, although it is equivalent to a^JTrn 'in 
tluit.' So also fi??f ' having done ' f^fJlT &c. Heic the case-affix is elided. 

'^«tr: II 

83. There is not Ink-elision of the case-afBx 
^tor an Avyayi-bh^va componnd that ends in siv; aiji^ is 
tlie substitute of its case-affixes, but not when it is the 

. fifth case-afHx. 

This debars luk-elision which was to have taken place by the last 
■''il^ra; instead of luk-elision, we have ^ added to the words ending in phort 
''> for examples of this, see sAtra II. i .6 ;* as OT^>rf»UTfH ' upakumbha is 
standing'; 57^»,jqj^^ 'see the upakumbha.' ^ 


SuDsriTunoN of case affixes. [BK, II. Ch. IV. § 84, s, 

Why do we say 'afterwords ending in short h'? Because after AvyayJ. 
bhav4 compound ending in any other vowels there is not substitution, but there 
is total-elision of the case-affixes ; as stP^^ , Mi^lrff. 

But the ablative case-afiix is not elided after Avyaytbh^va com- 
pound ending in short H , nor is there the 3T«^ substitution; as 57^'=>infrsnr. 

?SnT, (am 3?3'Ttft'Hl%) II 

84. The cliange to sr^ of the third and seventli 
case-affixes coming attor an Avyayibhava comiwiuid 
that ends in st, occnrs diversely. 

vfT^^i'^'T or TT^RTT ^?f ' done l)y upakumbha ' ; 3<T<K*^ f^lf? or 
3<T9(r*MH f^r^i? ' put it in the upakumbha.' 

Vart. The ariT substitution is invariable and not optional in the locative 
case when the AvyayibhAva compound denotes prosperity (11, i. 6.) or a com- 
pound of rivers (11. i. 20 and 21) or a compound having a numeral for its 
member (II. i. 19*; as, ^Jf%^ 'well or prosperous with the Madras '; ^HJi'Ii; 
'well or prosperous wiih the Magadhas'; similarly TWHTTy^l ^Wf^^flJ^I' 
5?frir3jl?I»TftjriT1, 1 The word 'diversely' establishes^all these even without tlif 


85. ;n, rr and ^^are siihstitnted respectively 
in the room of the three-aifixes of the third person ot 
^ ( First-future ), both in the Parasmaipada and tlie 

Thus in the Parasmaipada ^ 'he will' do,' ^Tflf^ 'they two will doi 
«K?lfr: ' they will do,' So also in the Atmanepada we have W^flT, sn^W' 

Why do we say 'in the 3rd person' ? Observe 5[t: Wt^ls I ^cfrt^wnr^ I' 

Opinions {continued.) 
uwi^^^5i?rTCjrr»!r5raO"f%'frr^ ■!t r -^wu« i <i<i]'-<j^n-M i?5:? i 



The Indian Union, (Allahabad), 26th November, 1891. 

» •> * The original Text and Ginimentancs, carefully edited with English 
lotr^ and explanations, bespeak of imicli diligence, care and ahdity ; and those 
if the Enghsh-ixading pid>Iic who have a taste for Sanskrit cannot be too 
liankl'iil to liabu Sris Chandra for ofTering them so easy an access to the 
iitneate regions reigned over by that Master Grammarian. * * * We rccom- 
leiid this book to all English-knowing lovers of the Sanskrit Language. 

The Tribune, (Lahore), gth December, 1891. 
* * * The translator has spared no pains in preparing a translation 
'hich may place Panini's celebrated work within the comprehension of people 
ot deeply read in Sanskrit. The paper, printing and the general gct-lip of 
le book before us are admirable, and considering the size of the book (it is 
itimated to extend to 2000 pages) the price appears to be extremely moderate. 

The Amrila Bazar Palnka, (Calcutta), i%th December, 1891. 

■ */-u* * J"'^S'"S from the first part before us, we must say that Babu 
ns Chandra has succeeded well in the difficult work of translation, which 
:ems to- us to be at once lucid, full and exact. It is no exaggeration to say 
lat Bahu Sris Chandra's translation, when completed, will claim a prominent 
ace among similar works by European Sanskrit Scholars. 

The Hope, (Calcutta), 20th December, 1891. 
• • • -j-jjg get-up of the publication is of a superior order, and the 
ntents display considerable painstaking on the part of the translator. 

The Arya Patrika, (Lahore), 22nd December, 1891. 
e 1, • * . ^^^ talented Babu has rendered a great service to the cause 
^anskrit literature by producing the sort of translation he is engaged upon. 
His effort is most laudable and deserves every encouragement. 

Karnatak Patra, (Dharwar), ylh February, 1892. 
, , * Mr. Vasu gives ample proof of his competency to undertake 
- work which is not an easy task even to learned Sanskritists. 

The Punjab Times, (Rawalpindi), lyth February, 1892. 
. J, , * Babu Sris Chandra is well-known "for his scholarly attainments, 
done the translation in a lucid and clear English. We can strongly 

Opinions (continued) 

recommend it to those who wish to study Sanskrit Grammar throueh ti 
medium of English. "= '"( 

The Mandalay llrrald, :t,\st Dcceinher; 189,, 
* * * Students and readers of classic language of India arc niii 1 
indebted to the learned Pandit for his translation oi" this scientific work on 11 1 
grammar and philology of the Sanskrit language. 

The Aiyn Darp,vi, {Shahjahanpnr), Fehruarv, 1892. 

* » * Such a work has been a desideratum. It is well got up and 
praiseworthy. \Vc wish it evci-y success. ' 


The AUahahad Revieiv, Jannavv, 1S92, 
'Ihc translator has done his work conscientiously and faitlifullv 
The trau'.latio'i of such a work into Knglisli, therefore, cannot but be a "reat 
boon to all students of the science of language and of Sanskrit literature 111 
special. Tlie translator deserves the help 'of llie Government and the Chiefs 
of India. 

The Maharatfa {Pooiia), .fthjitiv, 1893." 
* •» • If we may judge from the first part which lies before us, it will 
prove n very valuable help to the student of PAiiini. '^ * So far ps it . roe., 
it is creditably performed, and therefore deserves patronage from all student; 
of Sanskrit and the Education Department. 

The AiyaSiddhiuita {-Mlahahiul), i^lh November, iSyi. 

«?t?r f wr sT^sff sT^sf iTRjf ^jf t ^f ST Jr TrR^fji s^r^rr'i ^r h^j? ij^rr M>--m 
?<Tnft jvrRr 5rrRd 1 araf^ ^f f?r stj;:^?^ Hr^^T * jj"i ?7qf 3fr sr^ ^ ^fi ^n ^wt 







Munsiff, Ghasipur. 

Jl llahab a J: 
Published by Satyajnan Ciiaterji, 
at the Panini Office, 
189 1. 

{All riifhts r^servvd.) 


§0tau f k |0ittt m\p, gt, ^. ^., 









ilebica teb 



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ClIArTER I. ■ 

1. All affix. 

This is an aphorism intended solely to regulate the sense of others. 
From this place forward up to the end of the Fifth ]]ook-, whatsoever we shall 
treat of, will get the name of 'Pratyaya' or an affix, except the 'prakriti' or base 
'such as ^\, f?ji^, ftra in III. I. 5 are bases, the affix being g^), the 'upapada' 
or dependent word (such as ^r^, ^TfTrl in III. 2. 24 are upapadas), the 'upadhi' 
or attribute, the special cause that occasions changes (such as 1^ in III. 2. 25 is 
.in upadhi); in the sutra, III. 2. 25, the word ?rf3 is a prakriti, ff?r and srrir aru 
upapadas, tJT is an upadhi, the affix being f^, the substitute and the augment. 
Such as the affixes asrp^, frs^, sTsft^, taught in III, I. 96, as cuwsir'r, gfrcfhsr*^ 
'to be done'. 

^^ H 5? II Ti^f% II rji:, '^, ( u^nr: ) || * 

f Rt; II «rrv ?r w^^Rr ^nfrT? irrfitTft^rsr ^. ^^wn^tf. 11 

2. Aaiclsithseqiiciit. 

This is also an ' adhikara' or regulating sutra, and is understood in all 
subsequent aphorisms ; or it might also be called a 'paribhashA' or interpreting 
aphorism. That which is called an affix comes after, or is placed after, the 
'dhatu' or root, or the 'prStipadika' or crude form ; as ^ir^s^iiT and aRr^tjrir. 

The force of the word ^ 'and' in this sutra is to indicate that the affixes 
here treated of, are to be placed af/nr a root &c. ; not so, however, the affixes not 
t'lught in this Adhyaya. These latter, such as Jnadi affixes, may sometimes, 
be placed in the beginning or the middle of a word. 

gTT^^nTi:«r ii ^ ii tt^tI^ ii grrf^-^^^ni:, ^, (wcmr:) » 

^f%; II STTW^fTTV ^ >T^f?r «r: sn^nWJT: II 

3. That which is called an affix, has an acute 
ficceut on its first syllable. 

This sOtra may also be treated as a ParibhftshA or an Adhikftra sutra. 

ic udatta accent falls on the affix, and if it consists of more than one vowel, 

' en on the first of the vowels. Thus the affix fisj has udatta on the first st, as- 

^Tinp]^. This general rule of accent applies only where there is no specia' 

348 TjIE DESIDERATIVES. [Bk. III. CH. I. § 4.5 

rule laid down. Thus, rule VI. I. 163, declares that affixes having an indica- 
tory ^ will have udatta on the final ; those having an indicatory ^ have accent 
on the middle (VI. I. 217) ; those that have an indicatory t are anudatta; those 
having an indicatory 5T, throw the acute accent on the syllable immediately 
preceding the affix (VI. i. 193); the affixes having an indicatory sj and^r 
throw the acute accent on the first .syllable of the word to which they are 
added (VI. I. 197) ; the taddhita affix having an indicatory ^ takes acute 
accent on the final (VI. i. 165) ; and the affix having an indicatory ff is svan>T 
(VI. I. 185). 

(ir?nr:) it 

^f%: II W7. f^ffv siRiJir sT^^rwr Hff^ ii 

4. The case-affixes (.su])) and the affixes hav- 
ing an iudicatoiy t (pit) are auudaita. 

This is an exception (apavada) to the last aphorism. As j^^ 'two 
stones' ; the case-affix aft is anudatta ; so also ^q^: ; so also «t^Ri ; The third 
person singular affix f?rT,has an indicatory q-, and is anudatta. But not f'^fi:. 

5qf?m%^: ^^11 f II Tqrfrr II 5\-%5r;%«T:, ^TT^ 

( JTriHT: ) II 

f Ri: II ni jflPT^, Rnr ffnpr?, \^ f^^rt, nm^r »TrH>?i. tra; ^^^tj mTnn 
mfa^w II [%5^Tw>ns7Trf^q^5(rjt^ g^is7rSj?inr ■ntjjm 5r?«r?ji H^f^r ii 

5. After the verbs %'f, f?T5t and r^\. conies the 
affix 9i;- 

This affix is to be added to the above verbs, when they mean to 'des- 
pise', 'to endure' and 'to heal' respectively, though they ordinarily mean 'to 
hide', 'to whet' and 'to dwell'. As ^^Ttg^ 'he censures or despises'; fijf%?Ta 
'he endures patiently"; W%?w# 'he heals'. But ifprnrRl 'he protects'; Suf^ 
'he sharpens'; «^?nir?r 'he makes sign". 

When ^rt's added, there is reduplication of the root, by VI. i. 9. TIuu, 
*[<I -fsEt^=^JT'T -1-^ (VII. 4. 62)=^Trcs to which is added the third person 
singular termination sr^-ifircHt. 

^TT5TOVT^tjT5n3JV ^^^^C^TWrro^ II ^ II tr^rfw it 'TT'T; 
B'^ iRH^ >i7Rt, siMTRT??! '^frn:??i ^t^rrWlr ht!% 11 

BK. ni. Ch. 1. 5 6-7] Thb Desideratives. 349 

6. The aiBx ^st comes after the vei-bs ttt 'to 
honor', 'M 'to bind', ?nr 'to cut' and ?rrT 'to whet', and 
loug^is the substitute of the f (VII. 4. 79) of the redu- 
plicative (VI. 1. 4) syllable. 

The 0!T is to be added only then, when the sense of the dcsidcrative 
verb is as below : >ftiTrer# 'he investigates', #t>jT^a 'he loathes', ^fw§ 'he 
straightens', iflTcrf^ 'he sharpens'. The verbs given in this and the preceding 
sutra, are Desiderative in form, but not in meaning. The word 'optionally' in 
the next s6tra, maybe read into this also, whereby the addition of IT'T becomes 
optional. Thus iiTal^, ^ra«rfic, ?nnri% and f^rtrnraf^ are also valid forms. 

wfn II 

^fw^r»Tii sTnrynrryra'sfr'Tl I' 

7. The alTix 'Et'r is optionally attached, iu the 
."leuse of "wishing, after a root expressing the object wish- 
ed, and having tlie same agent of the action as the wisher 

As, zf! 'to do'; f^^iJfk=cif^fJr=eFRr 'he wishes to do'. This is the 
Dcsidcrative proper. It is optional to employ the desiderative affix, the same 
sense may be expressed by a phrase. The root must also be simple and not 
compounded with any upasarga, when the affix tfsr is to be added. Thus 

Why do we say ^Hin: 'after (a root expressing) an object' ? The affix- 
will not come after an Instrumental case. Thus «i»)H^*BjRr ; here there is no 
affix. But n^Pr^Rr will bo rsmfH^ffn. 

Why do we say tnTTT^K^^m 'when the subject of the verb to wish, 
is also the subject of the verb denoted by the object wished' ? Observe f ^i^rf?*! 
'^RRfir^fit tf^^W: Here Yajfiadatta is agent of the verb f^^f^ ; but he is 
f'Ot agent of the action ^rmH■, hence there is no affixing. 

Why do we say yegm r^ 'when the sense is that of wishing'? Ob- 
serve ^f^^iPrrRr 'he knows how to make' ; here the sense being that of know- 
ing, there is no affix. 

The word ^ 'optionally' shows that a sentence may also be employed 
to express the same idea. Thus ^hTh^Ih or fn^-f^. 

350 The Denominatives. [Bk. III. Ch. i, § , 

T/ic word Mtm. being especially used in this sQtra, shows that th 
g^ is an ardhadhatuka affix, while the g;^ taught in the two precedin 
sutras, will not get this designation. 

Vtrrt : The affix ^s^; is added, when the sense is that of 'in imtninen 
danger'; as ^ry <Tr?i5^f?r a^ij = RrRrTRr sffST^ 'the bank is in imminen 
danger of falling down'. So also x^J 'fj^th. 

Vart : There is no affixing of ^ after a verb which has already taker 
«5^ in the sense of wishing. As NgffrfsfHfiregrtl. But the g^r of III. I. 5, 6 noi 
denoting wishing, we have ^«Tp«^#, irrjrrflrTW. 

^rf^^f»T II 5sf[% <rf=5or?rrf»Tfa ^tits^ ii 

8. Tlie affix ^Ji'^i.s optionally employed, in 
(lie .sense of wishing-, after a word ending in a case-affix 
expressing the object wished as connected with the wisli- 
er's self. 

This forms the Denominative verbs, i. e., verbs derived from nominal As, ^^r'.son', q^fTifw 'he wishes for a son of his own' (5^ +?W^ =35(1-1- 
»r=5^l^) (II.4. ;i. VII.4. 33). 

Wh}' do wc use the word «>? ? The affix should not come after a wlmle 
sentence, but only after the particular word ending in the case-affix. Thus in 
f?r5=*t TTfjTsg^ra, the affix comes only after yrn^ and not ij?r??f <Tt. 

Why do we say dtmanak ? Observe rr^T: ?Tf^f?i 'he wishes a son for 
the king'. Here there is no affixing as the wishing is for another and not for 
one's own self. 

The gj in wr\ is for the sake of classing kyach, kyan and kyash in one 
common group by simply using the word <w, as in sdtra ?i: sf^ I. 4, 15 ; while 
•q distinguishes kyach from kyaii &c., and is not for the sake of accent, the 
affix will be udfttta by III. i. 3. 

Vart :— In affixing kyach, prohibition must be stated of pronouns in 
^, and of Indeclinables. Thus in ??fH^f?r, ^r^Hr'BfiT, there is no affixing. 

V»rt :— In the Vedas, the affix is added even when the wish is with re- 
gard to another. Asirr w vvR nwras"^ r«!?5T. Here »T^r^ (pi. »TtTm:)'S 

BK. ni. CH. I. § 9-10.] KAMYACH AND Kyach. 351 

formed by kyach, 9t being added by III. 2. 170, and srr is added by VII. 4. 3'7. 
See Rig Veda I. 120. 7 -,27. 3 &c. 

^j^tn:, T^^Tqr, qr ) 11 

9. And the affix ^-^^^ is also eniijloj^cd, 
io the sense of wishing, after a word oudiiig in a case- 
affix, expressing tlic object wished as couueeted with 
tlie wisher's self. 

Tlius, <T5r5Krr?Tfii ' he wishes for a son of liis own'. 

The making of this a separate sutra instead of adding it with the last 
.iphorism and making one sutra of them botl\, is for the sake of tlie subscqucr^t 
-.utra, where the anuvritti of kynch only runs, and not that of kdvtyach. The 
%o[ kdmyach is not indicatory, but is a part of the real affix. Here there- 
fore, rule I. 3. 8 which would have made the letter ;fi indicatory, does not apply • 
because no particular purpose would be served by making indicatory. Or the 
.iflix kamyach may be considered to have an indicatory ■g before it i.e. the affix 
JK'ing chakamya. 

^TmTT^'gf^ II ^0 II TT^rf^ II ^M44Mi^ , grnn^, 

( ^TT^:, ^T^:, 5^:, ?rr, 'W^^) II 

qrPS^'t II arni^rajr''^ ^ffrs^n; 11 

10. The affix ^^=^^ is optionally employed, 
ill the sense of treatment, after a word ending in a case- 
affix denoting the object of comparison. 

Thus, jirf^^r^rRf S[r'f = ^^fTf (% SfT^ 'he treats the pupil as a son' 
Vart : So also in a locative case. As siwnf^itfil ^^^^ '^^ dwells in hut as 

if it were a palace'. i^^^iRi ir^.'in a cot he lies down as if he were on a royal 

bedstead ; he treats a cot as a royal bedstead'. 

^: W^^ ^^^TTL^ II ^^ H M<^lRl « 155:, m^^ ^• 

352 KVAN [Bk, III. Cii. I. I 13 

11. The affix ^^r^ is oj)tionally employed in 
the sense of behaving', after a word ending iu a caye. 
affix, deuotiiig the object of comi^arisou of the a^eiit ■ 
and there is elision (lopa) of the fiual « of the noun, hit 
cuds witli a w. 

Thus, ^^t'TT^^T ^n'^:, S.'^snJtS, 'the crow behaves like a hawk' ; swrrnr^ 
'she behaves hke an Ajwara' ; iTtt^TW or tRfW* 'it becomes inilk'; ( ^, 
+ V= ^^H! + ^T = X^^!^, VII. 4. 25). 

In the words sfr3i^^ — sfmRf^, and s^c^cw^ — 3T<:«rr?t^ the final b is in- 
variably elided when forming the denominative verb : but not so in the c;ibc 
of Tifti where the elision is optional, as "nrt^ or Tf Jf^f^. 

The elision of ^^ refers to the final g and not when it is followed by 
any vowel. Thus ?^— 9^n?i; ^K«r — ^rr^RfS ; here the ^ is not elided as it 
is not final. Sec. I. i. 52. 

Vari :- After the words SJ^^T^, ^U, and f>^, the affix ffiq; is op- 
tionally added in the sense of behaving like some one or some thing. As ^■ 
n«=>lt or 8??ril^ra^, pfr^S or gjt?rraH, ?t^ff or ?1^$. The alternative form^ 
are derived by the affi.\ing of fyan. 

Vari :— According to the opinion of some Grammarians, the affix ffPT 
comes optionally iu this sense after all crude nouns. As si^ffii or 3T5:?ms, 

nf Hf% or Jtlnra^. 
^k, 3T^:, #^;, % f^:, ( W^) II 

12. The affix 5Pf?, in the sense of beconiiu^'' 
what the thing previously was not, is employed after 
the crude forms HIT, uud the rest, which do not end with 
thq aflix f'? (V. 4. 50) ; and there is elision (lopa) of the 
final consonant of these words, if they end in a courfo- 

Thus, Mftft ^Vf Hf Ri=H?rRi^ 'he becomes, much (from a little)'; ^fmw* 
'he becomes swift (from being tardy)'. All these roots will be Atmanepadi ( 

The phrase ^^x- 'not ending in the adverbial affix f , refers to every 
one of the words belonging to the class fkurf^. It may be objected, what was 
the necessity of adding this condition, since the affix fkt( itself denotes that 
something has become what it was not before ; and therefore a word which has 

BK. in. Ch. I. S 13-] Kyasw. 353 

taken the affix f^, will not again take shj^^ in that very sense. The repetition 
(jf f«5 here shows that the words ijw &c. never take the affix f?, in the 
sense of 'something becoming what it was not before". Thus the present sfttra is 
an exception to sCltra V. 4. 50 which ordains f%?r. 

5T^«T:, ^jt?^, (5ft) II 

«fM: II $frr?tirf?*'^ ^jt?^>-^^ H^spr awr sR^rat H?m 11 

13. The affix ^^\ in tliu sense of becoming 
what the thing previously was not, is employed after 
the words ^^, &c. and alter those that end with the 
ivtBx ^ (V. 4. .57), when these words do not take the affix 
f^T (V. 4. 50). 

Thus 5^tf?wr^ or tTtrftrraRl 'he becomes red'; <T?T?r^* or <T?<t?nrr<T 'he 
makes a noise like patapata'; (5frt?ff + ^=^rf?lr + «r=#rf??ir!r, VII. 4. 25). 

The word qe^^nra" is formed by adding the affix dac/i to the word iz 
which is first reduplicated, and then takes the denominative affix kyash. The 
affix diich is added to express inarticulate sounds. 

There is no special class called lohitadi. The Vartika, therefore, pro- 
poses that the siitra should read without the word ddi, as ^ff?Tff?>^: ^^\ ; 
'the affix kyash comes after lohita, and words ending in ddch' . 

This rule applies to words other than f^jcrrr? which arc always in- 
variably Atmanepadi owing to the f^^ affix 5?T3=-^ while ■!m\ is optionally 
both. (I. 3. 90). Thus ^f?rf% or mx^^, fTJa^f^ or fsTjrT'iit, sK^Clt^ or Efi^CTRr^^ 
*7Rtfii or ^qr^. The lohit&di is an s^iajf?jiiX!j, the following being some of the 
>*ords of this class ; ^rffiT, fftsT, ^fttT, sftff, Tsf, "KT and •fff. 

The indicatory ^ in ^n\ is not for the sake of prohibiting guna and 
vnddhi (I. i. 5). Vox guna or vriddhi takes place in a dhdiu followed by a sar- 
'•■'adhdtuka or ArdhadhAtuka affix. The affix 5?r«[ is not added to a dhatu but 
to a nominal stem : hence there is no scope for the operation oi guna &c. The 
* is for the sake of grouping starsr, Jjars"., and ^m\ in one class as ^sn; as in siitra 
f : ^ (I. 4. 15), There is, however, no word ending in ff amonj those enumer- 
ated above. 

354 KvAN. [Bk. III. Ch. I. § j^.,j 

The affix ^n (V.4. 57) comes when the verb following is one of (i,, 
three STW, >r, or 5^ ; as 'I^^^^SKfrfiI, -H^[% or -^\^^. The present sQtra teach 
by implication that whjn aw^ follows i\n, the above restriction, that tl 
verb should be «F, »,or s?^, is not applicable. Here ^t^ comes without theiid 
dition of cF, VI or 9Tf??l- 

The anuvritti o{^'s^: comes from the last sfltra ; and hence the afi]> 
cf?!'!^ is added in the sense of ^<J^n\'j!f i. e. so.nct'iing becjmin;^ that whicl 
it was not before. tc5r5fe^8T^ariT?^>?r: ^c7f^^«rf?TrriiRT sr^K^*! 11 

14. The affix ^^w., in tlac sense of exerting in 
dislionost}^, is employed alter the word ^? 'miscliiel', 
when the latter has the fourth caso-afflx in construe 

Thus, gf5T^ ^^iCT ^T»Tra=^?r?l# 'he is assiduous for trouble, /'. e. he k 
assiduo'.is in the commission of dishonesty, or he plots'. 

Vi7>t :— The affix n^^^ comes in the sense of exerting in evil, after the 
words «5T, ^ur, ^^, SK-eg; and ijfsr ; as, ?RraS, sKsrpr^, ?jv^ra^, ^^jun, 
and iirsTnra- 

When the sense is not of 'evil', the affix is not added, as im. ^^i '.. nr<\- 

m:^m tt^n^T^nftwrr ^if^^Tt: ii ^^ ii Tr^rf^ ii «in^:, 
d'f^^r^T-xfrwrT, ^-^ft:, ( ^^^ ) )l 

^r^^H II g'j=^5PT ?f?t f^ffrs^rw II 

15. The affix ^1 is employed after the 
words, rfiror 'ruminating' and ?mT 'austerity', when 
they are used as the ohjects of the action of repeating' 
and performing respectively. 

Thus, ^^- g^^f=,^,^^,^^ ^. (f jjg ^.Q^ ruminates.' 
Vari: This is restricted to the word signifying movements of th« 
jaws, Therefore there is no affixing here ; as, ^\it d»iw ^^vfk. 

Vatt: The Prasmaipada affixes are used after the word JTTa', ; »' 
i"TVrft=?i<t<^, 'he performs austerity'. 

BK. ni- Cii. I. § 16-18.] KvAN, 355 


^f»f ^ II it^^^fjT 75j;5?T^ II 

16. The affix ^rar is employed in the sense 
of ejecting, after the words ^i^f 'vapour' and 3>«»i 'heat' 
as the object of the action. 

Thus, ^^irm^ 'it emits vapour'; js^intt 'it sends out heat'. So also 
i^m^ 'it ejects froth'. 

5!«<^<*rj| ^T<?5FR!^^^*iT: ^«T^ II ^9 II TT^rf^ II a]r?«[-tK- 

gi^f-aw-^R'tsr-^viT:, ^iK%, ( ^¥;^) 11 

^rfs^H II fl^T|f?T'fl'fTr»?ivm ^Tii;«!!fJT 11 
^r^^JT II 3T?r?T?T|-^rafilrTrft?r€t?ii^2TiT?iif ^'^s^i'i; 11 

17. The affix >5^, in the sense of making, 
comes after these words, as tlie object of tlie action, 
vJz :— ?T5f 'sound', It Uiostiiity', ^5i? 'strife', ^(^ 'cloud', ^"^ 
'sin' and h^t 'cloud'. 

Thus, i(n4 sjfffRr = ?T??ra# 'he makes a noise'. So also #n^, grsifr- 

f^rt''-'— It should be stated that the affix comes after ^%, ^flsi and sfN 
«ir ; as, a%r!i#, f ff ;rrir#, jftsirnrt 1 

F«r/.-— So also should be included the words snr, 3T?T, 7f\^T, ^m, '(trx 
%rand5(rs?r; as 3T?rat, sflfnrt, nft^rraa, 8Rl?ni?f, "fierarw, €r?m^ and gr?t- 

tS i 

The word qftnT in the sfltra is not the Grammatical Karana or the Ins- 
trumental case, but has here its primary meaning of 'doing'. 

fi^r^^j «(nf*§^Tnrm II ^ ii Tr^rf^ ii ^^-grrf^:, 
'^-t^rnT'T, ( mnm, ^^ ) u 

18. The affi.x w^^ in the sense of feeling, comes 


356 KVACH AND Nm. [Bk. hi. Cu. I. § rg-j^ 

after the words «'!r 'pleasure' &c., wliou the pleasuri 
&c. belong to the agent as feels thereof. 

Thus «i!rr«r^ ' he feels pleasure' ; Sr^STPr^ 'he feels pain'. 
Why do we say 'when the fceh'ng belongs to the agent' ? Observe ?»! 
q^Jlfa iT^PTcKT f ^?TfW 'the valet knows the happiness of his master Deva 
datta.' Here the agent viz. a valet, is not the percipient of the 'happiness; 
which belongs to his master; hence there is no affixing. 

^3, f .»?r, €^, i?T, gifr, 3^6, sTfft^tr, n^i, ^r^cr, ^fn, #r? i 

^Ri; II TTfl; nk^% f^5rr ??^^ ^ ^w% «t?«r?r> h^Ri surinf^Tfq >iirr|i ii 
1!). The ailix ^^, in the sense of inakhi<^', 
comes after tliese words as the object of the action viz;— 
spfH 'adoration', ^R"W. 'honor' and f^f 'wonder'. 

Thus 5T»r?^rrt JTfH. 'he worships the gods' ; ^fc^^^f?? ^.^% '^c honors 
or serves the ciders' ; p^tn^ 'he astonishes ( makes it wonderful)'. The ^ in 
f^?!?;; indicates that it takes the affixes of the Atmanepada. (f^ + ^^ 

r^ + ^ (VII. 4- 3,3) = r^^i^). 
fia\, ( 1!^ ) It 

g-i% : II 1=55 HT"^ ^^r fr^at-^Tr fci3; tlr^l^ >T7l?T ^sntTPfTr^ II 

qxr's^'i II >innr«rir^^^ n 

grfjf^'T n ^^rr^iTiT qfr^R ^r ii 

20. The affix Tor?, in the sense of making, 
comes after these words as the object of the action, 
viz :— 5^3 'tail', Hf^ 'pot' aiid '^^ 'rag'. 

Thus ^JT'ini^f 'he lifts up the tail', (the sense must be that of lifting 
or throwing about); «»Hrirfr?ra 'he collects pots in a heap'; a^hrrnrtf^: 't'"^ 
beggar collects or wears rags'. Of the affix fcj^, the effective portion is f, the 
other letters are servile. The w indicates Atmanepada (I. 3. 12) and or serves the 
purposes of the application of the rule VI. 4. 5 1 which applies generally to all 
affixes containing f^r, such as fiiTy, foi^ &c. 

Vart :— After the word 5«g[ the sense of the afifix is that of lifting 
or throwing about. 

BK. Ill- Cn. I, § 21.] NiCH AND Van. 357 

Vari : — After >iT*? the sense of the affix is that of accumulation in a 


Vari : — After ^\^ the sense of the affix is that of acquiring or wear- 

( *TW ) H 

H^ft II 

21. The affix N^, iu tlie souse of makiug, 
comes after these words as the ()l)ject of t]ie action 
viz : 555 'shaving', f«p« 'mixture', x^^'^ 'soft', m^'n 'salt', sw 
'vow', ^^ 'dress', ?5t 'plough', ^rsr 'strife', ^ 'done', and 
T»^ 'matted liair'. 


Thus 5''^!ri% 'he shaves'; Pr'smRf 'he mixes'; ?5TW^Rt 'he softens or 
alleviates'; 5TfJ!T?rf?I 'he salts; <r^5ir?^(% 'he fasts on milk'; tfg^pift 'he covers 
with clothes t. e. dresses'; ?5J»rR» 'he ploughs'; ^5nif^ 'he makes war'; ^d q lt < 
'he appreciates kindness'; f5r?f??farfH 'he combs the hair, or disentangles matted 
hair or delivers from sin'. 

The affix after the word ?m has the sense of 'eating' or 'abstaining 
therefrom'; as <mt arrr^lPf 'he drinks milk,' ^srsn?^ STrTirfcr 'he abstains from the 
food prepared by a low caste'; after the word ^^^ the affix denotes the sense 
of covering. After ^-fef and ^f%r the sense is that of taking ; as ^f^ »rgr>» = ?5»- 
^rifj. The words in the siltra are ^ and ^f^T and not f% and Efrf5T- This 
anomalous form shows that in forming the Aorist of these by adding the affix 
^(III. I. 48) the reduplication takes place, but not in the same way as if the 
affix were g«r^ ; i.e. the gr^^vrr^ does not take place here in the Aorist (VII. 4. 
93)' Thus the Aorists are sfrif^ and 3T-=l%wl5(^; and not 3Tit;??jH_ and 4?''^1^!51<T., 
which would have been the forms by the application of rules VII. 4. 79, & 94. 
if there was gsf ^hpt. 

The word ^H means either hair, or matted hair, or sin. 

358 Van [Bk. III. Cii. I. § 22-3^ 

22. The aiHx «i^, in the sense of repetition 
vt tlic act, comes after a root, having a single vowel and 
heginniiig witJi a consonant. 

The phrase JtriyA-samabhihAfa means repetition of tlie act or It< 
intensity. As <T^'to cook', <mr^?i^ 'he cooks again and again'; STR^JT^ 'lie shines 
with great intensity'. The root must be a simple root, and not compounded 
with any upasarga. We cannot therefore make Intcnsives of verbs h'ke nfj 
'to go', (because the root SR. is preceded by the upasarga ij); or -sfrn 'to be 
- awake,' (because it contains two vowels) ; or f ST ' to sec' (because it ben-ins 
with a vowel). 

Van :— The intensive affix ^ comes after gf^, ?fflr, i^, sifi, %{^, ajrj 
and STt§, though some of these contain more than two vowels and others begin 
with a vowel. 

As, qT?r^, €f«i5^, >ftJ^sT#, sRr?^a, Mrr^^, M^r^;?!^, and sftitirT^TnT 

The affix is not added in these cases vnt ^W^ or Hit fr^?f , as it k 
against usage to make Intensive forms of these verbs on the sense of intensity, 
though in the sense of repetition we iiave rt?"^^ and 3Tt5T'iTT^. 

In making the Intensives, the root is reduplicated and it takes the tei- 
minations of the Atmanepada as the root is fea. 

f^c^ ^f^ Tc^ II :^^ II tr^f^ II f^?q*T, ^^fs^, TTrf^, 

23. Tim a'lix 'sfsi, in variably comes, in the seii-f 
of crookcdnoss, a'ter a simple verb expressing motion. 

Thus iffflf 'to m )vc', ^JKnrs 'he moves crookedly'. So also ^^n,i 
After a verb of motion, the ns^ never expresses intensity or repetition ; so if 
the latter sense is to be expressed, a phrase must be employed ; as >iw JBrffir 'h' 
wanders much'. This is inferred from the word i%f?T used in the siitra r. e. nf, 
always has the sense of crookedness and no other sense after a verb of motion. 

^TTO^?:^Txr5rvr^^^^-*m '•mnjfWi^a^ ii ^^ " 

^frr: II sq w^ '^ TTT 3T)i ?f w IT f f§^>-zft wffiTf!«rT *iiT?r«J»r?!«rf «rff, ^'^ 
m\^ II 

24. The afSx ira; when it is intended to con- 
vey the sense of contempt (if?) in respect of the sense 

BK. HI. Cn. r. § 25.] NICII. 359 

of tlie root (*iT7) comes always after tlie folloAving roots, 
^,jy ;_-^i; 'to cut off', m\ 'to sit', ^, 'to walk', ^q; 'to mutter 
silently any sacred form^ila', 5i>t_^ 'to gape or yawn', ??, 
'to bum', ?^. 'to bite' and "t 'to swallow'. 

Thus 5fr5\':?r?i 'he cuts off badly'; «r'Ef«J& 'he sits badly' ; "^rrfa 'he 
walks badly' ; irsr:^% 'ho recites badly' ; so also if'Hi^?, ?;?!!i^, ?;?![7tS, 
r^'^fil^^^- The affix ?js=:^ does not come in the sense of repetition &c. after 
Ihc above verbs, but only in the sense of censurable performance of the 
action denoted by the verbs. Separate words must be used to express the 
intensive or the frjquentative meaning. As vfij g^rfw 'he cuts off much'. 

Why do we say 'when contempt in regard to the sense of the root 
is meant' ? Observe ^rw siTm 'lie recites well'. There is no affixing as no con- 
tempt is denoted. Why do we say 'in regard to the action denoted by the 
luot' ? When the contempt is not with regard to the sense of the root, but 
with regard to the action as accomplished, the affix is not employed. Thus 
H'T iprRf <f«r5T : 'the Sudra recites the sacred mantras'. The word f^f?t of 
the last aphorism is understood here also. 

ff^ u :?»< 11 TTTrf^ II ^Frn7-trni-^;^-^T-rW-'5!5ft^-%!n-^ftT- 

wrftisjrii II ^^ tf^T^r^TTjT^^'frscr: 11 

25. The allix fo'q. is employed after these 
Avords, viz:— ^f«r 'truth' (whicli then takes the fonn of 
^^t as exhibited in the sutra), •m 'a letter', 5:<t 'form', 
^fcrr 'a lute', ^^ 'cotton', ^^^ 'celebration', ^^ 'an army'; 
^w 'the hair of the body', ^^ 'the skin', ^A 'mail', to 'cele- 
bration', "^ 'powder' and the verb of the Cliuradi class. 

Thus ^irnT'iTfiT 'he speaks truly'; f^PTRPfRf 'he unfetters or liberates'; 
^T^Rt 'he looks'; ^^fopifar 'he sings with the lute'; ST^fTsnifn 'he makes a brush'; 
"W^Tfa 'he praises in verse'; STPl^ajarfa 'he advances with the army!; srsTSTf- 
'<^r^ 'he rubs over the hair'; ?t^^ 'he feels of the skin'; g^^^ifit 'he puts on the 
n>ail armour'; spii^Tf^ 'he celebrates or colors'; 5T7^'^«rf?l he pulverises. The 
foots of the Churddi class belong to the tenth conjugation, for a list of which 
see the Dhatupatha. After the verbs of the Churddi class, the affix foj^ is em- 
ployed without alteration of the sense ; as -^ilrt^f^ 'he steals'. So also f^??r?rfk. 


36o NiCH. 

[Bk. III. Cn. I. § 26. 

V<iri:— The words st<i, #? and mn take the augment STr«)[ before the 
affix T"!'? ; as, ?f??fr<nT^, 3T«l!>nrf?t, #?pnrf?r. The whole equation is thus shown 

fVII. 3. 8jj. The final syllable called fj is not elided in this case, i.e of sririir 
the syllable srr^ is not elided before f^q;, as it would have been by Vr.4.155 
The reason is that if sttt; was to be elided, there would have been no necessity 
of adding it. The affix fCT^has the sense of 'unfettering' after the word "frXT.of 
■seeing' after 5:7, of 'singing in accompaniment' after i\m, of 'brushing' after 
fRT, of 'praising' after ^istT^, of 'leading' after t^r, of 'rubbing' after ^^, of 
'taking' after rf^, of 'putting on' after ^^ and of 'taking' after ^m. 

^rr^'T II 

grmi^ftf 11 f^f^m^ urRr 11 
^rrrf^^ II Tw^^rit fir 11 

20. Tlie affix R?^ Is emiiloyed after a root., 
wJien tlic ojKH'ation of a causer is to ])e expressed. 

The //^/« (I. 4. 55) means the mover of the independent agent; an 
operation relating to the /teltt, suc'i as directing &c. is called hetumat ; as gi? 
^KTrfi^ 'he causes to prepare a mat'; sflr?^ tt^iRi 'he makes the rice to be 
cooked'. In other words, the affix fitj"^ forms the causative verbs. 

Vart: — The affix comes also in the sense of 'he does that' after tlw 
words fR&c. Thus g^^f ^rfil = «^f% 'he makes sutra ' So also i^ffj. 

Vart : — After words ending in g;?i affixes and describing legend^', 
comes the affix fo^, when the sense is 'he docs that'. The ^?f^ affix is eli- 
ded, the word rcassumcs its basic (nwf?raf) form, and the base is as if the agent, 
thus ^g?rRTir=^? = <Kfl' ^r?ntfff ; ^fsTTs^jTr^^ = ^fef ^svnrf^ ; 'cisrmH^TT^^ ~ 

Vart :— Under the conditions mentioned in the last ^rfSss, the upa- 
sarga art is elided, when duration of time is meant expressing limit. Thus 
sTrrrf'tR'^^ M{%^ — t\H f^^raRi ; here the srr of vrrrfw is elided. 

Vart :— Under the conditions mentioned in the second vartika the 
affix fcrg has the sense of 'making wonderful', meaning 'attaining that'. Thus 

BK. Ill- Cii. I. § 27-28.] Yak. 361 

3^raHtT: Jrft«l^r TT^siTfjrf ^im^ mt^^^ = ^nSH^jnrRt 'going from Ujjain he 
finds the sun rise in Mahismati (wonderful speed)'. 

Vari :— When an asterism is in composition and the sense is that of 
knowing, there comes the affix fcj^ after a word ending in ^ri affix, the 
^3 affix is elided, the word reassumcs its basic form and the basV is as if the 
agent Thus l^^m 5rRrf% = 5^^cr ifmair?f. So also H5TrfH«frsrar?r. 

27. The affix ^^^ is eniployed after the roots 
qr(!| 'to itch', &c. 

Thus, ^«^Rr or ^isjif^ 'lie itches or scratches'. This word takes ter- 
minations indicatory. The words ^>r? &c are both roots and nouns, and are 
placed Ihereforc in a separate list by themselves and are not included in the 
<;cneral list of verbs. The affix applies to these words as roots and not as 


5»fC¥^rff : I 

i^fTJI, Jl^g, flTftJT, ^FIT, ST^, HT^^, ITf t^, !7?, ^ir, ;T^, ??:3i;, 5t5T, J^, 

Svir, qTsr-T, TiT^T, fffri^r, <Tniw, sa»?T, l^'sT, fl"Tr, Mr, rHsiTi;, R5i!]riT, 515*^, ^^,^^^'_ 
JOT, ^?:iTT, T[^j^, iT^r, ^5Tr, iti^r, F?^^ and ^i 

ntrj^rrfgrf^TTf^TTfvrvzT: 3TTxr: II ^ II II TT^Bf II niT-'^ti- 

28. The affix sTr?r comes aCter ^-i 'to protect' 
IT' to heat', r^'a[ 'to approach', 7ci 'to contract or praise' 
and 'W 'to praLse'. 

Thus ifr"Traft 'he protects'; vTjrnrRl 'he heats'; so also, Rfgnifw, >H!JT?r(w, 
and (t^r^rRr. 

The verb "TCT^bcing read along with <jn 'to praise,' has here the sense of 
praise only ; so that the affix does not come after the verb qrw when it means 
'to make a contract' ; as mtm TCI^, ^??r?T "TUTrT. 

The verbs in arra do not take Atmanepada affixes, as there is no indi- 
catory letter to show that. 

WW6W H ^ II xr^xf^ II 5fft:, fxT^ II 
fRi: II ^f%: ^^ vrrg^crraf ^a ■m i^^ i?^^ H^fn 11 


3*32 AVA &c. [Bk. III. Cii. I. § 

20. Tiie affix Uw^ comes after the sutra roo 
mf^ 'to reproach'. 

The indicatory 5^ shows that the verb will take the affixes of th 
Atraanepada ; as ^t^^ 'lie pities or reproaches'; so also, ^rfhrrt, ^^1^;: 
«K%f^^ I) \0 II XT^rf^ II m^:, fm II 

^f%.- II afr^»i??frfe irf^fjft Hf(% 11 

80. The affix fcr;, comes after the root ^«r 't( 

The m indicates vri/fMi (VII. 2. 1 15) and ^ shows Atmancpada ; as 
^ri^# 'he desires'; so also ^r^*? and ^FT'I'^. 

sn^^ sTit^mi m ii^^iiTT^f^ ii arnr-an^:, anf- 
VTH%, gr, (lR^:^l) ii 

31. The affixes arm and those that follow it, 
(i.e. 3?nr, ^^TF and ftr?) are optionally added, wlieu ib is 
desired to express one's self with an ai'dhadliatnka aflix. 

Thus ra 3rd. sing, of the Future is an ardhadliatuka affix. It i-; 
optional to retain the aya of £-(>/>a/a before this affix. So we have jfmRlW or 
nirrr 'he will protect'. So also srrarrr or ^rfrftrtir ; ^rifti or ^mfijrrr. 

But for this sutra, the affixes srnr &c. would have come always even 
when firdhadhatuka affixes were to be applied. This makes it optioned. 
Therefore proper ardhadliatuka affixes should bo applied when we retain <m 
&c. and when we do not retain them. Thus the ardhadliatuka f%w ( III. 3 
95) will becmploycfd in fonnin.ij tli.- fciiimine noun from the simple root, but 
the ardhadhatuka ST ( III. 3. 103) will be employed in forming the feminine 
when arra &c. arc retained. Tims irfcri: or jftiTJir. 

^'TT^nfrr VHcm: ll |^ ll tt^I^ ii ^R-STTf^-arnfr:, 
m?ra: II 

ffir: II g^n^rrr: ^H^\m yjiw^m htFj^ ii 

32. All the words ending with the affixes a=» 
and others are called Dhatu. 

This extends the sphere of Dhatu or roots already defined i" 
sutra I. 3. I. These roots may be called derivative roots. They are separate 
independent roots, and have all the functions of a root, as taking 
&c. as shown in the above examples. Thus f^^Kf 'to wish to do", afrfc'W 

BK. ni. Cn. I. § 33-35] Sya and Tasi. 363 

'aiise to do'; "tftiT 'to do repeatedly' are separate roots and not the same 
as X 'to do' and thus take ^pr &c. 

33. "VVheu 5t and g? follow, then f^ and ?tiRr 
are respectively the affixes of a vorhal root. 

sr is the common expression for 5J^ and 15TI formed by reject- 
inj^ their special anubandhas, and mcj,ns therefore the 2nd Future and the 
Conditional tenses. 5H? is the ist Future also called the Periphrastic Future, 
Thus ^frwRr st^Rt^jpi, ^nf. The % of rrrftj is indicatory and shows that the 
nasal of the root is not to be dropped before this ; as jtst 'to think', ^^\ 'he 
mil think'. 

f%^5^ ^f? a ^« H ^^f^ 11 ft'^ ^^^' ^^j (iiJTOt:)ll 

sRr : II vrr^Tf: Rr^ 5i?«raf H^f^ ^»i ^f? tt^: 11 

34. ftr^ is diversely tlie ailix of a vorhal root 
when ^\ follows. 

The tense called ^? or subjunctive is found in the Vedas only. 
When the subjunctive tense is employed, the affi.x Th\ is diversely added. 

Thus =^rfirsirl, ftrfor^, Tfi^fr^. Sometimes tliis augment is not employed ; 
thus <f?trfii f^ins ^f«r s^irf^ffrr. Thus in Rig Veda I. 1.2, ^■^^ is an example 
of ^; with ftr<T i| 

3n% '3T^, %f2;, ( nr^^:, VJTcft: ) II 

irtfUifssrRrq^ 11 

35. arnj; is the affix of the verh ^rra^ 'to cough', 
and of those roots that are formed hy affixes (i. e. the 
derivative verhs), when f»T?, follows, except in the Mantra. 

This forms the Periphrastic Perfect. The Perfect of qft^., will be 
^W?^, after which the terminations of the Perfect are all elided ( II. 4. 81 ) and 
">stead, the perfect tense of the auxiliary verb >|^ or am^orftis added. As 
^ra^- 'he coughed' ; ■qtc!rr»fre''he stole'. So also gftsprhns. 


3(54 Am. 

[Bk. III. Ch. I. § 36.33 

This rule hou-cvcr does not apply to the Vcdas ; as f^scfr sfTTrf Ri„ 
Veda I, 79. 2. '^ 

Van -.—This rule also applies where the root is polysyllabic con- 
sisting of more than one vowel ; as ^qprrs^^ifiT, i{Ri i »-^n 11 

The final \ of STn{, is not indicatory. 

n'S'raf:, 9TH^:, (fwfe, grnr) u 

fRr. II fsrr^f^^r^^^in'T^'Earrw^F^Sa^ri^iTr^'^r far? <jr?t. srrorjr^ ^^ n 
^r^^*^ II 3rtir?^v ^fm^ ??K^: II 

30. The aflix srm is used when Tsi? follows, after 
a root beginning with ii letter of ?^ pnityuliara and hav- 
ing a lioaA-y vowel, excepting the root w^ 'to go'. 

Thus 5? 'to try', fyN* 'he tried'; so also 3rgn^* 'he guessed', 
^Tr?^ 'he grieved'. 

But gj^ forms hr^' 'he failed or went'. This applies to mono- 
syllabic roots which begin with any vowel prosodially long, except si or 91t. The 
verb gri* 'to cover' is, however, an exception; its perfect is gro'lR 'he covered' 

Why do wc say 'beginning with ?^ or any vowef except 3T or srr' ? 
Observe si?, Perfect 3?r| (VII. 4. 71 ). Why do we say 'heavy vowel'? 
Observe g^, Pcrf ^'r^ (VI. 4.78) ^mj,^m:. Why do wc say 'vowel'? 
Observe ^i, Perf. 'mi ; sr:, Perf gisr?. 

^^rnn^sa ii^sii ^^ifii ii ^-aTiT-sTTO:^ % (%f?, 


37. After the verb.s ?^ 'to give', 'to go' and 'to 
protect', 3f!r 'to go', and ^m 'to sit', there is the affix «w, 
when Rt? follows. 

Thus ^r^-^^ 'he gave' ; traRff'^^'' 'he ran away' ; arr^rr^ 'he sat'. 

'^^rf^^wTiWRR^T^ II |c II q^rf^ II ^-far^- 

'^,^:, ^TSTrTT^rrf?, (3TT^, V^W., ^) II 


38. The affix 3n»i is optionally employed after 
these, viz :-3^ 'to burn', f^?, 'to know', and srn^ 'to wake', 
when fm% follows. 

UK. Ill- CH. I § 39-41.] AM OPTIONAL. 365 

Thus aftsrr^^^rwT or 3#t«t, f^frs^sFK or f^tf, grmris^^rf or snrmTt- As 
there is an agreement in the present instance to regard the verb fff as endi ng 
in a short a?, £^na is not substi tuted, as it would otherwise have been by rule 
VII. 3- 86. 

% ( arm, f^f?, grsTcR^m ) ii 

qor: 3TnT!?T«rar vT^t^^^mt^^rrR, 56wf%^ =grr?T?^r^' >T5f?f ii ?»- ii 

39. sTTT^ is optionally affixed, when T^\ follo-ws, 
after these verbs ^\ 'to Tear', ^\ 'to be ashamed', h 'to nou- 
rish', ?, 'to sacriQce' ; and when stt^ i.s affixed, the effect 
is as if there were 5c^ elision and the roots belonged to 
lIvAdi class. 

The effect of5:?7is to cause reduplication by rule VI. i. 10. As 
f?iT!ns:«3fR: or Rrir?i, f^i^^rrs^^wc or fiurpi, fsfiKf^^^nc or ^Jirr, ^^fff^^^ir or 

»^ T ^M^^ ^ f^iiao iitT^rfir. II 1?^, % si^wf^ir^, f^ ti 

40. After a verb whicb ends with arr^, the 
verb at 'to do' is annexed, when fst? follows. 

After the above verbs formed by taking the augment m\ the 
perfect tense of ^ is added to form their Perfect. This has already been 
illustrated in the above examples. The word cu includes also the verbs 
\and ST^. Ail these three m ly be used as auxiliaries. The verb 3T€ when 
U5edas an auxiliary, is not replaced by w^ (III. 4- S^) before the %5^ affixes 
which are ardhadhatuka affixes. Thus qr^^^rtr^^rr, Tra^r*^*^, <Tr^?rr>ira. 

ft^T^;^f^ ^c«c< 4^ dW I*t^ll«V' ^^^ " ^^f^^' 

1?%: II f%^h54fff«T?d?rfs?PR:€?TP:[ ^qx??!^ ii 

41. The form Rr?f^#'g is optionally employed 
as an irregular .form. 

This irregular form is obtained by adding the affix ^[\ to the 
root pff 'to know,' when followed by ^^^ or the Imperative tense ; the tense- 
affixes of 5ft5 are then elided by luk ; moreover there is no substitution oigima 

366 Ckti, [Bk. III. Cii.- I. § ^2-^ 

as required by VII. 3. 86 ; and when we have thus obtained the form f%^, 
wc annex to it the gfr?^ of th2 verb «(f ; thus we have fsr?fSFc(rtsa or {%??;» '](,( 
them know'. The third person plural is not only intended to be spoken of by 
the employment of the form f^^fj^t"! in the aphorism ; on the con- 
trary, the word f fij shows that all the numbers and persons of the Imperative 
may be so employed ; as f%?Tjft^ f%?f^?!Tr'{_ &c. 

42. The form.s a^^wR^m^; irasniR^K: rii«»><<i«i» : wir- 
1^: Tpniii^r*; fwrw^^ave irrogularly fonned in the Chhaudas. 

The first two of these and the fourth are the Aorists (^) of the 
causatives of the roots flf?^ 'to sit', ^^^ 'to be born', and f^ 'to sport': 
to which the affix 3Tr>? is added. The third is the Aorist of the root h 'to 
collect', to which stt'?, has been added after the reduplication and the change of 
■5 into ^ of the root. The auxiliary ^?f;■. is added to all these four. The 
fifth is derived from the root 1 'to blow, to purify', by adding the causative 
affix ftrs?, annexing the affix STf^ before the terminations of the Potential (fef ) 
and then using after the form .so obtained, the auxiliary fjjrfni. The last is the 
Aorist of fff 'to know', to which sffjj; is added and the auxiliary ^ifp[^ is em- 
ployed. These are the archaic forms ; their modern forms arc as follow :— 
Hi^f^fltifa, srnfrspTri, sT^ifl^, s^thTTw, qT5?tr?, srtft^: 1 

f^^ ^ II ^ II tt^tI^ II f^^, 5%, (vTT^:, CTFTflf:) " 

^ffr; II m^. f^ n^tr^ >i?Rt ^fw <jt^- h 

43. 'Wheiiwr^ follows, the <affi.x f^sr is added 
to the verbal root. 

The X of Psa is for the sake of articulation, the ^ is for the sake 
of accent (VI, I, 163.) showing that an affix which has an indicatory "^ has 
uddita on its final. Then remains only fsT, which after all, is to be replaced by 
other affixes, as we shall show below. In fact ^ is the common name for all 
Aorist affixes. 

^t? f%n H ^ II TT?[Tf5rn ^:, fin»^« 

wPn: II t^: ftlsfrtSTt H^ II 

BK. in. Cii. I. § 44-46.] Substitution of Chi.i. 367 

44. Oi'pEsi, fe-^is the su Institute. 

The ? of fe^ is for the sake of pronunciation, the «r is for accent, 
and the real affix is ^; as s^^r^n 'lie did'. When fe'? is added, the termina- 
liuns of the Aorist assLime the following forms. 

sitig. dual 











tw, ?r 





?rr, ^ 



r,.,t pcrs. « VK 

2nd pcrs. tff: ??T, W 

3rd pers. trf?T wr, ?jf 

The substitution of f%^ is optional in the Aorist of the roots ?f jr 'to 
touch', giT 'to rub', ^"? 'to plough', gf>^ 'to become satisfied', and fq; 'to 
light'. Thus the Aorist of ?JJT has three forms ; Htir^tH, sT^qrwfa or w^sPT. 
Similarly ?n has Hffrw'ff, HTW1«^ or M^fl'3.^; ^^r, aTiafPifhi Wfwt« or si^WtT.^; 
ifT, smfcwftf.^, sT'rr.'^ftfT^, or st^t^^; f t, sTjrratn , 9T?r<ww or «f7« 1 

TStf^T^^Tv^r^e; T^: II 8^ ll M<^ l Rl U W^:, fn^-'gq^JTTcT, 

3Tf^:, W^', (^#:, 5%) I) 

^f%t. 11 Ts^m^x m v7r2R:»rTvw5i«rtr?r^Tr€ir -^^rPr?-, ^tr WTjjIf >iTfff n 

45. After a vei-1) that ends in a sjrt cousonant, 
and has an f^^ vowel for it.s pennltimatc letter, and does 
not take rr(VII. 2. 10), ^jristlie substitute of V^m. 

The forms of the terminations of the Aorist with -na^ are as follow: 




sing, dual 





1st pers. n Hlf 





2nd pers. w- «?l" 


«trr:, 'It: 


fli-^>T, i.^il 

3rd pers. g?T ^wf 


^H, ?r 



As, wjj^ and fi^ in the last sutra have their Aorist with c|g- as 9T9^^?r 
and »f^^; so «f' to milk' forms 3Tw^?t 'he milked', fsjif 'to lick' arfsTTTW- 

Why do we say 'when ending in ?T, sf, ^ andf'? Observe sT^ieft?!, 
'T^aWtr; here Rr"^ is employed. Why do we say 'having for its penultimate f, 
'' ^ or ^' ? Observe sf^TTSftflT. Why do we say 'not having an intermediate 
i f Observe sr^^ffw and M^«. See VII. 2. 4 and VIII, 2. 28. 

46. «r is the substitute of f'sr after the verl) 
^^, "When it is em£)loyed in the sense of embracing-. 


368 SUBSTSITUTION OF Chli. [Bk. III. Ch. I. { 47.^2 

This is a restrictive aphorism. As wrfr^^fm^ < i >g^ i H 'he embraced 
the girl'. But tr»n'f:[5m»ifw^mjj^ 'the glue joined the wood'. 

T pr: 11 83 II TT^T^I II H, JJSi, ( Vl:, 1^: ) * 

47. 93 is not tlie substitute of f^ after the 
verb fw 'to see'. 

This is an exception to the sutra III. I. 45. enjoining ^ir. The root jn 
will form its Aorists by III. i. 57. and will take irr.. and fttn; as Mif^n., or 
«trtft«»^ 'he saw'. 

ftfw^^'^: 'K^f^ ^¥^ H ««: II ^HflfH II ft-f^-^T-^:, 
V^fr, SIV ,(^:, ^fw) II 

W[H%^ II «Hn««nriT'i 11 

48. After a root which ends in rcj(ITI. 1.20, 
21, 44, &c.) and after the verb fv 'to serve', ». 'to run', 
and (J, 'to drop', ^ is the substitute of P«5t, when flr 
follows signifying a:i agent. 

The r prevents ^una and vridd/ii a.T\d ^ is to distinguish it from »ir 
When <»ir^ is added there is reduplication (VI. i. Ii). The usual terminations 
of the Imperfect are employed after the root, when ^»_ is used ; as wnt^TW, 
'he caused to mak«'; Mf^iftf^w^ 'he served or went'; Mf ?fw^ 'he ran'; H^^f" 
'it flowed'. This form is not used in Passive ; as, H^rrfi^VTwr. 

The root *«r 'to love' should also be included in this rule. ^r'T, when 
it takes the affix ferr (III. i. 30) will of course be included in this sOtra, by 
virtue of its ending in fiSj ; the Vdrtika makes the additional statement that 
even when the root ^ does not take the affix Rg*.^, the present aphorism 
must apply to it. Thus we have H'T^'m^ 'he loved'; when it takes fcji^, thf 
Aorist will be »Htnr«iw (VII. 4. 93, ]<}, 94) 

( '^i, ^, ipfffr, 5%) II 

49. After the roots * 'to suck', and Ttt 'to 
grow', ^»L is optionally the substitute of f^, when ?^ 
follows signifying an agent. 

I)K. IH- Ch. I. § 50-52.] Substitution ok Chli 369 

As, Wf>Tn^ 'he sucked'. When it takes the alternative Tw^, then 
rule II. 4- 78- comes into operation, and we have HTfT^ and »T>Tr^tW^ 'he 
sucked'. So also of Hc?, we have MRrfic^^m^ 'he grew'. It aLo takes the •ir^ 
fill. I. 58) and then its form is m^n^or »T![T«(t?r 

5^^^?^ II V >l ^^^ •< 3^:, ^^f^, (^:, ^, 

firmtn, irnft, ^%) ii 

50. After llio verb ni 'to ])i'()ti'ct', ^r l-a op- 
(ioiiaU.y tlio sub.-^titnto oi f^ in tlic (''hbandas. 

This rule applies where the root »T"T does not take the affix HHT 
(II I. 38). As^Tr*! sfr (wwrr^cfr ?fiT^ iTir,^^H^'Tqff'T 'Mltm Vanma protected these 
our houses'. The other forms are STrftcn»T, Hmr<l«?»T or H»fiTr>'s?'l. In the secular 
literature, the latter three forms are used, but not the fir-,t. 

^M<4fdV«»i'^«"^^<4«^4^fd-« T: It^^ II tr^f% II T, ^'iMPl- 

tHTnTf?T-'q[W^f?f-3T^TTf?f«T:, {'^t, ^r%, W^ ) H 

51. Alter tlie euusatives of tlie vtu-h.s «''t 'to de- 
etease', ^^^ 'to .sound', T^ 'to send', iind w 'to g-o or to bog', 
wjs itot the substitute oITi^t in tlio (•bluiudas. 

Thus we have ^rT^t: in the Vcdas ; stKstt?? in the classical literature; 
so also i^j,tT,fft7^t: and »Tl?it?T; their classical forms Ijeing vff>.^!T?i, ^fesiw, 
anclHifif^. Sec Rig Veda I. 53, j, I. 162. 15. and IVinmi Vlf 2. 5. 

3T^j%^Rp^Tf?r«ftj^ II H'? II ^^Rr II 3T5Rf?r-?j%- 

^T%^, W9^ (^:, «^R, ^i^) II 

52. After the vei'bs w, 'to tiirow', 'P»'to speak', 
aud*«rr 'to speak', h«f is the substitute of P«=5i, wlieu wr., 
*ollo-w.s signifying the agent. 

Tn may be either the root, or the substitute of w (II. "4. 53) 
»fid so also »prr may be the root, or the substitute of ^ (II. 4. 54). The 
footH^i belonging to the f^^or the Fourth conjugation, falls under the 
'"bdivision ij^rff, and therefore it would have taken hj^ in the Parasmaipada. 

370 SilBSTITUT.ON OK ClILI. [Bk. III. ClI. I. 

§ 5.V5 

by rule III. i. 55. The repetition is to indicate that it taivcs ^r^ in i\^ 
Atamanepada also ; as T^r««iw (VII. 4. 17), «4fr^a and M[V^n^. In the Passive 
we have "nrfRr^rapi. 

f%W%f^f^53 It »<^ II TT^rf^ II %f^-f%f%-f?(:,^, (^. 

3T¥, m^ik, ^) II 

53. After the verb.s fm\ '(;o paint', fir^ 'to .spriu, 

kle' and f 'to call', sir^ is the sul).stitute of f'^s when 

^r, follows signifying the agent. 

Thus HRTTW^ 'he painted or wrote' ; sfRr-gir., 'he sprinkled' ; and »Tf|rn 
'he called or challenged'. 

«nr^%^T^«5SIrrT^^ II >j« it x^rf^ II ^TTT^^q, 

54. After the verbs fsrr,, f%^ and f, Mr is op- 
tionally the sul)stltuto of r^, wlien the affixes of tlio 
Atmanepada follow. 

Thus sifsrm or 8|f5r<^fi 'he painted' ; 3Tf%=^?j or ^Rf^ 'he sprinkled' ; 
snfW or «fr<S 'he challenged'. 

3^fX^cTT?^%T: MT**tn^3 II V«^ II TT^Tf% It 5^- 

^f%: II Tsn^«i^ w?t(ft*Ji: srf^?.:?rv >n5>Rr: <irw 1^: <rrw<r35 ""^^ 'TsiiiuJ 

55. ST?., is the substitnte of r«5f, after the vcr1)S 
2H., 'to nourish', and the I'est, wa, 'to shine', and the rest, 
and the verbs having an indicatory sj, when the affixes 
of the Parasniaipada follow. 

The verbs classed as qsff:^, are a sub-division of the 4th conjugational 
verbs ; and ^^wrf? verbs belong to the ist conjugation. As ^h;. M5^a, 'he nou- 
rished'; ^?i^,sTa?ra, 'he shone' ; »i*^, STTTn^ 'he went". But not so in the Atmar 
nepada ; as s^rwrf^?, Msfrm'ST. 

^ , ( ^:, 3T^) II 

BK. in. Ch. I. S 56-58.] Substitution of £nu. 371 

56. - After the verbs « 'to go', !(rr« 'to order', 
and m 'to go', »T3r^ is the substitute of f^ in the Parasraai- 
])ada as well as in the Atmanepada. 

Thus artitn 'hz went'; STRT«ra/he ordered'; srrr^^ 'he went'. This sOtra 
has been separately enunciated in order to make the rule apph'cable to Atma- 
nepada ; as mHK^ (I. 3. 29). The ^ in the text is for the sake of drawing the 
anuvritti of the phrase 'in the Parasmaipada' of the last sOtra, into tlie pre- 
sent and its anuvriti will extend to future sfltras also. 

nR«rt nj II \(9 II M-^TPi II fT-T?T:, ^, ( ^:, 9?^ ) II 

57. 8^3^, is optionally the substitute of T'sr after 
that root which has an indicatory fi, when the Parasrnai- 
pada terminations are employed. 

Thus from f>if?^(f*w) 'to divide', we derive MfH?w_or M^f^w. But we 
have »Tr>rTT in the Atmanepada. So from fgfffi; — 3Tf%5|«^ or 3T5#?^?r. 

Mfflitr vfnfk II 

58. And, optionally ^rsv^is the substitute of f^»r 
after the verbs w 'to grow old', ?n»H 'to stiffen' w^ and "w^ 
'to go', iT^'sr and '55=^ 'to steal, »g^=^ 'to go' and fit^ 'to grow', 
wlien the terminations of the Parasmaipada are em- 

Thus STsiTtT.^ or smpft'!; 'he grew old' ; «^?aH?i or sTt^?i>ft3 'he stiffen- 
^ti' ;sT^'?ja orswif^N 'he went'; 9T*CT'?pJ^ or sri^r^S^ 'he went'; ^^^^ or *T<ft- 
'ifs 'he stole'; stt^'i^ or MT^r=^f?r 'he stole'; s^tr'^^ or sptj^w 'he went' . 
''Tl'l_, H^^ift?t__ or STf^jf^^^ra^ 'he grew'. The roots rjj^ and t^-^ both give 
rise to the same three forms, viz. sr^^^w, 9T»5j>^?r and 3rr5T>^f^. The use of 
one root would, therefore, have served the purpose. The employment of both 
indicates separateness of their meanings. Others say that tlie use of both 
roots indicates that in the case of »5i=^, the nasal is never elided. Thus 
*e Aorist of ts-^ will be vjrm^^ and Mi5T«^t?i. 

fr?f^«l^iS[;^ II H<S II TT^f^ II fT-^-f-^f^:, 
*^ ( TT:, ^^J 11 


372 Substitution of Chli. [Bk, III. Ch. I § 55.5- 

59. Aitor the verbs ff 'to do', ^ 'to die', | 'ti 
tear', and ^? 'to ris(3', 3T3f is the substitute of f^ whei 
used ii:i the Chhaudas. 

Thus 3T3fr':?t^ 'he did'; sTH^tT^ 'he died'; MfCl 'he tore'; »1ref^^^ 'he rosr 
See Rig Veda X. 85. 17, X. 44. C. The classical Aorist of these verbs ai 
JT^rN.,, s^ijri, arffffrT^ and H^Wfr. 

f^^^ ^: H ^5 II W^Tf*» II f^^, ^, T^:, ( § : ) « 

f f^- II Tf T^ sTmr.5r^r. "nr?'!r 'E^fvcir^'Trr h^Rt wi^sI Tr^i- 11 

60. f^cT is (ho substitute of pegr after the voi'i 
7?. 'to go', wiicn t]ie aiflx ?? follows. 

Tlic affix ^ here moans the third person singular tense-affix of th 
Atmancpada ; as STTTff 'he went' ; but not so in the dual and plural ; as siTftmr 
'they two went', STT^tTfl^ 'they went'; s??;-f-l?+f^i!3;+tT-3T+ TT^ + r-:^8<'?ll 
(the affix !T being elided by rule VI. 4. 104). 

^h^^5>?^RcITft^3^^*Vj^^cTT^nT^ I. ^ II Vf^ 
^q-5m-5\?-i|fT-cTTftr-T3ITfilvtr:, arsqRTT^T^^, (f:, f^^, t) tl 

f n^: II Hi spT %yj <j{r fTrfti <^ff^ ^n^'n- irm =siH?a3jsf Tr^rr^^rtn:?^? f^nr 

Gl. f%iT is optionally the substitute of f'w, wliei 
w, the tliii'd person singular of tbe AtmaneiDada follow^ 
after the verbs ?'K 'to shine', ^=1; 'to be produced', ",'1 't' 
teacla or know', %'; 'to be full', ^'K 'to extend or protecl 
andc^rr^ 'to smoU'. 

Thus mIIRt or s^fffr? 'he shone' ; 3T^t% or 9Tjtf%? 'he was produced' 
vtft^ or H?.? 'he knew'; STirfr or H7fr? 'he was full'; ^m[r( or STrirRrsr 'he '-'^ 
tended'; ^'^tfn or src^rf'T? 'he grew'. 

ar^: ^^ft II i^ II T^f^ II 3T^:, ^-'Rrffr, (f-,^ 

f^^ ) II 

62. r^<i is optionally the substitute of T'sr wIjc 
«. tite tliird person singular of the Atmanepada follow^ 
after a root which ends with a vowel, and when the ol' 
ject itself is spokun of as the agent. 

A reflective verb is one in which the object is spoken of as 
agent. In reflective verbs therefore, f^irr is employed after roots ending ' 

BK. in. Ch. I. § 63-65.] Prohibition of Chli. 373 

„^,„^Is • as Msjfrft ^?: ^TT^'T 'the mat became made of itself. This is an 
optional rule (nrrrMrTr). Therefore we have also VfTfl ^?: f^^^^ ; similarly 
5,5(ff%or aTSTft? sKfTf: fW«r$^ 'the embankment broke of it.'.clf. 

But in verbs other than those that end in vowels, t. e. in those which 
end with a consonant, the f^nj^ is obligatory in the reflective voice, and not 
optional ; as STHft «Kr?H,*^^^ 'the wood split of itself. So also in verbs 
other than rcilexives ; as ar^rfi: ^it f ^^T. 

^fT?r u i,\ II ^r^f% II ^:, ^, ( "^i, f%w, 3T?!5raT^T^, 

H!^-*^ft) II 

G3. 1=^ is optionally the sub.stitutc of T^st after 
the verb *,? 'to milk', when it is used rcllexiAeJj, and 

vvliou ^ follows. 

Thus Htrfl or si?»vi ^.t^^n^ 'the cow milked nf itself. In verbs 
other than reflexive, the f'^CT is compulsary, ^. ^. n^f? ifyTrr'TrvI^'T 'the cow 
was milked by the cowherd'. 

^ ^vi : II ^« 11 tr^f^ H ^, F«f t, ( "^^j, f%^^, ^-^fr) II 

G4. f'^ is not the substitute of P^st, after the 
verb 5«r 'to obstruct', wlien used in the rcl](.'xivo sense 
ill the thii'd person singular of the Atnmuepada. 

Thus *|5=f?rr^^ jft t^?r^^ 'the cow was obstructed of itself. In verbs 
other than reflexive, f%iii is employed, e. g. srsT^r^f^ iirm'nST^T. 

f^W, ^-IJ'^ft ) H 

^; II tTT war*, 3reir?nc^^ '^fviur?*! f n^rn ^^^=aR: Hsr?tr* '^ 11 

G5. f^nj is not the substitute of f«5T after the 
verb rw 'to suffer', when used reflexivelj", and when the 
seuse is that of experiencing remorse. 

This prohibition applies even to the passive and impersonal voices 
of the verb ?i<^ ; as 3T?W ST^r'I'Ef : 'the ascetic performed austerity' ; ii^TWT "TT^T 
^T«!JT 'he repented from evil deeds'. 

fw *IT9^v^T: II ^^ H y^rfw II Bniff, ^m-Hf^T:, ( f :, 



374 Yak, Sap and Syan. [Bk. III. Ch. I. s 66-6 

^r^: II ^1^1: iK^ «^rvJirts?r Hffif 11^ ^fcr m « .of; li 

66. PtoT is the substitute of T^w when ^ of tho 
third person singular Atmanepada follows, denoting tlie 
action (hit) or the object ^»^. 

A verb is said to denote an action when it is used impersonally 
and it is said to denote an object when used in the Passive sense. As »inifi 
>I^?fr 'it was lain by you i. e. you lay'; M^nfr ^?t 9^?#T ^'the mat was madi 
by Devadatta'. The repetition of fwj; here is for the sake of distinctness. 

^ll|\JT?I% 'n? U ^3 II tHfrfn II 'ffT^vrm%, ■»«?, (TTBr-^f^m^:)! 

67. The affix ^^ comes after a root, when a 
?nliirra^ (III. 4. 113) follows, denoting the action or the 

In forming Impersonal and Passive verbs, this affix is employed in th( 
conjugational tenses. Thus in Impersonal verbs vm^ >TT»tr 'you sit', ?jcjt? 
H^r 'you lie'. So in passive verbs ; as fiir^a sir?: and ip^w HfH:. The qr of m 
is servile, and prevents guna and vriddhi. This affix is also used in reflective 
voice (^^^fi:); as f?ir?ft ^«t: ?^71*t 'the mat becomes made of itself. 

«^ft ?r\ll ^C II TT^f^ II SK'wft, ^ (^VIT5%, vmft:)li 

jfii: II Jir^^f^fsT wrl^* ir<T>''ntr: m. ^^^ n^ft ii 

68. The affix v\ comes after a root, when a 
«r#>ini^ 'follows, signifying the agent. 

In active voice, 3j\ is employed in the conjugational tenses. This affix, 
which is technically called a ft^TCT comes after roots of the ij^ class and after 
compound roots formed by «!^&c. (III. r. 32). The indicatory, ^j makes it.i 
m l tllX't t affix by III. 4, 113, the q indicates that the vowel has anuddtta ac- 
cent (III. I. 4). As v^+^+Rn='V+'^+'"i='*f+«T+r?c=>T7fir- (VII. 3- 84)- So 
also <rqf5t. t 

69. The affix xei\ comes after a root of the Di- 
vadi class, when a sirvadhatuka affix denoting the agent 

This debars JCPi,. The servile ^ of ^^P^ is for the sake of accent (VI. !• 
197), showing that the uddtta accent falls on the radical verb and not on tie 
affix ; and the indicatory Ju makes the affix sArvad'iatuka ; as^?^^+^^^+ 

Bic. III. Ch. I. § 70-73] Syan and Snu. 375 

Pi^^ ^^^if+fK (VII. 2. 77) = ^f^nfw ; so also ^ftwrfn. The Divddi verbs 
belong to the Fourth conjugation, 

*\ S3 ^ >sa s^ ^ ' 

f f^: II ^w »5rnj H5 WH S5 tRt wf* 5151 ^i^r ^r t^ sf^'i^r h^ 11 

70. The affix VPf^ is optionally employed iti 
the active voice after the following verbs ; w^ 'to shine', 
»5Trn 'to shine', «»t 'to whirl', wh 'to walk', ^1^ 'to be sad', m^^ 
'to fear', ?^ 'to cvit', and 5t\ 'to desire'. 

Thus ^RTa" or ant^rt 'he shines'; n^njj^ or ^smcft 'he shines'; '^fn or 
itpJtRt 'he whirls'; sprRi or jpn^Ri 'he walks'; pfmRr or |f|T?r(% 'he is sad'. So 
also 5rwRi or imfn ; ?p«ifit or ^?f?f ; sr^iRf or 5rsrf?T. 

'NFtlHmdJlId^ II B\ II tr^fvT H TJ^:, STHT^n^, ( ti?it , 

ff%: II 5?ft45"m»T?s;r x^ stt'f^ >raf?r 11 

71. The affix t^ is optionally crfiployod after 
the verb ^t?r 'to strive', when it is employed, without a 
preposition, and when a sarvadhafcuka affix denoting 
;m agent, follows. 

Thus ?rr?^f?T or vtmfh 'he strives'. But no option is allowed in srra^fir, 
!I^€^f?j. The root ■^f^^ belongs to the Dtvdtii class. 

seNr^g 11 95? II TH^rfn 11 •^-vMx, 'n, {vm, m) 11 

^f%: II ^"y^f^"^ n%^\ T^ sit^tr ^^ n 

72. The affix ^^ is optionally employed after 
the root ^ 'to strive', when it is preceded by the pre- 
position trH, and when a sarvadhatuka affix denoting an 
agent, follows. 

Thus ^nt^lRr or?r«r^r% 'he strives'. 

^S|Ti%«r: ^: II 3| II ^T^f^ H ^-^nf^:, ^:, (ml^TH*, 
*^ft) II 

73. The affix T5 comes after the roots of Svadi 
class when a sarvadhatuka affix denoting an agent 


3/6 Snu, Sa and Snam. [Bk. III. Cir. I, 5 ,.., 

This debars ^r^. As ^+?:5+f?rT = w+5+ft=^sftr?T 'he presses oii 
Tlicsc are roots of the Fifth class 

5^: T^ ^ II 3« II tqrf^T II WBf:, ^, ^, (i?T: ) u 

f frf : II "37: 5:?5Tf?r55Y >f^ff mwTsT^irT wt: ST ?npf»ir$itr wRt 11 

74. And IT is the substitute o£% and tliere i 
the affix T? after it, when a sarvadhfituka affix denoting 
an agent, follows. 

Thus ^4-![5+(?pT = ''J+?+R» = 1'!ftft 'he hears' ; jtito; 'they two hear 

75. Tlio affix x% is optionally emjjloyed aftoi 
the root sr^ 'to pervade', when a sarvadhatuka affix deuo 
ting- an agent, follows. 

Thus wtfftr?! or sT^fir 'he pervades or obtains'. 

?T^*<% W^'. II 3^ II TT^rf'T 11 cm-WK^-cT?!:, (aT^qrrfT^f 
^ST:) 11 

70. TJie affix Tf is optionally employed aftei 
tkeroot?!^ 'to bore or hew' when a sarvadhatuka aiilx 
<lenoting an agent, follows. 

Tluis 3'TffiT or fwcjtf?r SFf'? 'he hews the wood'. But ft^wRr ^Rh: 'Ik 
cuts with speech'. 

5^f^>T: W- fl 93 II T^rf^ II ^-3TT%»«r:, W- " 

ifrr: II 5? s^nr*, f?S^rft>ift ^r,^^: ?jii?«rat h^ ii 

77. The affix jj is employed after the roots of 
the Tudadi class, in denoting the agent when a sarvadhu- 
tuka affix follows. 

This debars ^i>^. The indicatory ^r makes this affix a sSrvadhAtuka 
affix, As 5?+:(j+fii = fff+3T+f?l = ^?f^ (I. 2. 4) -he pains or torments'. 

^rqxf^ : T!rR II 3c II tr^rf^ 11 ^:\i-!3nf^:, t^^» 

ff%: II ^Rn:; wmd, ??5f»rrft^ ■^Ht v^ vm^ >wRj 11 

78. The affix ^ comes after the roots of the 
Eudhudi class, in denoting au agent when a sarvadha- 
tuka affix follows. 

BK. HI- CH. I. § 79-81] U, A AND SNA. 377 

This debars jy{ .The indicatory h of the affix ^tf^ shows that the 
jffix sr is to be placed after the last vowel of the root ; see sOtra I. i. 47. As 
5^.|.5;;T'i+fft=^+T+f% = r+'r+^+fn=<?(trfg-'he obstructs'. So also Plsrlflf 
he splits'. The indicatory ^ is for the sake of sfltra VI. 4. 23. 

cTTrf^^ ^ : II 3«; II TT^fic II TrT-3TTf^-?:3rwr:, ^: II 

79. The affix gr comes after the roots of the 
Tanadi class and after the verb ^ 'to make' when a sarva- 
iliS.tuka affix follows, siguifying the agent. 

This debars jj<{. As ?Pi;+3+f% = ?RTrn 'he expands'; ff+3+f?t ^ 
j^Rf 'he makes'. Though the root ^ is included in the list of the Tanddt 
,erbhi, for which see Dhatupatha, yet its separate enunciation in the present 
iutra is for the sake of making a restrictive rule with regard to this verb ; 
hat is to say, the root cC is a Tanadi root only for the purposes of taking 
he affix 3 ; all the other operations of Tanadi verbs arc not to be performed 
ipon it. Thus the rule II. 4. 79. does not apply to ^. Thus »i|tsr and 3^fi?!ir: ; 
he RT^ elision being compulsory and not optional. 

^^0 II 

^f%: II f|R fgf^ RrRr ift'dTrtflr: ^Rr ^ttr^sraj^: ?r5?i?fr^??CrT!i?'rtt 
'JfeT^nraiPfiTt?!: 11 

80. The affix ? comes after the roots ftf^f 'to 
[)lease', and frra^ 'to hurt', wlien a sarvadhatuka affix . 
lonotlng the agent follows ; and iu these verbs h Is the 
substitute oi' the final %■ 

The root fq»q- or f^^^ belongs to the Bhuadi class. Thus r»T«r + 
r+Rt = r>i5T.+ 9T+ ^ -t-fil = f^T, + 9 + ffi (VJ. 4. 48) == r»j;frf?f 'he pleases'. 
t might be asked, why there is no £una of the % of f^sT by rule VII. 3. 86 
'hich requires the base to be giinated before a sArvadhatuka or an Srdha- 
hatuka affix. The answer is to be found in sCitra I. i. 57 ; the substitute of H 
'hich is a blank, is like the former occupant {siMnivaf), and thus prevents 

JRtf^: ^RT H c^ II M ^lf^ II J^-STlf^:, ^^ || 

81. The affix v^ comes after the roots of the 
^ryadi class when a sarvadhatuka affix follows denoting 
he agent. 

3;8 SNU, SNA AND Sayach. [Bk. III. Ch. 1.82-85 

This debars ^t^,. As ijt + ^iff + Ri>^ = «iftcjr(lr 'he buys'. So also iJtcnft 
'he pleases'. 

^51t5*H^H^5*5^55^: ^5 II C^ I, n^ „ 

^f%: I) ei«[ ?H»5 ?^3 *^»» ?^sT 5^«r: iCTfinJr^ >wf?r t^v 11 

82 And there is the affix vn after ^^(t^, tyn.^^j, 
or ?f«T 'to hinder', 'to be dull or insensible', 'to support', 
and ?^ 'to go by leaps', as well as the affix ^5, when a 
sarvadhatuka afllx follows, iu denoting the agent. 

As ??r«irRr or ?n»^Ri, ?«[»irRr or tsvsftRr, <^r>^Ri or ^^iwftRt, m»nfh 
or ?^>iHtfw, f^Tffii or e^^Rj. The first four of these roots are not found in the 
Dhatupatha and are to be found in the sCltras, and hence called Sautra roots. 

f^: TR: UTTTS'It II c^ II ^^rf^ II f^:, ^:, 'SIT^-tT II 

83. The affix 5rr^ is the substitute of r" after 
a root ending with a consonant, when ff follows. 

The affix f? is the 2nd person singular of wt? or the Imperative mood. 
Thus <T^fi!i 'do thou nourish', 'J?rar do thou take', from roots t^ and iif which 
end with consonants. But we have nf^ff 'do thou buy'; here there is no substi- 
tution of ^ITT^, because the root ends with a vowel. The repetition of jn\ in 
the SLltra shows that ^iTT^^is a mere substitute and not an independent affi.'i. 

^^ ajT'nTf^ II ca II xT^rf^ II ^5T^f% , Tm\, 9TRr, 
( f^:, t?{:, W^^ It ) 11 

^f%: II Btffrg firq^ jTf: ?Tr!rsTTt:pt h^Rt v^^fk u 

84. In the Ohhandas, Vf^ is also the substi- 
tute of rn after roots eudiug in consonants, when ft 

Thusn>inr fnf^tr n%, (Rig Veda VIII. 17. 5.) The affi.^ im^, 's 
also employed ; as ^itpt <JV^ 'kill the beasts'. 

mtM^\ wifw^ iic<< II TT^rf^r 11 w^m.-, sifw^, iz^> 

IWWT^: ) II 

^: II IWRTi f i*<.m i: jjm^ ft%JR^«rt ^'i^ ftrw il^fj ssw^ >i*f^ " 

85. In the Ohhandas there is diversely an 
interchange of the various vikaraiaas iw and the rest 

^K. III. CH. I. § 86.] AN. 


ivliich have been previously ordained under special cir- 

The word B?rni«r means transgression of the fixed rule, or inter- 
■hange, taking of two vikaranasat a time, and so on. Thus ^ffw = Fm^ + ^1^+ 
^j instead of Pnrf^ from the rootr>Tf 'to split', belonging to the Rudhfidi class; 
. ^. ?r«»r*«r Wf^rf^ HfRt (Rig. VIII. 40. 11.) 'He (Indra) break the eggs (children) 
:f Shushma ; so also, sir^r Tt^ tRt; (Rig. X. 86. 1 1) ; here there is f{^^=(H +![r?,+ 
I) instead of fk^^ ; the root ff belonging to the Tudadi class. So also there 
ire two vikaranas at one and the same time, in the following. y?j| ^^^ ^ 
t!l!j'May Indra lead by this abode' ; here there is #vg 3rd. per. sing, of the 
mperative ^jz of the root sjf 'to lead' ; there arc two vikaranas ^\ and jy{ 
tisteadof 5T?rw=('Tf+?J^,+ftJ '< f^'^ %^f ^^f f'T'T (Rig. VII. 48. i). The word 
mi (? -(-3 +{%"?,+ 511 + HT) is the 1st. per. sing, of the Optative (f5Tr) of 
he roots, the classical form being ^ifir or ?ihrft1 'may we cross'. 

In the Vedic literature we have many apparent irregularities with re- 
;ard to the rules of declension of nouns, conjugation of verbs, application of 
'drasmaipada or Atmanepada affi.xes ; rules of gender, person or tense, rules 
if interchange of consonants, or of vowels, rules of accent, rules relating to 
iW, i>nd !Tf^?T affixes and rules relating to the affixes included in the pratya- 
lara ?rr^(III. I. 22 to III. i. 86). 

%?:5ITf3m¥ H C^ II tr^f?r II %%, aTT%ft, 3T^, 

'^^) 11 "^ 

^F^sRi; II p1t ' iVh'^<f: 11 

8G. The affix wre^ is employed in the Chhandas 
svlieu the affixes of the Benedictive (s?r:tftr^^) follow. 

This debars ^1. The affixes of the Benedictive are ardhadha- 
uka by III. 4. u6 ; but in the Vedas they are sarvadhatuka as wcl! ; see Rule 
"■4 117. The scope of the present rule is confined to the Benedictive of the 
erbs «Tr, »rr, >T1[, ^^, ^\, ?j^ and F? ; as i^qrw^H ; flwgq-itsiJT ; ir^T sTfTwr ^^i't, Ks«r 
f^m^ ; fff ?r#^r nnm vlr^'j ; 5r?r'T ■^Rr'sirfH f!'§[*«r'T ; f^»f ^riKii5?«r»T. 

The affix s^sir is employed in the Chhandas after the verb f JT in the 
■enedictive. Had there been 8^^, it would have caused ^«;z/i by rule VII. 4. 
°. ; to prevent this, h^ is ordained ; as fqr^rr^ pf^ ir.?lt "^ 'May I see the father 
nd the mother". 

38o Reflexive Affix. [Bk. III. Ch. I. § 87 ( 

87. The 51 denoting the agent, when the actio 
affecting the agent is similar to the action which affeci 
the object, is treated as if it were a 51 denoting the ol 

This rule applies to reflexive verbs. "This direction implies th 
substitution for the operations incident to a tense-affix or 5f, denoting a 
agent, of all the operations, which fall to be performed when the tense-affix c 
51 denotes the object. Hence there shall be the affixing of ?rar (III. i. 67) xh 
employment of Atmanepada terminations (I. 3. 13), the substitution of f^ 
for 1^ (III. I. 66), and the treatment of the word as directed in sdtra VI. , 
62." (Dr. Ballantyne). Thus fii«i^ ^rsf tf?R'«r 'the wood splits of itself ; s^^[ 
^{S «RTfl^ 'the wood splits of itself. 

When an action is participated by or affects the agent in the sam 
way as is done by the object, the agent is treated like an object. 

When in an object, though it stands as an agent, the action is pcrceiv 
ed to take place as in an object, then that agent becomes like an object : and al 
grammatical rules applicable to the object apply to such an agent. 

The word ^^ 'like' in the sutra signifies that the rules which apply tc 
an agent also come into operation ; thus fvT«3^ ^W^sr. 

The word ^4cTr 'with the object' in the sutra indicates that the /ufya- 
kriya or similarity of action must be with the object, and not with the instru- 
ment or the location. Thus ?m7Rlf^lf% 'the sword cuts well' ; here 'sword' 
is not agent but instrument. So also ^rrw ^JX^\ q^Fw 'the pot cooks well'; 
here ?»ii5ft is a location. 

This 'karma-vad-bliAva, the passive-like-construction takes place only in 
cases of some verbs. 

rnrefq: ^t^^^T II cc || xr^rf'T II cTO:, fHT:, ^^>^m, ^, 

^f^: II ?w trs?rrt, ^^ sif^ w^TJ^rrfiT, ^ =si ?n: ^iI^se^t ^sjt ^k%^ n 
88. Tlte agent of tJie verb ft«r 'to heat,' be- 
comes similar to the object, only when the object is the 
word «i7w itself. 

Thus ^ic^rt fiT^nTTW: 'the devotee performs austere devotion' ; but not 
so in rtnRr a^ f^n^R: 'the goldsmith heats the gold'. 

T p^3'Rt ^njfn^ II c(j II xr^ II w, ff ■^-'t^^' 

BK. in. Ch. I. § 89-91.] Prohibition of Yak and Chin, 381 

nf^: II <[f ?5 TIT ffH^ mn^fTK ^rsfff^iify is^^grmfiffft t >m^: 11 
^x?^ II «r^Ncft: siRjt^ fcjMf«nifN^?i^r^<fairri!Trg<Tw»5?rnTw II 

89. The affix ^. (III. 1. 6Y) and rTO (III. 1. 62) 
are not employed in the reflexive voice of the verhs J? 
'to milk', *»[ 'to fall in drops' and tit 'to bow'. 

The affixes ?rs(i^ and f^ro^ are used in forming the reflexive verbs, 
when the action affecting ,thc agent is similar to the action which affects the 
object. With regard to the root ?«^, the afiix ^^ is only prohibited by the 
present sCitra ; the f^ci being optionally employed by rule III. i. 63, as Jt^, 
V^tyf or srftf? »fl'; ?T^^ 'the cow flows or flowed of itself ijcT^f or JifSE'fT'? 
ift. ffl^T 'the cow flows or flowed of itself ; ^»ra or 3T'r?w ^"1: ?^^^?r 'the stick 
bends or bent of itself. 

This prohibition of the employment of the affixes n^ and f^cr is ex- 
tended to the verbs that take the affix fcx (such as causatives &c.), to the verbs 
mm 'to loosen', tf'tr 'to compose' and ^^ 'to speak', and to the Atmanepadi 
Intransitive verbs. As ^trt^ 'it is caused to be made of itself ; sr-i^^r^f'it 
was caused to be made of itself ; M'-'ftS 'it loosens of itself ; sTMitT? 'it loosened 
of itself ; uvf\% ; sorfiT? 'it composes or composed of itself ; sr^ and srft'^^ 'it 
speaks and spoke of itself ; STrf# and aTrafirf TfCT^^: ^T^fl'^. 

ira^fl HfRr TT^ti?" n II 

90. The affix ^% comes after the roots ^«r 'to 
puir, and r^ 'to colour', in the reflexive voice, according 
to the opinion of the Eastern Grammarians, and these 
verbs take the affixes of the Parasmaipuda. 

This debars the affix i^sg and the Atmanepada terminations. As 
^'^^^ TT?: ^'^^^ 'the foot draws up of itself ; r^^rfii ^m f^^^7 'the cloth 
flours of itself. 

The phrase 'in the opinion of the Eastern' shows that it is an optional 
"'« ; so that we have also the forms ^s^m and rs^r^. 
\mft: II ^ II M(^ l Pl II vmfr: II 

91. As far as the end of the Third Book 

382 Verbal Affixes. [Bk. III. Ch. I. § 92,-94 

reckoinug from the present aphorism, the affixes treated 
of are to be understood as coming after som.e verbal root. 

This is an AdhikSra Sfltra. All these verbal affixes are broadly divid 
ed into two parts ^?t and etjjt affixes, which will be described later on. 

'W'T, ( \jtbV: ) II 

92. Herein this Third Book of Grammar re- 
ferring to verbal roots, the word implied in a term exlii. 
bitod in the locative case, is called 'upapada' or depen- 
dant word. 

Thus in sfltra III. 2. ^»4ira'T the word ^i^fo is exhibited in the 7th 
case ; therefore the word implied by the word cRi^fcj, namely, the word 
having the accusative case, will be called tTT?. Thus ^*>pi-i-^+Hi!^=!R»»t3iR. 
'a potter' ; here the word ^np^ is an upapada, 

?r3|fgrar 11 q 11 Tj^rf^ II fJf , 3T-frT^, ( \JT?ft: ) II 

«t/tt: II 8^ftiT«mTf*Tgifrr ft^^^w: nmw- ^m^^ H^ II 

93. In this portion of the Sutras in which 
there is a reference to verbal roots, any affix except fw 
(tense-affixes), is called ^^. 

Thus the affixes tisjf«i^ &c. are ^«. All affixes up to the end of this 
Book belong to this class. These are affixes by which substantives are form- 
ed from verbal roots ; and they have, therefore, most aptly been termed 
primary affixes. Words formed by these affixes will be Pritipadikas or 
crude forms or nominal bases ( I. 2. 46). Thus f; + ?iwi =5K?is?i. Why do 
we say 'except f^r affixes'? Observe "^t^rra^ 'may he collect', «<J«rr« 'may he 
praise' which form verbs and not nouns. 

^wifTfrjft'5i^in58ii THftf^ii ?n, wjw:^'., ^i{f^^ 

( VJT^: ) II 

W??T5[m?t T^fiTOT II 

94. In this portion of the Sutra.g, in which 
there is a reference to verbal roots, an affix which is 
calculated to debar a general one, not being of the same 

Bk. in. Cii. -I. §94] Verbal Affixes. 383 

form, optionally debars it; but not so in the case of femi- 
jiiue affixes (III. 3. 94 &c.) 

Thus the affixes "^^ and i^ (III. 1. 133) are general affixes 
applicable to all roots in forming nouns of agency ; and the sfltra III, i. 133 
which ordains these affixes, is an utsarga or a general rule ; while the sfltra 
III. I. 135 ordaining the affix % after verbs having a penultimate fctj^ vowel, 
and the roots irr, «{!• and ^ is an apavada or a special aphorism. In the 
latter case, therefore, optionally we may have the affixes o^5[ and ^^ also. 
Thus ftr% is a root that has a penultimate f belonging to the pratyAhara fcir . 
and therefore, in forming the noun of agency from it, the affix eir will have to 
be applied by rule 135 of this chapter already mentioned ; thus Rr^ii;+^ = 
ftfir^+»T=ftftr7: ; but this special rule however does not debar the operatic n 
of the general rule, and we have optionally f^f^^-«'55^ = ft'%f<I«: ; and fVfifn; 
+I=RtH<^ nom. sing. f^c?rr. 

Why do we say 'not being of the same form' ? Because if two affixes 
have the same form, the present rule will not apply ; and in the case of such 
affixes, the special affix will debar the general affix. Thus the affixes st3?^ 
and qf are, when stripped of their indicatory letters, affixes having the same 
form /'. e. ST ; and therefore the sdtra III. 2. i. ordaining snu; as a general rule, 
will be always debarred by sOtra III. 2. 3 ordaining ^, as the latter is a special 
sfltra applicable only to those roots which end in long srr, or which are simple 
roots not compounded with any preposition. Thus »fr+?rH-cir = »il[^: 'giver of 
cows'. So also <«i ' M|<rlf : 'blanket-giver'. In these cases we cannot have the affix 

It follows from this sdtra as a necessary corollary, that the addition 
[)( indicatory letters does not make two or more affixej dissimilar in form 
;»re^) when their essential effective element is the same. Thus the affi.xes w, 
R% »r^, 10 &c. are similar. 

Why do we say 'but not so in the case of feminine affixes' ? Be- 
muse in the case of feniinine affixes, a special affix will debar a general affix, 
liough they may be dissimilar in form. Thus SQtra III. 3. 94 ordaining f^p;^ 
•> forming feminine noyns from roots is a general or utsarga rule, while sfltra 
'"• 3- 102 ordaining m after roots that have already taken some affix is a special 
>r apavMa rule,, and though sr and fir are dissimilar in form, they being 
^Winine affixes^ th.e former ^ill always debar the latter. Thus the compound 
lesiderative roots f^sieSA and fif^ will form feminine nouns in w and not by 
'S'^,, Tl^us f^4r and fii^«if and not T'^^^^ &c. 


3^4 Kritya affixes. [Bk. III. Ch. I. § 55^ ^ 

«»«r^iT^re^ ^f?nw!ir: ii 

95. From this aphorism, as far as the ap- 
horism "55^ (III. 1. 133), all the affixes treated, will get 
the name of Kritya. 

This defines the class of af6xcs known as kri(j/a, a subdivision of Wi 
affixes. These are certain affixes like ri«?f , ST'fr'r &c, which may be treated as 
declinable verbal terminations. (III. 4. 70). The following 38 sCttras treat ol 
these affixes. These verbal adjectives correspond in meaning to the Latin par- 
ticiples in udus conveyng the idea that the action expressed by the verbs 
ought to be done or will be done. The word formed by them may be called 
Passive Potential Participles or Future Passive Participles. The illustra- 
tions will be given hereafter under each affix as taught. The word iritya 
occurs in s<atras II. i- 33, II. 3- 7' &c. 

( ^T^: ) n 

^: It ^mfwsn^isTn'ft^ f^t Jiw^ir >r^f*?» 11 

^fi^^ II SB^flt OTOTflH^ II 

96. The affixes i«tw^ 1^ and HJft^ come after 
verhal roots. 

The phrase 'after verbal roots' is understood in this aphorism by anu- 
vritti from sCltra 91. The final letters q^ of s«sm^ and «; of M^ff^Ri; are for the sake 
of indicating accent, being merely diacritical letters. The letter a indicating 
svarita accent (VI. i. 185) and the letter t indicating penultimate udatta ac- 
cent (VI. I. 217) ; these being exceptions to the general rule of accent given in 

sOtra 3 ante of this chapter. 

Thus SS+ «5«tw = ^«r»J., and ^ + ?rs«i --= ^^sifir 'must be done'; ar + sisft^, 

= WrcfhiH 'must be done'. In these cases the sense being that of the action 

itself, there is neuter gender singular number. 

Ftfrt:— The affix hss^ when coming after the verb ir^ 'to dwell' m 
marking the agent, is treated as if it had an indicatory oj. The force of oj' 
to cause vriddhi. Thus n«^+««!JH =ni?as*r: 'a dweller'. Here the word is i" 
the masculine gender, as the force of the affix is that of the agent, and not as 
it generally has that of an act or object (III. 4. 70). 

Vart:— The affix *^r^ should be enumerated in addition to those al- 
ready enumerated in this aphorism. Thus r^fw(f "OTf- 'kidney beans fit to 

ni. en. I. § 97.98-] Yat. • j»S 

'd' • fSr^^TrPr wwrfsf 'the woods arc apt to be split i.e. fragile'. This affix 
be employed when it is intended to express an object alone (*. e. in the 
ve and reflexive sense) and cannot be employed like those enumerated 
e, to denote also the action. 

gr^T f^^^n «9 11 tr^fnu gr^f:, ^m. ( ^t^: ) 11 

97. The affix '^^ comes after a root that ends 

3, vowel. 

The letter ?^ of this affix is indicatory showing that the ndatta accen t 
on the first vowel (VI. i. 213) ; thus iTr+siei= Jf^r, noun sing. »f*P^ 'what 
be sung' ; so also ^sfi^'what is to be drunk' ; w5»t 'what is to be conquer- 
The srr of *rr and qr is changed into ?: by VI. 4. 65. Why do we say 
ends in a vowel' ? By sQtra 124 of this chapter, a root ending in a con- 
int takes <i?n^ affix instead of z(«^ ; reading these two aphorisms together, 
inclusion to be drawn is that the affix ?nr comes after roots which prima- 
end in a vowel, though in the course of development they may end in a 
lonant by the application of other rules. Thus from fr 'to cut', we have the 
icrative root ftwr, which ends in a vowel sr. This st is elided before ardha- 
tuka affixes and thus the root becomes f?W, which ends in a consonant ; 
;rtheless we shall have the affix ata and not "n^. Thus R«»»»i_'what is 
led to be cut' ; Rrw^iH 'what is wished to be placed'. Similarly 53 before Sr- 
Ihatuka affixes becomes ^, the aft is changed into *f% before ^ (VI. i. 79) 
the form then is 5T\. The root 5J^ however takes tjw and not "ifffj 
^, <r«jJ^, &c. 

Vart :-The verbs )ua[ 'to fly', ij-^ 'to leap', ^ 'to ask', m^ 'to attempt' 
Hi^'to be born', should be enumerated in addition ; that is to say, these 
>s, though ending in a consonant, take jfW and not ojffr ; as «c|«[*t, t^^% 
I, ifrf(\, and ^IW^^^. 

Vart :— And of the verb if?! 'to kill' ^^ is the substitute when it option- 
takes the affix 7(9. Thus we have ^?w^ or qr?55w The latter form is 
ved by sdtras VII. 3. 32 and 54. The affix ^f^^ comes only after the tv^ 
titute ; after ff^ the affix "tfit^ comes which changes the f into «r, and ^ into 
id causes vriddhi. 

98. The aflSx v^ comes after a root, which ends 
a labial letter preceded by a short h 

386 Yat. Bk. III. Ch. I. § 99, ,o 

This debars o^w; thus JO^+ip^ = ^w 'to be sworn'; 50^+^- 5^, 
'to be acquired'. 

Why do we say 'which ends in a labial' ? Because if a root ends 1 
any other consonant, though preceded by a short m, the root will take w^ 
thus q^+o^=: nrepft^ ' what is to be cooked' ; «rniq>{^ 'speech'. 

Why do we say 'when preceded by a short m' ? When preceded h 
any other vowel, it will take ^n^; thus ^+»im = ^flwr"J 'to be angry'; < 
also jftc^ni, 'to be concealed'. 

The word sw^ is used in the sfltra in the original. The force of n hei 
is, by I. I. 70, that short sr having one mdtra or prosodial length is to I 
taken and not long »n. Therefore, after the root vi^ 'to obtain', we have •^ 
and not itw ; thus »?rap^ 'to be reached' *. e. 'attainable'. 

99. The aiBx »m., comes after the roots th 
'to be able', and ^ 'to bear'. 

Thus ji:tftp[ 'possible' ; aitpT 'endurable'. 

»i4*i<i'«<<4'J«iHyM*i II \oe II n yfif 11 ^-i^f-'in 

V^i^\ II iltfTft' 'W'J^ II 

100. The aiBx ^ comes after the roots •i'^ 't 
speak', tf 'to be mad', ^r 'to go, to eat', aiid «w to restrain' 
when these roots do not take any proposition. 

Thus »nj»T 'what is to be spoken, i. e prose' ; »wj 'wine' ; ^»t 'what i 
to be followed ; 7t*«n^ 'what is to be restrained'. 

Why do we say 'when not preceded by a preposition' ? When con 
pounded with an upasarga, these roots will take o^; thus <prr<l'(; Jl'tW^ &<^' 

The root ?r^ would have taken the affix ?ti^ by sfltra 98 also, as it end 
in If and is preceded by «? ; its separate enunneration in this sfltra is in ordert 
show, that the compound verb ipi will not take the affix ^pj. Therefore wit 
regard to ^, this is a niyama or restrictive rule and not a vidhiot orig"" 

Vart :— The root ^i^ when preceded by the preposition mf^ takes t 
tm., affix when the sense is not that of a preceptor ; thus «ir<n(f ttf: '*" ''' 
^proachable or communicable country'. But when the sense is that of a teac 
the root takes 11^; thus w^i: 'a preceptor*. 

3K III. Ch. I. § 101-103] Irregular Formations 387 

101. The words *t^«j, f"?! and t^i are irregularly 
[ormed, having the sense of 'condemnable', 'saleable' 
uid 'unohstructable' respectively. 

Thus, STfT ini 'censurable sin'. Another and regular form is sr^wi- 
This is formed by adding the affix mf\ to the root q-T by III. I. 106. So also 
m i5f*^5T: 'saleable blanket' ; 'j'nn: ifV: 'saleable cow'. The other and regular 
brm is Tr'nH, formed by the addition of «^?T. So also 3T#t Tt? 'unobstructed 
w hundred' ; ?r?«i!T ^^^ 'unobstructed by thousand'. The olhcr and regular 
brm is 9wrr from the root ^ 'to choose'. x>(i means a girl choosing her own 
iiusband and is non-obstructable by any body. The word ^zii in the sfltra is 
n the feminine gender, and it is in this gender only that the word is so form- 
id. In the masculine gender, the word is regularly formed ; thus ^«r! gj(??^:. 

?ri^ ^TTOf^ll \0'?. H TT^f^ H ^TN, ^PWm, (rrH) II 

^f%i: II W^Mt: ^>TCf ^T?^r^ fsm?^^ II 

102. The word ^ is irregularly formed, when 
the meaning of the word is an in-itruinent of carrying. 

The word nvx is derived from root ^ 'to carry' and means 'a vehicle', 
t e., that by which a thing is carried ; as ^m' V'^z^. When it does not mean 
a carriage, the root takes the affix oqw ; thus ^rw; 'an ox'. 

!3T^: ^mf^rts^^V: II \0\ IITr5{TfTniaT^:,3raTf^-t??Rt:ll 

5?^: II 5if rni>, sTEfrr""^ ^M, tqrT^I?:?i'fKfH'J«r'ilrw?!R2(?fr fsnrrcarS 11 
^FS^ 1 1 ?iat i^ra ??snw?rTr?t qra, ??iTf^^f^?fH?T ^ t^ts^i^ 11 

103. The word ^ is irregularly formed when 
meaning 'lord' and a 'Vaisya'. 

The root ^ 'to go', would have tuken «>?m by sCltra 124 of this chap- 
ter ; but it takes ?ra^ when the sense of the word formed by it is that of a 'lord' 
•Jr a man of 'Vaisya' caste. As m^ ■ «^«ft, 'honored lord', vm 1^: 'honored 

Vart: Though by VI. i. 213, the affix z(?t makes the udatta accent 
fall on the first syllable of the word, yet in the case of the word »T^, when it 
n>eans 'lord', the accent falls on the last syllable. 

Why do we say 'when it means a lord or a Vaisya' ? Otherwise the 
■■oot takes the affix ow« ; as HT*! mWU: 'the respectable BrShmana'. 


388 Irregular Formations. [Bk. III. Ch. I. § 104. 


^^Mn} WT^TTT HH% II \o^ II ur^rf^r 11 ^^n^, ^fr^ 

104. The word ^ro^rf i.s irregularly formed 
when meaning what has reached the time favorable 
to conception, or ripe for fruition. 

The word ^T^nr? is formed by adding «ri^ affix to the root q 'to move' 
compounded with the preposition 3<t. The word sprFSTT means having reach- 
ed the time. The word Jj^n means the first conception. Thus T'RRii jft. 'the 
cow fit for the bull' ; ^4=r«r? 5^^ 'the mare fit for the horse'. 

Why do we say 'when meaning what has reached the time favorable 
to conception' ? Otherwise the affix "■^m^ will be used ; as ST^r^ jj^l^ ^i^^^ 
'Madhura is approachable in Sarat season'. 

3T^^^^ '^ncm II \o^ II m<^fH II gnr^, #iicr u 

^Rt II 3T5t^f»rr?r f^TTr^ra «ira =t^^ 11 

105. The word smwi, 'imperishable' is irre- 
gularly formed when qualifj^ing the woixl «»ttt, 'frieiul- 
shij^' expressed or uuderstood. 

The word snr^i is formed from the root w by the addition of Jfrf, and 
affixing the negative particle sf ; as 5T+jt+^« = sTjT^'. 

Thus STiT^' 5ftJ«5 «»IW<^ 'let our friendship be imperishable'. So also 

Why do we say 'when qualifying the word Ain't i* Observe srsffw 
^H'H- 'undecaying blanket'. 

g^: 5ft 9in^ ^ II \0^ II H^lfn II St^i, 5ft, W\> % 

(rm, snrtram ) 11 

lOG. After the root ti 'to speak', governing 
a case-inflected word as its u^mpada, and not having a 
preposition annexed to it, there comes the affix srtt. also. 

The phrase 'not having a preposition' is to be read into this sfitra 
by anuvritti from sCltra 100 ante. The force, of the word 'also' is to indicate 
that the affix n\ is also employed. The word «Rr means 'in construction 
with an upapada that ends in case-affix'. 

Thus j}w+T5+aRPT,=jw4-'W,+«T = iiwlrfT»i;; »nn+«r«+^tH = »Wfi1'f°''^ 
by the Vedas or Brahman'. Similarly fmft«l<( or «((rra>( 'truth-mouthed'. 

Why do we say 'when it has a case-inflected word as upapada' ? Othef 
wise ^^^ + •^« = troir a 'musical instrunient'. 

K. III. CH. I. 5 107. 108] KYAP. 


Why do we say 'not having a preposition' ? Observe UTttnr 'a rumour' 
,rmcd by the affix 0^^ and not by «tw or m%. 

•iflj II 

107. After the root H^'to be', in construction 
.vifch a case-inflected word as its upapada and when iised 
.vithout a preposition, tlie affix ^ptl is employed to de- 
lote condition (bhava). 

The words ^fr and aTj'mn of previous sOtras are understood in 
his. The (T««t'nV/? of ?r?f does not cover this aphorism. As asr^^ 'FT' = JWf 
fii 'fronc to or arrived at Brahmahood ; t^>i^ =?t?^ iti: 'gone to divinity'. 

The word blidva of this sutra governs the succeeding ones. 

Why do we say 'in construction with a case-inflected word' ? Other- 
A-ise it will take ?rw ; as >l,+51ti_= Ht+f<i = HsafJ (VI. i. 79). 

Why do we say 'not taking a preposition' ? Observe JWJtT. 

HT§ ) II 

108. Alter tho^root f'r 'to kill', when in cons- 
truction with a case-inllected word as its upapada, and 
when used without a preposition, comes the affix 5«ri; in 
•leuoting condition, and the letter ^ is the substitute of its 

The phrases hRt ST^T^TJif and virt arc understood in this sOtra. 

As Jr?^+?^^+^l^l%=lrw-^ffr+^^ = Rnf?^^, (VI. i. 71) jjw^mr 'Brahman- 
murder'. So also srt^jr^rr 'killing a horse'. 

When not in construction with a noun, the form is srrw: 'a blow' (f^-f- 
fe^^+irs^ ). This verb does not take the affix "itn, in denoting condition, 
there being no example of such formation. 

Why do we say ' when not taking a preposition' ? Observe wmt ^^ 
''here is a combat'. 

^f^itjsaT^^rj^'T: 'wpcr^ii^o'S II ^T^rf^ II ^-*n-irm- 
'"l"5^s. w\ii 

f %; II ^fif ?H ^ra ^ f ^«r; ?wS*jt: vi\ iinwt wRr ii 
^rf'f^H 11 jfftrjff «Tf|>^t tr*T ^^srrsn^ ir 

390 Kyap. {Bk. III. Ch. I. 5 109,,, 

109. After the verbs % 'to go', *; 'to praise', ri 
'to govern', \ 'to choose', ? 'to respect' and ^"^ 'to please 
comes the affix ^^^ 

The anuvritti of gfr, wimn and »irt does not extend to this aphonsi 
The present siitra ordains generally the affix gprtafter the above verbs. Thi 
f +;f«Pi;=;1f+?l+?t (VI. I. 71) = fiW- 'to be gone'. The letter n being addedl 
Rule VI. I. 71 which declares '^ is the augment of a short vowel when a % 
affix, with an indicatory <^ follows'. So also »f(T_+ara^ = ?5?!i: 'to be praised 
ttr<ff+^n^ = %'Er+n (sri being changed into ? by VI. 4. 34) = f^r^^r: 'to be in 
tructed i.e. a. pupil'. So alsoii+epr^= ^9«t: 'to be chosen' ; mt?+<»?pt= Miff 
'to be honoured' ; ^+5«rr = ws^: 'to be served'. 

Though the anuvritti of gRri,was coming from the previous sfltra 10 
its repetition in this aphorism is to indicate that other rules such as 125 oftl: 
chapter should not take effect in the above verbs. Thus Rule 125 rcquir 
«;(W 'after the verb m, but the present rule prohibits that. Thus we ha 
s^TTtTT ^w^ir: 'must be praised' . 

By » in the sutra the root ^ is intended to be taken, and not the ro 
^g=. The equivalent derivative of the latter is ^■. as ^r»r! ^R^fj^w:. 

Vari:— The roots aTO 'to praise' 55f,'to milk' and n? 'to cover' option 
ly take the affix 5?rr As jj?^^^ or ^f^i^w: (VI. 4- 37); ^«TH or ftpw, Jrwi 

yari:— The verb m'tt 'to anoint', preceded by the preposition y 
takes the affix srtt when used as an appellative. As sTr+3?w + ^"T = WJ 
meaning clarified butter. The nasal is elided by VI. 4. 24. 

Odj.—Ho-w do you explain the form ^^K which is evidently form 
from the root ? by adding 7fj^? According to the present sdtra, the afi 
^m ought to have been added. Ans. The f in ^^H is a different root fii 
that taken here. The root in this sfltra is ?iir of the Adddi class. 

W^^T^TjFf^^: II ^^0 II ^T^ 11 ^JTf-'g^nT, ' 

grjRft-^^:, ( Wtl ) II 

luf^^'t u «in^'^ II . t,n 

110. Atter verbs having a penultimate sno 

5ff, the affix ^1 is employed, with the exception oft 
verbs Ri 'to be able', and ^J( 'to hurt'. 

Thus ,s^+^.^=^^>^; so also ^i^r.^- But j^q^andni^ will form « 

and '^^vr. . ,. . ,, _^ ^wt 

Why have we used the letter w in ^w, ? It is to 1 ndicate that s" 


III. Cn. I. § 111-113] Kyap. 3(ji 

,\ meant and not long fr (I- i- 70). Therefore the root ^n will take "^th and 

form 5ft?^i:- 

y^jf.( . — The root gi^ takes the affix "jfrf^ when comi)Oiindcd with the 

word Tfrar. Thus <irrilT««lt r^: 'a rope'. 

yart : — The root «*^ when preceded by both «ji and Hf takes <'Zffi 

as HT^e^r^ 

t ^ '5R: II \\\ II Vt^j^ II ^, ^, 5gvf:, ( ^ppj) II 

111. The affix ^«r^ is employed after the root 
ssf 'to dig', autllotig ? is substituted for tlK; linal of the 

Thus«a'T+^5T,'='f + ^+'f = '3'«r'T 'to be dug'. The long f is used in the 
sutra for the sake of euphony. The same purpose would have been served by 
usin<,' short f, thus '^-^ J3T:'. But the long f indicates that the rule VI. 4. 4.? 
does not apply here. By that rule the sr of m\ would have been lengthened 
into Mr before the affix ^tf<{. 

M^i^fnTTTT II \\^ II tr^fsr ii ^ja, asr-^'srT^n^, (m^) ii 

^iH^n II ^"^^fsTHPsTr II 

112. The affix ^^"t Ls employed after the verb 
H^ 'to bear' when not used as a name. 

Thns»i+^t'^= H»^ PI. ^?W: 'those who ought to be supported' /. e. 'ser- 
vants'. Why do we say 'when not used as an appellative' ? Observe ^ 4- "?(« = 
Hiw. 'a Kshatriya'. 

Vart : — The use of i-yap is optional when this verb takes the preposi- 
tion flJt Thus «^?STT: or enra?:. 

ififfiMTTr II \\\ II m<^ i (h II ^:, fwr^, ( mri^) ii 

113. The affix a«i"T, optionally comes after tlie 
root f5T. 'to cleanse'. 

This is an example of Pr&pta-vibhdshd. By rule 1 10 ante, the root 
?H having a penultimate =h: would have necessarily taken kyap ; this sdtra de- 
clares an option. As <rftf s?i: or "rftirr^: 'to be cleansed'. The second form is 
thus evolved :— 

TRTii;+ fli^ni (III. 1. 124) =: «rft?»i;-{-?j (VII. 3- 32) ^tR^i^ (VII. 2. 1 14) 


392 KvAP. [Bk. III. Ch. I. § „^.„| 

I*!, «{|^U4<^ y q till iM *4|T: II ^^JJ || xf^ 

TT3T^-f5-^<ft?r-w'^-^-f:H-tT^-3ran'n:, ( wa ) ii 

Prrr^^tRT ii 

114. TJio words rra^^ 0^ fsfrw ^■nr agc^f 1;^ ,,, ^^^ 
Ms^ri^ are irreg-ularly formed by the iidditiou of the affix 

Thus rrerr ^^tfr^: or rnrr Tf ^,t^, rnrH- w,+^i,=rmt«r: 'the Rajasiiya 

or coronation sacrifice. 

Similarly ^or «-l-^?r^= aj5: 'the sun', literally that which moves (nrfit, 

in the sky ; or that which impels (g^fw) creation to action. ^ + ^^+^^^- 
gsTiCtiT 'false speech' ; this is an e.xception to rule 106, by which ?r« would also 
have been applied This rule prevents it. Thus ^T'^.J^, ^«?+^Tr"{= ^:e,f. <jn 
agreeable lover'. So also JJ'T +^^ = ^<^<T 'a base metal (other than gold and 
silver/ ; the other form is jfr^1.l ^T+7^= frrTS'ir: ' that which ripens of itself 
in cultivated ground'. T s?j?t^ = si^'-^; 'a snake (what does not move by Icgsj'. 

f5?^t^^ ^ II ^^H 11 Tr^Tf^ h 9fs(--^, jf^^ (m^rj) „ 
^1%: 1 1 Wr^nv ^^ f'TTrwi^ T^ £^ij5T II 

115. TJio words Thw and ^^^ are irregularly 
iornied by the affix ^^^> when meanitig- a 'river'. 

Thus Rr^+swr = f>m: 'a river that breaks its banks by the rush of its 
water', the name of the Bhidya river. 

3rHS]f + g!t'T = 3.-5?r 'a river whose waters o\'erflow_the banks', name of 
the Uddhya river ; the fi is changed into vj. 

When not meaning or cjualifying the river, the regular forms are used; 
thus H^f and sisfrnr. 

< j isq f^ ^ Ml Tra^ II ^^^ II TT^f^ II giai-ftr^jfr, ?THRr ii 

116. The words 3'!«T and Rri»T are irregularly 
formed by the affix ^, when iised as names of asterisms. 

Thus ^^+^^._ = 1^^- 'the Pushya asterism'. It is so called because ob- 
jects arc nourished under the influences of this asterism. fip^[+52r^= R(=?f-''''^ 
asterism Siddhya' another name of Pushya, so-called because things are accom- 
plished under the influence of this star. 

When not the names of asterisms, the forms are "fNur 'nourishing'. 
^^^^ 'accomplishing'. 


III. CH. I. § n7-"9-] Kyap. 393 

?f^ II fH? f'T'ft^ ^*r^'' ?''^ V^ f^TTR^*^ ^Pirereit j^^e^^fsr f?^« 

m«i n\m^ II , ^ . , 

117. The words f^-m, f%'f^ and f5i?^ave irregular- 

Y fovmed when they mean, the 'muiija grass', the 'sedi- 
neiit' and the 'phjugh' respectively. 

Thus f^ + t +5PrT = ft'nr; ctymologically 'that which has fo be turified 
,make rope'; R+'ft+^'i; = f%'ff't 'a sediment or sin'; rirr+gra<^ = fjr??r'a plough 
lat which is to be conqtured by strength". 

The regular derivatives are ftqrrs^j'T, fV#«nT and itntK. 

w^qft^n Tit^^?^ II ^^c II TT^Ti^ II nf^T-^rft^, 

^rfrl: II J|f?f Sift f^t^ "T^H 'Tf: ^'fl Sl?^ ''^ S*?^ ^"^^ " 

118. The verb «Tf 'to ssize', preceded by the 
>repositions Jffw and Mf^, takes the affix ^^Ju the A^edic li- 


Thus »rTi?«i T iRnT?i»i, ; ?T5ir5rrftr»J wr n 

In the classical Sanskrit the proper forms are Jjr?i?rrsi'l. and STf7«TrW«t- 
tr^T^ft^T^^^T^^ "^ II ^^1 II ^T^rfsT II ^-ST^R- 

^Pd: II <it J^fcrcr ^rwrar ii^ "^ qt^T^: ^^1, !?nr^ H^f?i ii 

119. The root ir? takes the affix ^\ , when it 
aieaiis a 'word', a 'dependent', 'outside', or a 'partisan'. 

Thus ^m%l\ 'the Pragrihya words that do not admit of sandhi, already 
iefined in sfltra I. i. ii. So also sTfTW. 

The word sr^^ft means dependent upon others, not free to provide 
or himself. Thus n?n^r: ^^f: 'the captive parrots'. 

The word ^m means 'situated outside'. Thus jni^WT ^ 'an army 
ving outside the village'. The word ^rfr( being in the feminine gender indicates 
liat the derivative word formed from xr? must also be feminine in gender to 
We this sense. 

The word q^ is derived from W 'a side, a party', and means a par- 
isan, follower or friend. Thus snatT^WT: ' siding with or being the partisans 
'f Vasudeva". So also wijT'Tfn: 'belonging to the party of Arjun', 

394 Kyap. TBk. III. Ch. I. § ,.„., 

120. After the verbs fi^^ -to do', aiul ^f^'tu raii 
tlie affix mn'f is optionally employed. 

The root f; would have taken the affi.x bjtw.^ by 124, and the verb > 
would necessai ily have taken ^?tq; by 1 10 ; the present siUra therefore declari 
an optional rule. Thus : ^+eri"|; = ^<?TH'to be done' ;or ^ + oi,fl[ = ^f^, q 
also 9«^ or q-^^jf 'stimulating'. 

:j«T ^ XT$ a ^^^ 11 TT^fvr II ^nnr, ^, tr$ ii 

121. The word ^»w, Ls irregularly Ibrnie. 
meaning a voliicle. 

The word "TT means that by which a thing is carried. Thus^rfrij 
'the cairier bull or the yoked bull', ^ijfy ???fr 'the harnessed elephant a-adj 
to carry'. Wtj^+^ui^^ = ^t^it. The sj is changed into «r. When not meaning 
carrier or a cirriage, it has the form ^w. 

3T^ra^4^d<*irr*i ii9^^iiTTTrf^i(3pm>^,aq »<4infMw i 

1 22. Optionally the word sTTnr'F'rT is irregnlai'- 
ly formed. 

The word ^vn means 'along' or 'together', sri^r in composition vvitli 
the root ^set 'to dwell ^ takes the affi.x <»?pT in the sense of location of time. Op- 
tionally the Vriddhi is not substituted in such a case. The time or the day 
on which the sun and the moon dwell together in the same constellation li 
called sifr^FTr or MTra'f^rr. 

The final »f in 8?5TR??ra is indicatory and is for the sake of showing 
where should the proper accent fall. 

The two forms STRTT^sfr or H'n^R^rT are the same word, and a fortioiii 
rule made with regard to one will be made applicable to the other. And to this 
effect there is a paribha.sha which dcclares^^$^%^^Rf?rF!r't ; 'that whidi 
has undergone a change in regard to one of its parts, is by no means in conse- 
quence of this change, something else than what it was before the change had 
taken place". Therefore stttra IV. 3. 30, though it, in terms, says spTRf?^' 
Tt is made applicable to the form Hmv^Ein also, 


, III. Ch. I. 5 123, 124] NYAT. 395 

123. In the Vedas the following words nro 
found which are formd irregularly : — r^?^, ^^^^' '"^t, 7?^r?r, 
3i%arc?i, >r^, ct^?, ^■^^, ^^n, ^t^, ^mt^m, ^t^^, qflrsffs^r, ^m^'a, vn^^r, ??ir5«i and 

The formatior! • ,f the aljove words are extremely irregular n nd they arc 
all met with in the Voihc literature only. Thus the word f%or4 is derived from 
the root cKW 'to cut', with the preposition ftrflT, and the affix oq?i, instead of ct?i'^ 
which is the regular affix, by i lo ; fJr.+^+"^3 = %:+sraif + >? (the root ajfi^ 
transformed into i?«;,by transposition) =: Ptt^^- As fne^S fk^f.^^ TTT^R:. 

The above is apparently a guess-work etymology of grammarians. 

So also ^^w^ is formed by adding to the root f?i# 'to call' or ? 'to in- 
voke, the affix ^fn'l and the upapada It ; the vowel of the root is then leng- 
thened and the augment w (VI. r . 71), is not allowed, It-F| or ?; 4-^^'T = ?^?^. So 
alsom-;Tt(to lead)-f-5W>T=iTCfNr: ;3rT+fft + 5f^'T = 3?^?r:, Tfr^+fjTsr (toleave) + 
'^s-- »f*3['5T'5 ; ? (to die)+7tn = h^: ; ^ (to cover) +?i?i = m^\ ; it is always 
feminine. 11^ (to bond)-t-^^ i-T^: ; »a^ (to dig) -f-^w = i«r??j: ;?^-f-w!rfl, = ^r=?r: ; 
?? ;God) -t-in^ (to sacrifice) -t-?m^ = t^^sT^Jir ; always used as feminine, srr-l- j'«a[ 
to a!ik)-(.;(^ = MrT=5«i: . 'TfiT+#^ )to sew)-|-^?r"^ ^^ srfirsfts^T:; frsror-h^? (to 

■•peak) -f-nrw =5nR^f«(: ; H^(to be)-f-ai(?^ = Jifs^: ; fw (to praise) + cr!jgr = ^^i^: ; 
^Tff^ (to collect) -f-<Tar'T 4- jT—7q»^n:?rj?>i. This last word is formed then 
only when the word jr follows : and when the sense is that of 'gold'. When 
It does not mean 'gold', the form is gT^^tTJiT I 

124. Tho affix '«?« conies after a verb that 
*^iHl8 in ^ (long or short), or in a consonant. 

The phrase m?^: is in the genitive case dual number, the force of geni- 
've here being that of ablative. As ff -|- <nt^ = ^r^n^ 'to be made' ; ^ -1- aifn ^ 


396 Nyat. [Bk. III. Ch. I. 125, 126 

yw nom. sing. ?f^«i 'to bi taken' ; ^^+0^% = *Jtn ; 'to be held' ; ^^+0?!^ ^ 
^5? f- "sra (VII. 3. 52) =^ ^tm (VII. 2. 116) 'to be spoken' i'T'^^+oJia = (fr^,, 

125. The affix "if, conies after a root. tli;it 
ends in the letter 7 long or short when the sense is thai, 

of uccessity. 

This debars the affix v^. Thus i5+'»?tff^= 5?V+T= STTsa (VII. 2. 115 
and VI. I. 79) 'must be cut' ; so also 5^-'n^«^= ifs^ 'must be purified'. 

When 'necessity' is not indicated we have the form ^{^^ 'to be cut 
The sutra as given in the original is rather ambiguous ; it may be construed t. 
mean, 1st when the word 3Tra^?J?« or a word having the sense of this term is ir 
construction as upapada, the affix "Jia is employed : or 2ndly when, tin 
sense of the affix is that of 'necessity', the «!ffT, is employed. There are ob- 
jections to both these interpretations taken .separately. For in the first case 
though we could form the words sr^JT^f^q &c., we could not form the wor, 
^znby itself. In the second case, though we could form the single word ^pn 
we could not form the compound. The best solution is to take the second in 
terpretation and form the compound by the universal rule of Tatpumsha con 
tained in II. i. 72, which would also regulate the accent. 

^Ftt: II wr, ^i* mw- ^ ^r^r »:Ft sifqr ^rPq %\ ??^^>--flV '»[« sistnt H^ra. 
12G. The affix "-^^ comes after the vei'bs m 
'to distil', ?, 'to join', ^\%o sow', t^ 'to speak distinctly' ^' 
'to prate', tj, 'to be ashamed', and =^'t 'to drink'. 

The verb HrH is a compound verb formed by the preposition wra, an' 
the root H. This satra debars J^^^ that would otherwise have come by sfltra 9/ 
and 98. 

Thus sTr« + n,3, = inmm\, (VII. 2.115 and VI. i . 79) ; so also ^y^^^ 
vr.v\. rr':«rH, W'^'t, =wc^ and sTpqprar'i- ; 

The force of the word -5 'and' in the sfttra is to indicate that the 
not included in the above enumeration should also be taken. Thus ^'l+'^l 
%u-^^ 11 

5K III. Ch. I. § 127, 128] Irregular formations. 397 

127. The word wrfc^r: is irregularly formed 
ivhen meaTiing 'impermanent'. 

This word is thus formed :—STI^+!I|■ + 1^J?T = ?Ir+^^+^ = W^«5, (the ?- 
,eing changed into Miw by the analogy of VI. i. 79). 

As STTTf:^ ?%iITlfTr: • This is a species of DakshinSgni fire. Asthi9 
ire is brought from the Gfirhapatya fire and is not permanently kept alive, 
hcrefore it is called anflyya. This however, is not co-extensive with Dak- 
.hmJi'tii. It is that fire which is brought from the GSrhapatya, and has the 
iamc source with the Dakshinagni and Ahavaniyagni. A Dakshinftgni fire 
n.iy be taken from different sources, as from the family of a well-to-do Vaishya, 
)r from a frying place, or from Garhapatya fire. When it is taken from the 
a,t i. c. from Garhapatya fire, it is anayya Dakshinagni. Ahavaniya is also 
aken from Garhapatya. 

It is not every .thing, that is not lasting, wiiich is called aniyya ; for 
L fragile pot will not be called so. It applies only to the consecrated fire. 
,Vhen it has not this sense, the form is STr#«r meaning 'what ought to be 

inSfT^^J^'^^ II ^'RC II ^T^f^T U WHTT^lT:, STO^r II 

^f%: n JTcrrcw ?fii ffr>Ti?^ j«'Rfnrf>r<Tw 11 

128. The word 'nxsx^- is irregularly formed 
when meaning 'dLsapjn'oved'. 

The word M«qf?t is a negative word meaning 'non-agreement'. It means 
»lso 'disrespect'. 

Thus !itrrfc?i?!frt: 'the thief is to be disliked'. 

Why do we say when meaning 'disapproved'. Because otherwise the 
cgular form is ^+^\ 'to lead' -l-?iH=m0?r: 'tractable'. 

The word in the sutra is ^^nVn which we have translated as 'dis- 
'PProved'. But the word 4^^ also means STflsni or 'desire' ; and »T?itfn 
TOuld therefore, mean 'free from desire or worldly attachment'. Therefore the 
vord ^^^^ means also 'free from attachment', as in the following sentence :— 

5%r?f ^^re( V^\ ^m ^(^\% vjuxmin M!^^f«^ m^^^ ^^h^^ 'let the 

■I'lier teach the Secret Doctrine to his eldest son, or to such pupil who is free 
'■"11 worldly attachment, and to no one else', 

'«« ^^rf^r II TrrtiT-^vrrs^-f'r^nTiT-vn'nn:, 'TT^-irfij:-f^raT'5r-^i%- 
''^ H 

398 Irregular FORMATIONS. [Bk. III. Ch. I. ^ 129-1^ 

129. TliG words «rrsn, w?rrc?r, f^r^^r and virc^r atv 
jiTCgnlarly formed meaning 'a measure', 'a-^i oblation to 
lire', 'a dwelling', and 'a sacrificial prayoi-', respectively. 

These words are supposed to be formed thus: — m (to measure) +0513 = 
<;tcrm, the r\ being changed into q' and another t( being added by VII. 3. 3^. 
Tile regular form is nnf^ 'to be measured' (iTr + '»a[?i = ^+^ VI. 4. 65 =^?T).^>r+!rt 
(to lead) +<'?is[; = trrsHn^H 'the oblation'. It being a crude form applies to a par- 
ticular kind of oblation. The regular form is nm^fj 1 f^r + N (to collect) +<inn 
= Pr+'l+^ = fT+'«tra'+T = fflr5»rn^: 'a dwelling'. The regular form is f%^?i nn 
(to put) + "i?r?T.^ = »Trcarr (fem.). Thesimadheni is the name of certain Rii hymtr; 
used as supplemental verses in a Litany. The other form is ■^ 1 

#'qT5§T II 

130. The words ^"Tncn: and ^"^p^-- are irrognlai'- 
ly formed meaning a sacrifice. 

These words are thus formed: ^'^+ir (to drink) + ^?r^ = >^<^+'Tr+i+ 
n (VII. ,3. 33) = ^ffosircsr: ' the sacrifice in which Soma is drunk with a bowl'. The 
accent falls on the first syllable by VI. i. 2I3.h»i^+Pt (to collect) + »Jr\- 
g'^rcn- 'the sacrifice in which Soma is collected'. 

If not applied to sacrifices, the forms will be ^»5TPTH and ^^V-- 

?;r^: II i^^r^ wj'm^ ^^ x^^ V^' frrr?^?^ «T;n?rf5r?d n 

131 . The words qfrtn^:, ^rwcw: and wjF- ^^'^ '^■^'''' 
gularly formed when they are names of fire. 

These words are thus formed:-qR:+f%+<«m,= Trr+^+^ = Trt+'^+ 
, = r^rKn^m: 'sacrificial fire arranged in a circle' (the $ being changed -nto >« 
by the analogy of VI. I. 79- This peculiar sandhi before the semivowel^ji^^ 
been illustrated in the previous examples also). So also ^T'^fs^: '* '"^,|^ 
sacred fire'. ^'^+^^ f -^51 = ;aq;+^^+«» = ^^- 'a kind of fire'. «<m '<'* 
qiTcKm: let him kindle the SamOihya fire desirous of a victim'. 

Why do we say 'when they are names of fire'? Observe otheiwi" , 
^[X%■V'{^ 'to be heaped', 3>rl7fa 'to be increased', o^rw'jt 'to be earned • 

BK. in. Ch. I. § I32-I34-] Lyu NI and ACH, 399 

f^Fnf»'ffncq' ^ II ^1^ II TTfrfn II f^?q-gTf?»i^r$, "ir h 

^f%: II fn«i?r5?tJf*^f^wrncr«?v %7r?a?r ii 

132. The words f-^wj and stPtF^?^ are also irre- 
gularly formed. 

The word f^??i: comes from the root N 'to collect', and means fire i. t. 
hat which is collected. As P^Rftjff^: 'the funeral pile fire'. The word MpTPw^rr 
neans, arranging the fire. The affix n has been added to denote condition, 
ogether with the augment ffs^ {^). These words have uddtta accent on the last 
,'owel. The regular form is ^^i^ 'to be gathered'. 

^W^'f %T II ^^^ II ti^f^ II 3I^-g%T, ( viT^:) II 

183. Tlie affixes a^^Csr^) and 5=^(<s)are placed 
after all verbal roots, oxpressiiig the agent. 

The word 'root' is understood in the above aphorism. Thus gj 'to do' 
+''!r»i = ^rr + 5 (VII. 2. ii5) = ^rr+ h^ (VII. i. i) = grrr^ no.m.sing. ^rr*: 
'doer.' w +(l'^ = 5i:r+5(VII. 3. 84) = c(;^ nom. sing. ^^. So alsofrr^: and f?jf. 

The =5 of it^ is not indicatory, but distinguishes this affix from 5?^ ; 
the simple j includes both ir^ and 5% as in V. 3. 59, and VI. 4. 154. 

'ff^TrfftpTTf^ ^f^sir^: II ^|8 II q^frr ii ^rfs^- 

tTrr^;^j-!r; 11 

134. After the verbs classed as i^^ 'tobe happy', 
"'■ 'to take' and <rsr 'to cook' there are the affixes ^ (»it) 
feff (?;t) atad ST? (h) respectively. 

The word ddi meaning etcetra, is to be joined with every one of the 
above three words. These three afSxes come respectively after the verbs of 
fte above three classes. Thus after the verbs of sff? class, comes the affix ^, 
»fter the verbs of ^% class, comes the affix fcrf^ ; after the verbs of qn class, 
wmes the affix sr^. 

The !rs?rf| verbs will not be found in one place in the DhatupSfha. 
"•"he list of the words formed by these affixes have, however, been collected in 
'he Ganap^ha. Thus ;r?^+pn=:T5^+w(I 3- 8) = 1«+«7 (VI. M)='T^1 
"om. sing. «($^: 'son' (lit what gladdens> So also from the following causa- 



The affix ka. Bk. III. Ch. I. 5 ,3; 

tive roots, nouns are formed, meaning names : — ^Rr- ^rtTT: or ^jpf. ; jtf^_;f^;f . 
efir— jsrtnr: (or >^5roT0 ; ^rf^— ^r»T^: ; ^fvl— ^^t: ; ?jrf^— ![f^TiT: and <^f^-f(^;i 
The following derivatives arc names :—^ff- flffT:; f(I^—?rH: ; ^Rl_ 

So also the following words: — 3f!=<iT.-, KHJH-, ^^■> flw??^-, ^-Tf^fuj, 
H?4t!T:, iTTflT., •sifT:, Tf^ , T-JAJT:, RrT'Ttir., ^TfOj: (the CT in 5rTCJ is irregular), 
psraf^^RJT-, ^5T?i:T: and ^T^J^ifT:. 

The JT?rrf verbs arc also nowhere enumerated in a group. The fol- 
lowing arc, however, those verbs: —it?^-!???'^ nom. irrfV ; 7??ff — 5rr3rf?T noni. 

So also the verbs r*T, M, ^0, ^7 and jjf preceded by fsr ; as, f^crwi, f^Mrr^^i;, fVr^r- 
r%a;, f^f rfqr'T, f^rmf^^- The verbs ^rf%s^5, ssmc. Jnt, ^rr and gtr taker(TT7 
when preceded by the negative particle ; as, STTrf^fr, 3TSBrf?ffr3;, BTRsurjrfT^, 
MSTrftri;, sr^rrfl'T and ^r^fkl%. So also after verbs ending in a vowel when agents 
are non-conscious beings : as, si?lfr:r%, aT?rfr=t. So also, Hf%?ff^=T. s^r^JTtfti^, 
^f^'i, T^\^\ (meaning a place) T^lT\Tn% and f^qirf^l'^, 3TfH>iTf%w sT"KrRT<T, 
^Tfrf^'T, "Tfrnf^'T and TfrHrRr^ 1 

The following are T=5r;^ words :— <r=?, ^'^, ^. ^. =^5?, ^1, f^ ^il> "^'v 
!»a Jir? ST?, ^i, =#r?, q.fJ, iTC, It, '?rr, ^1, w??. 9^?:. ^^<^ «^. ^f- ^'^^r. sfiJ 

The ? in ^f? &c., shows that the feminine of these is formed by long i 
(IV. I. IS). The <T=^ft class is an MFfiRniCT: I 

STCJ ^iT'rro^^ t^f'l f«'-^f?^ 5:TT^r^^: II 
In fact the affix h^ comes after all verbs, and is not exclusively con- 
fined to the verbs above enumerated. The affix sr^^, therefore, debars »W 
and may be taken to be the universal affix, and by its help the forms. l.U 
^^5? &c. may be explained. 

«: H 

1%: u nT>i>^t ^fT.'H- ""crra: raffc^v: atraf^r^ Hffw 11 

135. After a verb ending in a coiisonaut bu 

preceded by i, ^ or m (long or short), au-t after the ver ^ 
irr 'to know', ^ 'to please', and ^ 'to scatter', coriaes the am 

"^ ^"'^' Thus r^r^+^ = r^^. nom. sing. fT%.:. So also T^r^f^^ 'f ^'fj 
5VT; 'who knows- ;*^?j; 'lean'; ^t+^=m 'who knows' (VI. 4- 64). '' 

BK, in. CH. I. § 136, 137] The affix sa. 401 

r,,: 'what pleases' ;^+^ = f* + H( VII. I. 100 ) = f^+9T ( I. i.5i) = rg(rt: 
■ttho scatters' i. e. 'a hog'. 

The words |^ 'God', ^t 'service' and JJisf 'ram', should be read in the 
,qf^ class of the last sfttra, being formed by the affix st"^ and not by 5<. 

qf^ri: II Mf^prrp^i-^t «rrH>-^ ^7?rj^ ^utI sp^t^r^ H?fir 11 

130. Also after a verl) ending in long srr when 
there is a preposition along with it, the affix m is placed. 

This is an apav&da of III. i. 40, and debars the affix itjr. Thus 5f?qr+- 
q;= WJr + H= 5I?st: (VI. 4. 64). Wi^ 4-?fi' = qi3+K=^T5T: 'vCry weary'(w substi- 
tuted for § by VI. I. 45.) q*5?+qr =' er^r + H = ^/5T. 'very languid'. 

The final Hr is dropped before the affix ^ by rule VI. 4. 64. Tiiere 
is elision of long srr when an Ardhadhatuka affix follows beginning with a 
vowel and having an indicatory gr or r 

TTT^rSTT "^^ f aj: ^: II ^^9 II tr^Rf II trr-'^T-^TT-^H-fTfr', 

T^:, ( itren ) II 

«rf%: II Tri^*^^ TiK"-!! ^gif 3TiJ 5Tq??r^r H7l% « 

grrrf^>l^ II fiT^^: B^rraf irmvir ^=;;i,-ji: II 

137. The affix scr (sij is employed after the roots 
Tr'to drink', ^r 'to sniell', ^-nr 'to hl<jw', ^^suck', and fw 
'to see' when there is a preposition along with these 

Thus 7ci^+<ir+?j = ^w-(-r^g;-f H 'VII, 3. 78)=?f?7^ nom. sing. 7f?TiT: ; so 
also f^<5f^. ; sfeftT : and RrRn^j: 1 ^H + >.iTr+5T = 3-t+vtit+st= (VII. 3. 78); 
J^;RfVT<T:; ??^+^-|-?J = 35«f:;RT?r: ; so also 3s+fn;+3T = 3?7?TT:, (VII. 3. 
78). so also frric^: ; 

Some commentators do not read the word 'upasarga' into this sfttra. 
According to them the forms like ^xri: Sec, can be formed also. 

The affix jj, of which it is indicatory, the real affix being sr, causes the 
°ot to undergo all those changes, which it undergoes in special tenses ; for it ' 
5 a sarvadhatuka affix there ; see sOtra III. 4. 113 and VII. 3. 78. 

Fa;-/;— Prohibition must be stated of the root qj, when the word to 
e formed is a name. As f^+»Tr-f-q[^r+^ = s?rr^: 'tiger' (an animal that goes 
°o«t smelling). Here there is ^ and not the affix ^r. 

403 The affix na. Bk. III. Ch. I. § ng.j 

^rrf5f-'BTf%*T:, ^ (la:) II 

^rf^SRI, 11 'ly f5P=7[tRT ^Tf^'^ II 

^PSffT n JT^rfT'5 ft^ Hirw^ ii 

138. The affix ij is employed after the follow 
lug verbs "when used without a xji-oposibiou : f^rsT, f%?j aiu 
the causatives >Tifr, Trfr, tf?, grf fsr, ■tfw, mfw and ?frf?. 

Thus (5f«i: 'smearing' ; %?: 'acquiring' ; ■^tk^: 'holding' ; <itr?j: 'fcrrj 
ing; tf«r: 'knowing' ; OT^^: 'shaking' ; #ijr: 'perceiving' ; fir?T«f:, and «r?^' . 

Why do we say 'when used without a preposition' ? Observe iifsn' 
here the affix is sir. 

Vari .-—The verb fsT^with the preposition f^ takes the affix ^r. i' 
(^fsi^Tr 'the name of certain deities', 'a cow'. 

ir^y( : — The affix u is employed after f^^ when compounded with t\ 
words »ft &c. and when the word to be formed is a proper noun. As iflf?? 
'Krishna' (protector of cows) ; s?rf%sf : 'a lotus' (having petals like spokes). 

f^T^, ( ^: ) « 

139. The affix v is optiouaUy employed, afte 
the root v 'to give', and ^ 'to hold', when used without 

This debars d. Thus ^■. 'giving' ; or fr«r: 'inheritance' ; ^■. 'holding' c 
vini: 'having'. 

When a preposition is used, the affix jj is not employed ; as Jf?:, 1^ • 

TOf%f?f^m'%«fV ^; 11 \)io II T^ » 9^^-ff^-«^^ 

140. After the verbs beginning with wsr 't 
shine' and ending with 3K« 'to go', when used withou 
prepositioii, the affix BJ is optionally employed, 

BK. III. Cn. !■ § 141, J42.] The afkix na. 403 

The word f^ in SffsiRr indicates beginning. These are about 56 
hs all belonging to the Bhv&dt class. See No. 804 to 860 in the Dhatup^- 
iha Bombay Edition in the Appendix to Sidhanta Kaumudi. 

This debars the affix st^; as SfRf; or 5f5T: ; 'msf: or •=^^:. 

The affix oj (h) having an indicatory cr., causes the vriddhi of the pen- 
ultimate 3T. When the affix nr is not used, then ar^ is used, and we have the 
athcr form. But compound verbs take sr-q ; as qs^rsr: 'luminous'. 

Vart. — The verb WT 'to stretch' must be included in this list, and it takes 
the affix cr ; as s^^riR. The conditions 'option' and 'without preposition' do not 
apply in this case. The verbrfsi necessarily takes this affi.x, though compoun- 
ded with an upasarga. 

141. Tlio affix cr is employed after the follow- 
ing verbs also \—^ 'to go', verbs ending in long srr, ^tt 'to 
pierce', wa. to pain', ea 'to flow', si,^rcj 'to pass on', sr^rer 'to 
complete', sT^ 'to take away', fsr? to lick', ftfli 'to em- 
brace', and !Cf?f 'to breathe'. 

The root 5;^, before affixes, becomes xm, (VI. i. 45) and is thus included 
in the phras2 'verbs ending in long sn. What is then the use of its separate 
enumeration ? The separate enumeration is for the sake of excluding the ap- 
plication of every other rule which might have prohibited cj. Thus III. i. 136 
enjoins ^ when a compound verb ends in w. But that rule does not apply to 
the verb ?;«rr. 

Thus STf![;?ini: 'frost', JTRm^tnT; 'catarrh', ?ra: 'inheritance', vrm: 'having', 
"tfT: 'pain', HfHfT: 'wound', H«iff : 'flow', 3i5?rr?f: 'transgression', ST^?fr«T: 'conclu- 
sion', HTjft: 'taken away', ^f : 'licking', \^^: 'embracing', ^fra: 'breath'. Sec 
VII. 3- 33. 

55^n5^ H ^«^ H ^I^J^ II ^-'^J, 'Si^^^, ( ^: ) II 

142. The affix cr is employed after the verbs 
! 'to burn', and sft 'to lead', when used without a prepo- 


404 The affix shvun. [Bk. III. Ch. I. § 143-145. 

Thus 5+CT = ?> + H (VII. 2. ii5) = ?rT: (VI. i. 78) 'burning'. So also 
;f|•+^TJ = ;ft4-ST = ^^I: 'leading'. 

Why do we say 'when used without a preposition' ? Observe sj^?; 
'burning' ; mn^: 'friendship' . 

ft^iTT T^i II \^ II ^T^rf^ II f^«tTm, ^:, ( ^: ) II 

^f%: II f^THfTr qf >Tl^!T?«rat H^r^T II 

^rf^^'f II >T?w'ai% ^T^s^ni, 11 

. 14;}. Tlio affi.K CT is optionally employed after 
the verb it« 'to seize'. 

• This debars the afTix H^. Thus T(^+m '=- *Ty,+H (VII. 2. ii6) = m?: 
'seizing', 'a crocodile' ; or a^f +*T^ = T?: 'a planet'. 

The option allowed by this aphorism is a vyavasthita-vibhdsha or de- 
finite option, that is to say, the affix cj is always used when the word to be 
formed means a water-animal, such as a crocodile, shark &c., and in that sense 
the word is tir?. But not so, when heavenly luminaries are meant ; there the 
word is v(%. 

Vart :— This rule should be extended to the root »I^ 'to be' also, 
Thus ■.—^^■. 'condition' and Hf. 'existence'. 

^ 5K: II \m II ^I^f^ II 'rt. ^'> ( ^f: ) II 

^f%: II q't'Tf^: !?r!I?^^ ^^(% 'tt ^'^ft 1 1 

144. The alBx ^ is employed after the verb 
^^ when the agent so expressed denotes a honse. 

Thus »r?-l-^ (VI. I. 16) = n?"; 'a house'. The r is changed into gj by 
the rule of samprasArana. The plural form M^%\: means 'wife', as she is especial- 
ly the person that constitutes the home; while the plural of n? meaning 'house' 
^ill be »r?rrGT. 

filjf^tri^ r|sr II '^x II TT^f^ II firfgqf^, t^T^ii 

^rf^^iT II 'iRHarTrf^*^: mici'T ^'^s^'i 11 

145. Tlio affix "^T^ (3T^) comes after a vei'l), 
when the agent so expressed denotes an artist. 

Vart .—This affix should be confined to the verbs Jjff, 'to dance', m. ' 
dig' and VS 'to dye'. 

Thus ^,-t--=3=i='r^-l-H^ (VII. I. i)==Trf^: 'dancer'. The letter f^^ 
indicatory (I. 3^6) and by Rule IV. i. 41. it denotes that words formed by^pf^^ 
fixes having indicatory ^r form their feminine gender by the affix ^w- 



III. Ch. I. § 146-148.] The affix nyut. 405 

he feminine of ^A^ is sm^t ; so also ^hh^k: 'miner', fern, m^^ ; C»r^: 'washer- 

ii;;n'. fcm. TH^t- 

In the case of the root ^rar the nasal is elided. According to the opi- 
lion of the author of MahAbhdshya, only two verbs are governed by this sutra 
lamcly ta and m\- According to him, the verb ?:^ takes the affix ^. 
Thus rw+l.'''., = t5r+3 (VI. 4- 37) = T5i;+M^ (VII. i. i) = k^^-, feminine 

'wi^R^^u '^ II xr^f^ II t:, i^( fitr^'rf^ ) i» 

14G. Tlie affix t^'t, (v^) comes aftex- tlie verb 
\ to 'sing', when tJie agent .so cxx')rc.ssed, denotes an 


As, ^+!T^qr == TW^r: (VI. I. 45) 'a singer', fcm.irrUfEKf. 

^^^ '^ ii^aa II iT^fn II ^157, ^ ( 1:, firf^Tf^ ) II 

147. The affix ^^ is also employed after the 
verb A 'to sing', when the agent so expressed denotes an; 


By the wprd "^ 'also', the word «IT of the last sutra is drawn into thi.s. 
Thus j|4-'>5e=m+*nT (VII. i. i) = »inT'r: fcm. m^pft; the ?r is added by VII. 

The separation of these rules ( yoga-vibhAga ) relating to ^ is for the 
purpose of the sCitras that follow. Had ii«£tsfr^ and "^^'^ been made one aph- 
orism, the a7mvritti of both these affixes would have run into the subsequent 
'Utras. But it is intended that the anuvritti of "^ should only run, and 
lencc ^\'~. yoga-vibhaga or division of one sutra into two. * 

^^ M^f^^fT^^: II ^«c 11 T^ II \'., % stf^-lFT^nft:, 

( I'nr ) u 

^f%: II si?(af3f?|-aM '^■ral''"T?^ ir?^r H^f^r JiTfr ^m "^ ^^fr 11 

148. After tfae verb ?r, also the affix «^5, is 
employed when the agent so expressed denotes 'rice' and 

The verb m denotes two verbs ?r<f» 'to abandon' and frs^ 'to go' both 
tieionging to the Third Conjugation, forming JTfrfif and f?T^# as 3rd per. sing. 
Thus ?r+<»^?^=ifr«PT: 'a kind office' (that ■•fihXf^ jahdti 'leaves off' all water) 
f"W: 'a year' (that which y>7;//'£ 'goes through' all conditions.) 

406 The affix -vun. [Bk. III. Cii. I. § 14^^ ,, 

The accents are however diflFerent in the two. In one case the udatta 
on the middle ; in the other, on the last. 

149. After the verbs 5 'to go', ^^ 'to move', « 't 
flew' aud sijto cut', the affix j^t is cmijloycd, when reix 

titioii is liieaut. 

As, 5 + 55^=!it+3I^ (VII. I, i)= Ji^^: ; so also, gr^., ^^:, and »i?g 
The word samabhihAra in the sutra indicates that the action done I 
the agent must be well performed. The affix viin being thus ordained for tl 
action, when it is well performed, it follows, that it will not be employed whe 
the action is repeatedly ill performed. The affix will be employed even wht 
there is no repetition but the action is well performed even at the first attemf 

3nfiff% ^ II ^v* >> "^Tf^ » ^rrfilrft', ^, ( f\) » 

150. The affix fi is employed after all verb 
when benediction is intended. 

As, 5tf^+5'I= sfl'^^: 'may he live' ; m\%: 'may he be happy'. 

The word W^t: means a sort of prayer ; and it relates to action. Tl 
force of this affix is that of 'an agent with the addition that the action is sin 
ply the object of a prayer of some one who wishes that that may be the a' 
tion of that agent'. 

Chapter II. 

— :o: — 
q»^»R«!r^ll \ II ^^f^ II ^^fij, !3T<ff, ( viT?ft: ) II 

^rF?f aff H II i%wf*f^^f =tf?r n^K^H^ ii 

1. The affi:^,vwq comes after a verbal i-oot 
when the object, (of Whatever sort it may be), is in 
composition with it, (as au upapacla). 

The object or karma is of three sorts, namely nivartya, vikdrya and 

The object which has a material cause, but such cause is however 
unexpressed in the sentence, is called wzW^/yrt object ; as s^iH'l^cIfnF^ 'he makes 
a pot' ; here ftT 'mud' the material cause of ^»»t is unexpressed, therefore, 
^'>I is nivartya object. Where the material cause itself is changed, by a 
modification, into something else, such an object is called vikdrya object ; as 
^r'S^rrq-: 'the branch-cutter'. While the object which cannot be approached 
by any action, and is not affected by it, but is always constant, is called the 
pr&pya object ; as tf n.^w: 'the reading of Veda' ; the Veda is always the same. 

They will be illustrated by the following examples : — Of the first kind, 
we have wM^rn:: 'a potter' and TTf^ff: 'a city-builder' ; of the second, we 
have ^oTSHf^: 'a branch-cutter' and JUTStr^: 'a reed-cutter'. Of the third, #?t«.^ra: 
'the learning of Veda' and ^^iTf?: 'the reading of Charcha'. But compound 
nouns cannot be formed of such sentences as mn »i^a[f?f 'he goes to the village', 
'flRear "nc^rfif 'he sees the sun', 'f?»f ## jTcjtfil 'he hears the Himavat'. The reason 
's that it is against the usage of the language to form nouns out of these. 

Vart: — The affix cj comes after the verbs ^fts^, ^Jfn^, >l^«j and sTr=^ 
^"d the noun in composition with it, retains its original accent. As "TRf^ffsr: 
addicted to flesh', fem. «ihfj[ft5ir ; Hfw^fT: 'loving flesh', fem. >TN^>if ; irhrw: 
carnivorous', fem. HNr>wrr ; and sir ^ -^i n uitj K : 'good-conducted', fem. sR^JTrerf^rtrt 


4o8 The affix ka. [Bk. III. Ch. ii. 5 , 

V/iri'.—The affix cj comes after the roots ?«• 'to look' and ^«r 'to fu,-. 


bear' under similar circumstances. As q?5nifftw:, fern, a^gsi^ftwr 'expecti 
happiness' ; ^mtf: fem. g^^nrr 'much forbearing*. 

2. The affix s^cr comes after the roots^ 'to 
cal]', t^ 'to weave', Tf^ 'to measure', when the object i^ 
ill comiDOsition with it. 

This debars the affix jfr (HI. 2. 3); as ?7»f +f" + «?cr =?^jf+fr-l-sT-. 
5W+ir?r+3T (VII. 3- 33) = ^^'tgr^r: (the ^ is added by rule VII. 3. 33, 'when ,. 
krit affix with an indicatory oj or it follows, the augment z; is added after tlu 
verbs that end in long srr). So also rT^^r^:, »ir??rira: I 

STT^^^Xi^Sf !F: II ^ II iT^^ II anci:, STJ^ra^f, ^:, 
( «R'^f% ) U 

3. The affix ^ comes alter a verbal root that 
ends in long w when there is no npasarga preceding it 
and when the object is iu comiDosition with it. 

This debars aici, ; as nf+^r+^fr = ifr+f + H = nV?: 'Giver of cows', (the 
long an is elided by VI. 4. 64,)= So also, SK>^5r?: 'who gives a blanket' ; v\^m\ 
'what protects the rear' ; sT^^f^^rJl 'what protects the finger' (a thimble)'. 

Why do we say 'when there is no upasarga' ? Witness ifr^?m: '»!» 
ceremoniously gives a cow', q^^^?ra 'who ceremoniously gives a mare'. Here 
the compound verb «?r takes the affix sicr. 

jf^ W: II « «l T^r^Tfn II 5!^, m:, ( *: ) " 

«rf^: II «5t?n TTlJ r«tS^: SFSI??!'^ H^ft II 

4. The affix ^conies after the root wr when i" 
composition with a word ending in a case-affix, as «» 


In the three previous sfitras, the word in composition was always in 
the accusative case. This, sdtra declares that with regard to the verb ?«^ 'J 
upapada may have any case not necessarily the accusative. Asa»iw: = 
■fiiBf?r 'who dwells in accessible position' ; and T^HW. ' having an inaccessi 


. III. Ch. II. § 5] The affix ka. 409 

This siitra should be divided into two siltras (yoga-bibhaga). Thus: — 
I )B^\\ The affix sff comes after every root ending in long arr, when in compo- 
sition with a case-inflected word; as Er«rT f7^f*J= %-fTr4-^=fB;"T: (VI. 4' 
L) 'who drinks with two organs' i.e. the proboscis and the mouth, an elephant'. 
So also irrr: ' a plant' (what drinks through the foot). w^T. ' a tortoise' (that 
always protects its mouth by drawing it in, at the approach of danger), 
\i] Bi7««I- M The affix ^ comes after the root ?^r when in composition with a 
Jord°cnding in a case-affix. Why do we make this two-fold division, when wc 
sec the second rule is included in the first as the verb wf also ends in a long w? 
The reason is that the first rule applies where the agent is indicated, while 
the second rule applies where condition is to be denoted. As sTr^j^TT^'TrsriT^ 
= 9Tr'?r??T: 'a swarm of rats'; so also 3[r5TH>?«T: ' a swarm of locusts'. 

Both the words ^^fe and ^fir are understood in the sCitras that follow: 
■As : the word ^^foj in sutras that relate to transitive verbs, and the wordafq: 
everywhere else. 

^^^[■aft^T: ^R^Tq5ft: II «< II tr^xf^ II 5?^-#q5^T:, 

tif^^-grm^:, ( ^^, ^: ) II 

^f'Ti: II gf?^^?fY: afr^i3t^<Ti?^: qfcqsnij^^h^: ^^mr^ m^ 11 

^Rf^i^ II aTr5T??r^^f?:nj^rfi:fn ^^fisniii 

^rra^Ji 11 aKR^nSr Jisif^^inf?*^ rre^^Rl, ii 

5. The affix ^ comes after the verbs qftf^r 'to 
•\vash out' and *^<r?!; 'to drive away', when hi composition 
with the words g'? 'navel' and vt^ 'grief, as objects, res- 

As H^ <ifc«5f mJ^ 'he lay lazy'. So also ^jt^CT^?: yfr srm: 'a son, des- 
troyer of sorrow is born'. 

Vart.— This affix is to be applied only then, when the meaning of the 
word to be formed is 'lazy' and 'giver of happiness'. 

Fa;-^.— The epithet js? "rRrfsr: is applied to a lazy person ; while a?? 
'''TinS: means who clears his navel. So ^jt^T^f : means giver of happiness, while 
^WqRTt^: means 'removal of sorrow'. 

Far^— The words ff^^si: 'a chariot' and the rest should be in- 
t^luded in the subdivision of words formed by the affix ^. The words belong- 
'"g to this head can only be recognised by their form, there being no list of 
them to be found anywhere. Thus »i5tf^«3f: 'a chariot", 'ra?'^; 's bow,' Wi^n^ 
'sesaraurns', ^^n^ {^ ^^j ;a lotus'. " 

410 The affix tak. [Bk. III. Ch. II. § 5.5 

n^TTT.* H % II U^ l fn II S, ^-TT:, ( «^, W.) II 

6. The affix «tr comes after the root ft 'to give' 
and srr 'to know', when taking the preposition r and in 
composition with a word in the accusative case. 

We applied by sdtra 3 the affix qr after verbs that ended inlongsnanrf 
had no upasarga. Now begins the case of verbs with upasarga. This debars the 
affix STCj; ; as trtsif: (VI. 4. 64) 'giver of all ; liberal', ^fimtf: (VI. 4. 64) 'acquaint- 
ed with roads'. The long HT of ^f and |rr is elided by VI. 4. 64. 

Why do we say 'when taking S}' ? With any other upasarga these 
verbs will take the general affix sT°i ; as ifW^^- 

«f*H?«r: II 3 II ^T^f^ irfw, Wli, ( ^fir, SF: ) II 

7. The affix ^ comes after the root mi 'to tell', 
when preceded by the preposition tf% and when the object 
is in composition with it. 

The verb ^?rr ends in long a^r and by III. 2. 3 when compounded with 
an upasarga, it would have taken the affix srot. This debars «CJ^; as iflwisw 
(VI. 4. 64) 'a cowherd' (»ir ?f'^). 

nrftisCT* II c II tr^f^r 11 'n-'7^:,cr»», (^r^, ^nmi'i) i 

8. The affix ^^ coiiies after the verbs '^ 'to siug 
and ir 'to drink' when used without a preposition, auc 
when the object is in composition with it. 

The phrase anupasarga is to be read again into this sdtra by anuvntl 
from s<itra 3, though this anuvfiiiihud temporarily lain dormant in sutra 6 am 
7. as being -unnecessary. This debars m ; of this affix ^ and ^ are indicator) 
the ^showing among others that the feminine is formed by the affix ^li^C'* 
I. 14) 

As,?!* *mjfw = ?Jiif+«ir+s^=OTf»r: (VI. 4. 64) 'who sings Sakr£ 
hymns', mvf. 'singer of Sima'. fern. ^rw»ft and flrripft I 

Vart.-^The affix z^_ comes after the verb qr when it means to dnn 
and only when it is in composition with the words «n and %ft% as its 0PJ6 

i. III. Ch. II. § 9] 

The affix ach. 4ti 

This is an important modification of the general sfitra. Thus rnxn. fern. Wtrft 
^vine-blbber' ; ^hJT.' fern, ^ff^f 'spirit-drinker'. 

Why do we say 'when in composition with surS and sidhu' ? Observe 
^mj irtureff 'the milk-drinking Brahmani'; formed by the affix m and the femi- 
nine, therelore, not formed by the affix f but by ««. 

Why do we say 'when Tf means to drink' ? When <ir means 'to protect' 
this affi.'c is not used ; as «trir 'who protects wine'. 

When these words are compounded with an upasarga they do not take 
jgj^but STIIJ, ; as ^WW'nra:, ^TTTaTr^: I 

Vart. — There is diversity in the Chhandas as to the employment of 
these affixes ; as «rrfrrerdr an-ft or gnrr H^ ^Tf t^.- "rrwsfr^ Tsr^fl 'the gods do 
not carry that BrAhmani to the regions of her husband who drinks wine'. 

^^5?J'T%J\ II < II iPT^f^ 11 1^:, 'a<24|*l^, ST'^^ 

( «^f% ) II 

^F»f«»!^ii sT^q^mw ?rf%5Tfi«t^^^ifefftiT??^^t>T5s5 a?vi'Er'WfrT«^ii 

^rr^aKn n ^$'^ qr^tf 11 

9. The affix sr^ come.g aftox' the verb t^ when 
t does not mean 'to raise \x\}' , when the object is in com- 
position "With it. 

This debars *tni;. The word 3ifHT means 'to raise a load'. Thus 
Iri »tfil = «;Ufr: 'who takes a share, or sharer' ; so fir^it^f : 'an heir'.(f -|-M''S = 
!^+ST=fr.)(VII. 3. 84) 

Why do we say 'when it does not mean to raise up' ? For then the 
>fiix STt^ will be employed ; as ••>llT?rr: 'a burden-bearer, a porter'. 

Vart. — This affix comes after the verb gf when in composition with 
the words 5[iprfr -spear", ^r^3 'plougli', «r^?T 'goad*, arfff 'staff', #rc 'an iron 
:lub', if» 'jar', ^t\ 'a small jar', ^\ 'a bow' ; as ^'tKJT?: 'a lancer', grr y^HH l: 
a plough-man', »T55SJ»r?: 'an elephant driver', srfcq?: 'a staff-bearer', !?l»iT«Jf : 
'club-bearer', ^?iTf:, ^i\^■. 'a jar-bearer', q^iTf : 'a bow-bearer', 

Vart. — This affix comes after the verb iif when the word sjr is in 
composition with it and the sense is that of 'holding* ; as 0,jr«Tf: 'a thread- 
»older'. When it has not this meaning we have tMTirrf ; 'a thread-taker', 


412 The affix ach. [Bk. III. Ch. II. § ,, ,, 

10. The affix st't comes after the verh ?^^ -whei 
tlie object is in composition with it and when the mean 
ingof the word to he formed is descriptive of age. 

In this sfltra the verb 53:; his the sense of udyamana which was sncci 
fically excluded in the last. The word ^Ji^nieans the condition of human bodj 
as dependent upon time. This rule applies to those words which indicate thi 
attainment of appropriate age for the accomplishment of objects described b' 
the 7//«/(7^a, or the reaching of that age in which the thing described by th. 
npapada naturally takes place ; as srR^i^r: ""^f 'the dog that has reached the age 
when it can chew bones' (lit. when it can raise it up) ; ^^^^l^r: W^^nnr: 'tin 
Kshatriya boy old enough to wear (lit. 'to raise up or bear) the shield' ; so thai 
the verb here has the sense of 'raising up'. 

aTTf^mwt^ii^^ II M^ifn ii3rr%, crrs^t^,(^^% f 

1 1. The tiffix M"!! comes alter the verb 5^, (when 
the object is In composition with it), the root taking tlie 
preposition srni, and tlie sense of the word to be formed is 
inclhiation or accustomed occupatLoii. 

The word wr^l^jj means a natural inclination or habitual occupation, 
as iT57r?r; ("T'!T"f-W?tf?(=T«<T + 3Tr?rj 'he who has a natural tendency towaHs 
fetching flowers or wtiose habitual occupation is to collect flowers' ; so ;;ko 

Why do we say ' when denoting incliration' ? Otherwise the affix wi'i 
besinr; as vrrrirfrRt = >T[tfff':; 'who brings load'. 

gri: It ^^ 11 tr^t^ \K^-> ( ^^^, ^\) » 

12. "^ Tlie affix sT-^ comes after tlie verb m 'to 
respect', when tlie object is in composition with it. 

This debars W!T. The words so formed are especially of feminine gen- 
der. As >^f? 'deserving of respect' ; so also »i?vTnt?, irsrr?? 1 

Bx. in. en. IL § 13, 14] The affix acii.- 413 

13. The affix sr«r comes after tlie verb kh 'to 
sport' and ^ 'to whisper' when the case-inflocted words 
^^ 'a clamp of grass' and ^i* 'ear' are in composition with 
tJiem respectively. 

The verb rn is intransitive and the verb ttt can take an object under 
very h'mited circumstances, only namejy when the object denotes Sadiia ; there- 
fore in the case of both these verbs, the object cannot be in composition as an 
accusative case ; therefore, the upapada here must be a general case-inflected 
uord. Hence we have read the anuvritti of the word sqr from sCitra 4 into this, 
the anuvritti of the word ^i^ being inapplicable here. 

Fart.— The words to be formed must have the sen-je of 'elephant' and a 
'tale-bearer'. Thus ?rt»i?^(i# = trii^«f : 'an elephant (lit. who sports in cluster of 
grass)' 5>iD »nf?f = mitr3rT.- 'a slanderer (lit. who whispers in the ear)'. 

The affix m is not employed when the words to be formed do not 
mean an 'elephant' and a 'traducer'. Thus ?ai^ ?:?rtr 'who plays in clusters of 
grass'. cK^ irf^rrr 157^ 'the mosquito that hums near the ear'. 

irtTTfT, ( 3T1T ) II 

14. The affix s^^ is employed after the verbal 
roots when V^ 'well', is in composition, and the word to 
I'o formed denotes a name. ' 

As ?T>T-t-^-fsr^^=jt^r lit. 'who does good'. So also «ht: ^t?: I All 
these are proper nouns. 

Why have we repeated the word dhtilu in this aphorism, when it was 
understood by anuvritti from sQtra III. I. 91 ? To this the reply is, that the re- 
petition of the word dhdtu shows that there is prohibition of the affix ?, that 
-omes after the verb ff in certain senses (III. 2. 20), when the word igil is in 
imposition. The affix «^ will be employed after the verb fi and not the 
"fix » when jjij is an upapada, even when the sense to be indicated is that o£ 
=*"se, habit &c. (III. 2. 20) The result is that the feminine of jr^ff will be 
"^W, and not jf^rO, which, had the affix been j, would have been the proper 
"ninine (See IV. i. 14). jf^rrr means 'a female-ascetic,' 'a vulture' and 'one hav- 
"g the habit of doing good'. 

414 The affix ta. {Bk. III. Ch. II. § ij^ ,g 

irrrif SITU 1 1 <n5:T?f?^q'5«n»r»T ii 

TiRf^w II ftf»vT«f^^W^ II 

^fSsifT II grt»nTrf^«[ ^^^ ii 

^^ II Rrt^ 5^??fe II 

15. The affix *r?r colnes after the verb ifi 'to lie 
down' "When in composition with a case-inflected word 
indicating location, i. e., in the locative case. 

The word ?rj (III. 2. 4) a noun ending in a case-affix is understood in 
this aphorism. As «S ^^=^}JV: 'who lies in the sky'. 

Far/.— The affix »t^ comes after the verb jfl when in composition 
with the words ^x^ 'ribs', &c., though not necessarily denoting location ; as 
"nr^^^it TW=<n^T?J«J: 'who reclines on his sides', T?r?T^: ,'who lies on his 
stomach', js^rf : 'who lies on his back' . 

Vaft. — And when the verb ^ is preceded by the word f^vTOf ; as 

Var(. — So also when the words 5?rPT &c. are in composition with it de- 
noting agent and in the nominative case. As ^^R: jt« =5rTTnnra: I Hfpf 

Van.— In the Chhandas the affix t"^ comes after the verb ifi when in 
composition with the word firfc in the locative. As Prt^ ir«=fhRir: 'who lies 
on the mountain'. 

The letter » of e'^ is indicatory denoting that there is elision of the 
final vowel with what follows it (I. i 64). 

^: II \i II tprrf^ II ^:, Z:, ( StRt^^, ^^ ) " 

mfn: II ^cjt^Tf^^Tiir %^^ ^'^^ ?5iwnit i^fir 11 

16. The affix ? comes after the verb n^ 'to go' 
when a case-inflected word in composition with it, de- 
notes location. 

The word adhikarana of the last sOtra is understood in this. As ^t% 
^Rf-=^^^: 'who goes among the Kurus'. HJf^: 'who goes among the 

Of the affix? the real affix is H. the letter ? being indicatory, showing 
that the feminine of these words is formed by the affix yX- (See. IV. !■ I4)> ^ 
*5f^, HR^Kt I 


III. Ch. II. § 17-30.] The affix ta. 415 

17. The affix ? is employed after the vcrb'^r 
to go', when the words in comijosition witli it arc f^HT 
alms', ^Tf 'army' and wrfr?r 'having taken'. 

The (uiuvritti of the words 'in the locative case' does not extend to 
his, and hence the necessity of making a distinct and separate siltra. 

Thus fH^rr^: 'a beggar' (who goes for ahns) ; g^Tmr 'one who goes 
v!th an army' ; STffra^r: 'one who goes after having taken*. 

5^J^^J§J ^^: II ^c II xr^f^nn^:5.9TtI?re-3T^q,^^.- 

( ?: ) II 

18. Tlie affix? comes after the verb g 'to move' 
when the word.s in comx)o>sition with it, arc sr, ^^w. and 
HT, all mcauiug 'in front of or before'. 

Asqr: ^K^^ = ^x:.^K■. 'who goes in front, a harbinger'. So als.3 M^^•. 
ffr: am] HT^C 'going in front, .i leader'. 

5^^ JR'^R II ^< H tt^tRt II •^, ^^R, ( ^eri?:, zx) ii 

10. The affix ? omos after the verb ^ 'to go', 
when T* is in composition with it, denoting the agent. 

Tlius t^: «rf?I=''^*rc 'going in front'. 

Why do wc say 'denoting the agent' ? Otlicrwise the affix Mnr will be 
emplo3^ed. As T^Jjt ^rftf - '^$^K- 'going to the east'. 

^^^-STR^^^ij, ( ^T^fqr, Z'. ) II 

20. The affix ? comes after the verb frsr <to 
make' when the object is in composition with it deuot- 
^'^g cause, habit and going with the grain (concession). 

The word f ^ of this sdtra means the final or conclusive cause, and is 
'he grammatical w% meaning agent. ?ff^p?t means habit, and literally, tlie 


4i6 The affix ta. [Bk. III. Ch. II. § ,, 

act of being accustomed to that. W'J.sftwr comes from w^i meaning 'with the 
hair', that is to say, regular, in natural order, successive, and hence favourable 
and agreeable complaisance, acquiescence &c. Of ^H, we have ^flsR^f ^^ 
'the daughter that causes sorrow ; ?i^**^ f^w 'honorable science' ; ^sriRt ^^ 
'the family 'making wealth'. Of wa^t^T, we have w^^ff; 'who performs obse- 
quies' ; MiJsKr: 'who amasses wealth'. Of Mr^sft^^f, we have S^^r: 'who prompt 
ly does what he is directed' ; ^=qT^r: 'who regularly does what he is told'. 

Why do we say 'when having these senses' ? Otherwise the.affix will 
be «cj. As ^nr^rc 'potter', :tik«I>R:: 'city-maker'. 


21. T]ie aflax 5 comes after the verb ^ 'to make 
wlieii the followhig words are in composition with it :- 
^TT 'by day', T^ht 'light', r^r^jt 'night', i>ir 'splendour', w- 'light', 
^K 'work', 9T«i 'end', »^^ 'endless', wr? 'beginning', ^ 

'hand', ^%- 'day', ^% 'what', w«. 'that', ^^ 'bow' and w 
'wound'. . 

Both the words •/.■ama and 'sup' are understood in this aphorism ; tnai 
is to say, sometimes these upapadas stand as accusative case and sometimes 
they have other cases, as the construction may require. This affix s come- 
when the sense is not that of cause &c., as it was in the last sOtra. 

Thus^r^: 'the sun.' The word ^l is an indeclinable and mew 
'in the day time'. There the upapada, therefore, is in the locative case, 
sun is so called, because it makes creatures active in the day time. ^ 

So X'K^X^: 'the sun' (light-maker) ; Prjjrarr: 'the moon' (the night- ^ 
ker); wr^r: 'the sun' ; m?^: 'the sun' (the letter « is not changed '"^o I'^w 
ga, as it has been so read in the sfltra) ; sKtr^IfC: 'agent' ; srwi^r: 'death I 
maker); Msisrra^: 'magnifying to any extent' ; «tf?^: 'the '=''^f °^il^. .j 
'the busy' ; sn»^a(>r: 'the speaker of benediction' ; ftf^fi:: 'a servant' ; Wi"f* " 


III. Ch. II. § 22, 23] The affix ta. 417 

^ribe' ; ^fw^tft : 'a scribe' ; n?v{m:: 'offering sacrifice" ; »i%9Sr: 'a devotee' ; 
^^^. 'an agent' ; P^Tsifr: 'a painter' ; <dm;r: 'a cultivator' ; ^sc: 'doing 
only one thing', fs^irt: 'doing two things' ; f^^»:: 'doing three things' ; Sfff^^rrarC: 
'a runner, an express' ; vn^K- 'a hero', 'a manual labourer' ; a^^r. 'the 
sun'; «'^C: 'doing that' ; ?«^r; 'doing that'; trji^C; 'bow-maker'; H^^asT: 
'causing or inflicting wounds'. 

j/ari.— The affix 3T=a comes after the verb y when f^i», Ttw. ?J5 and 
j^ are in' composition with it. The speciality of ? affix is that the feminine of 
words derived from it is formed by long f ; while the feminine of words derived 
byM'iis formed by longer. Thus f^^tr, ^TrcRTf, nf^rtr and ^^^trr; these 
words" mig'^t be said to belong to the Mifff? class (See IV. i. 31). 

^Tw. II ^jj^ ^ttI ^^Trf^'T ^fmsiTf^^ Hfi% ^^ n^TiPTf^tri 11 

22. The affix ? comes after tlie verb ^ 'to 
make', when the word ^ is in comjjosition with it, and 
the sense oftlie word to be formed is that of wages. 

The word »^Rt means service for hire, wages. The word gr4 does not 
mean the grammatical object but tiic word-form ^§ ; as ^k^x: 'a hired la- 
bourer' (not a slave); otherwise the affix is sto^ ; as ^H^rr: 'an artisan'. 

n^: II ^s^Tft"^? ^«e!R^^ ^ *r^rn II 

23. The affix ? does not come after the verb 
? 'to make', wheia tlie following words are in composi- 
tion with it:— ?T5T 'sound', ^^r^ 'verse', ^rsif 'quarrel' , ffivr 
'piMiwe'jIr 'enmity', "^fl 'flattery', «<? 'thread', i^f 'hymns' 
and T? 'word', 

This prohibition relates even when the sense is that of cause, habit &c. 
The affix 7 being prohibited, the general affix KC^ takes its place. As <r«^^rc: 
'sounding, sonorous' ; 5[gTlra»^rr: 'a verse-maker' ; q>5W*l<.: 'one who foments 
1"arrels' ; imrrqTK: 'a writer of GathSs or piakritee verses' ; itmK: 'an enemj^' ; 
^IWC: 'a flatterer' ; tgr^rr: 'an author of sdtras' ; HsiWfK: 'a composer of Man- 
^'^^' ; tVfyrK- 'an author of Padapitha'. 

4i8 The affix in. [Bk. !II. Cii. II. § 24-2f 

*d*Haj*cnR«1^ II m II ^T^f^ II ^cF?»-^?f^:, TT, ( ^ 
^fw) II 

^ftTSffT II jft^Twralrfift ^'FK5«r>i^ II 

24. The affix ?i: comes after the vorh f: wheii 
the ohjects m composition witli it, are the words ^*!r 'a 
sheaf, and sjfiH 'ordure'. 

Thus t??»^+ff+?»r,=eT*^^rT nom. sing, t^i^^fr. ; so also ![rf;aisrr:. 

Vart. — This rule is applicable when the sense of the words to be form- 
ed, is that of 'rice' and 'a calf respectively. Therefore ^r^'^fr. means 'rice' 
and JfTfiii^ffc;, 'a calf. 

When the words have not the senses of 'rice' and 'a calf, the affix »i"i 
is employed. As ^^p^^j:. 'sheaf-maker', jj^a^rr. 'ordurc-makcr'. 

^^frRT'^r^: ^^T U5?y 11 ^^^ II f^t:, |^f?I-^T^T:, 

K%1, ( W'^, T\) II 

f f%: II f Rt TW fiic^nt: ^ffOjr^Tf^: ?r^|-j?nr: Tiff ^tlR: fT !T?ai!fy H^fst i I 

25. Wlieii the agent indicated is an animal, 
the affix 5=^ comes after tlie verb ? 'to take', tlie object in 
composition witli it being tlie words ffi 'a leather-bag' 
and TC'i 'a master'. 

Thus ffrTffi'. 'a dog' (a carrier of skin) ; TPTf Rt- 'a beast' (that carries its 

When the words formed do not denote an animal, the affix stcj is em- 
ployed ; as ffil^re: 'a water-carrier' (a carrier of a leather-bag for holding 
water). TWf RT: 'a carrier of his master'. 

tji^^^frre^^frg ii ^^ i< ^^f^ ii ^^^rff :-'3tt?'t^h1t:, 

^f%: II <^^Wk' STRiI^lft:: ??^A 3J^ f^fwt II 

26. And the words "K5^»Tf? and w?^Hft: arc in'''- 

gularly formed. 

The word f;^t^: is formed by adding the affix f^^to the verb q? a"d 
making the upapada end iathe vowel 5. Thus <ifgTr(^ »r«i!Trr^ = ''f^ff'f' ''^^ 
friiit-bearing i, «, a tree'. 

SK. III. Ch. II. § 27, 28.] Tjik affix kiias. 419 

The word «n'!t»»rR:: is formed by adding the augment iff (>f) to the upa- 
jada WRT, and the affix x^ to the verb ^^. Thus wRTft ^iR* = 3Tr?»T»>?R": 'sel- 
fish' (one who feeds his own self). 

The word 'and' indicates that there are other such irregularly-formed 
vorJs. As «ftT*>Tft: 'gluttonous, selfish' (caring to feed his own belly). 3?t*>l^: 
gluttonous, selfish'. 

^f%: II q-T^T^H^J^y, r*rTr5ft,»T«T f<Hf?7,ITfTi7r ^I'^TtI E['fftTf<?5l5 ?=r 

m^ H^rw II 

27. In the Vedic literaturo, the affix csr comes 
aftcvtlie verbs ^% 'to honor' «'r 'to worship' ^w 'to pro- 
tect' and fM; 'to agitate', when the object is in composition. 

Thus qSffr't?^ ^wtFtI (Vaj. San. I. 17, V. 12., VI. 3) ; 3?T H\ n^Ht 
Rig. Ved. VI. S3. 10) ^ ^ niffft "tRtcw." (Rig- Vod. X. 14. 1 1) fsjr ^rra^fi^T^w, 
Wf^^ ?rf^«fi^r«l. (Rig. Ved. VII. 104. 21). 

^^: ^11 i^^c u 151^^ II ?%:, ^aj, ( wrf^r) ii 

28. The affix ^n coi les after the verb «^ 'to 
tremble' when ending in fcr (III. 2G.) and when the object 
IS in composition witli it. 

This affix comes after the causative of itit. Of the affix ^IT the letters 
^and IT are indicatory, the real affix is st. The »![ indicates that the augment 
5^ is added to the upapada ending in a vowel (VI. 3- 67). The ?T indicates that 
thisisaSarvadhfttuka affix (III 4. 1 13), and therefore the vikaranas like ^^ 
&c. (III. I. 68. ) will be employed here. Thus sfjr^TiziRf =sT3F^f *f: (sT3r+'jf3' + 
Tl\+^H;=HyH-HT^ + «+«)'vvho awes the limbs' ; ^f'THsm: 'who awes man- 

Vart:— The affix ^q; comes after the verbs sr^ 'to go', ^ 'to suck', H5 
'to strike', 5T 'to leave' when in composition with the words irra 'wind', jT'ff 
'^ bitch', Ri« 'sesamam' and ar* 'flatulence'. As irfwrnf: ^r: 'swift antelopes' 
(going with the wind) ; 5(jPj?>I?f: 'a bitch-sucker' ; f^m^V 'an oilman' ; ^ptwfr 
"tW: 'a kind of bean' (that causes or cures flatulence). The long f of irsft is 
shortened by VI. 3. 66. 


43u The affix khas. [Bk. III. Ch. II. § 29,3,) 

^rm^'T II tfl[^ >fj: II Trft^frat^ oiv «?«i n 

29. The affix s?r comes aftei' the verbs m 
'to blow' and "-J 'to suck' when Trftrarr 'nose', and f^ 'breast 
are in composition with them as object. 

The rule oi yathdsankhyd as given in I. 3. 10 does not however, apply 
here. For ^m is compounded with w?; as (^?tt + w+'^?I= WT+ 5"?+^+ 
?r"^+??f^ = WT+»i + ^*i+9T+st) = ?«T^^^: 'aninfant' (sucking the breast). 

But mT%^r is compounded with both urrand'j; as 5rrfti^+uti+?fji 
= mr«?if+'T+>4ri+H (VI. i.,(>6 and Qj \ VII. 3. 78) = !rrfe^'>jii: 'blowing and 
breathing through the nose . So also ^rrftrw^Ji: 'drinking through the nose'. 

That the rule oi yath&sankhyA does not apply here, is indicated by the 
irregular construction of the Dviwdva compound TfREnFI^TJlt:. By rule 11. 2. 84 
the word t^pT containing fewer syllables ought to have stood first ; one irregu- 
Jarity lets in another. 

The feminine of <f-^v7?i: is ??i5iq^, as the verb w has an indicatory J 1 

«TT5^N^^T«f II |9 H tl^rf'T II fr^-^^^t, ^, (W^T:, 

n!\^: II Tiit jf? ?Tariift: gRHCj^TT^miff^ft: «frJT smt^ H^Rf 11 

30. "And when the words Tr^r 'a tube' and 
^fe 'fist' are objects in composition with the verbs '>'" and 
w, the affix isnrr is employed. 

Here also the irregularly-formed i^i/n^^/w compound 'n^t^fs' showcs the 
/non-applicability of tlie rule of yatlidsankhyd ; for nfe being a ftr ought to 
have stood first (II 2. 32). 

Thus ^Tff^SWTi: 'blowing through the tube' ; gf^t^n; 'blowing through the 
fist' ; !in«»«r«t: 'sucking through the tube', an infant ; ^fssvisi: 'an infant'. 

The word 'and' in the aphorism indicates that there are other words 
also so formed. Thus trfjs^il:, srfjwrir:, jgiftwfn:, 5rrfi:!=iT^:, ^fl»OT:, ^m'*!' . '* 
mountain'. |. 

This s^itra is not PAnini's, but is really a Vartika, raised to the rank 
a sutra by the author of the Kasikft. The Vartikakara divides the last sfitra 
in this way: (i) ?B# <^.: 11 (2) flflt ^eV '-W H (3) Ttftf^mr iHVas^B II (4) 'Tnft 5* 


III. CH. II. § 31-34] The affix khas. 421 

31. The affix>!rn comes after the verbs 5» 'to 
l)reak into pieces' and w,'to carry', when preceded by the 
npasarga ^- and tlie word ^m 'l)ank* is in composition 
with them as the object. 

Thus g>5Tg5sli?l = ^^5^^: 'breaking down banks' (such as a chariot, 
nver, elephant, &c.) ; ^nsM- 'tearing up or carrying away the bank'. 

gfT^ f^f: II ^'R II ^^f^ II TsrW-^, ^- » ( 'S^) " 

32. The athx ^\ comes after the verb fsr? 'to 
lick' when the object in composition with it, is the word 
^ 'the shonldcr of an ox' or ^^ 'a cloud'. 

As ^?f5I?» iff: 'the shoulder-licking cow'; sT«5lfr ^t^: 'the cloud-licking 


v^Km^ trn: 11 ^^ 11 ^^f^ii Tif^iT%, ^'f:, (m^fv!, wo) H 

^rrf: II qfr'nci T^^irfir, wRi^fff-'a'Tif T'at: Jjf^rqsinff wRi 11 

33. Tlie aitix 'Jfir comes after the verb "t^, 'to 
cook' when tlio object in composition with it denotes a 

Thus ^m T?tf?i = iWT^ 'a pot having the capacity to cook a prast/ta 
of food' ; so also im^^^-, ??rfft*<T^: 'a kettle' . 

fid>(^ ^ II ^a II ^v^ " ^^'^^f ^. ( ^^'> ^\) " 

34. The affix "sit is employed after the verb 
'■^i -wrheu Pra 'a measured partition' or ^^ 'a nail' is the 
Word in composition with it as an object. 

The aphorism has its scope when the words formed do not denote 
measures, which was the case in the last s{ltra. Thus T^W^nt HWCft 'the 
Bfihmani who cooks a little i. e a. niggardly Brahmani' ; !ra»r5r zrar^y 'the 
lail-scorching barley gruel'. 

422 The affix khas. [Bk. III. Ch. II. § 35.3 

35. The affix 'aw comes after the verb nn n, 
strike', wheu ft^ <the moon' or ^m 'a wound' is th, 
word in comiJosition with it as object. 

As f^!=Hf.- Of: 'the Rahu that eclipses the moon ; sT5*5f: 'corrosivi 
wounding the vital parts'. For the addition of the augment Hw after the woi 
vf^^j see VI. 3. 67. 

86. Tlie affix «?w comes after the verb f^r 't( 
see' and ^ 'to heat' when wr^ and 5T5tr are the words ii 
composition with them respectively as objects. 

Thus vtj^+f3^+'3W = 8T«_^»T^: ; as sTH^*<lT^r 4.|M<}iii 'the king's wivt 
not even seeing the sun' (being shut up in the harem, and so having nooppoi 
tunity of seeing the sun, that is, they are so well protected that even the sii 
cannot see them, much less any irreverent gaze). 

So also fcriM I S 'STT: 'heating the forc-hcad' ( such as the sun ). 

The word ^'S'ft is an incomplete or impossible compound, as th 
negative si applies to the verb f^r and not to the word b^'. This is in oppo 
sition to the rule of samartha pada vidhi (II. i. 2). 

^ q*tia.^<**<<^M i Ri yvr^g:^ a ^s 11 m^tFh 11 ^tj'inw 

37. The words ^v^^vx, ft»>rf and "irfiUf>TT are ii'ic' 
gularly formed. 

Thus ««T <nitfif = aiiwncsr: 'fierce-looking' ; ^m H^qfJi =rc"l?: 'delightini 
in drinking an epithet of Agni, a flash of lightning'. So qTfiJTf^>iT: "^^ 
'chilly roads'. 

ftTraf ^: ^11 |c II TT^f?r II fetT-^, lar^:, sa"^.^" 

mWsir'i, II ts^^fPciCT m- v^m'm^\'\\ ii 
^Jipi II fw^^ f^ "^ II 
nrfSqtT^ II 'jrwT f%J:r t^k^jt: ii 
qtr«S«H II * "^ Rr?Rg> fti[re?Jt i^fFwi: 11 


III. CH. II. § 38. 39] The affix khach. 423 

38. The affix w^ comes after the verb w^ 'to 
5peak' when Tqn or ^ is the word in composition with it 
IS an object. 

Thus fim «rTfn=fW<Tf : 'who speaks kindly' ; to^t: 'who professes sub- 

Of the affix CT*^, the letters i;^ and ^ are indicatory ; ts indicates the in- 
ertion of the augment »r^ (VI. 3. 37), and ^ shows that there is shortening of 
he vowel in certain cases (VI. 4. 94). 

In the case of fim and itjT with ^, the affix »!(^ would have given the 
;ame result as the affix «!i^. Making a separate affix in this sfitra is for the 
lake of the aphorisms that follow, where this affix will produce different effects 
;han ctJT- 

Vart. — The affix is^ comes after the verb »ri,'to go' when a word end- 
nu in a case-affix is in composition with it. As firwiTiflf ^f^\ 'the slow- 
noving i. e. an elephant' ; t^^JiTr %T^^\ 'the slow-moving i. e. a shc-elephant'; 

Vart. — This affix comes under similar circumstances when the word in 
omposition with nf^ is fir^rsna.^; and the letter is then replaced by the word ^. 
\s fir^?j«r T'uftj = ftryii: 'a bird (that which goes through the sky)'. 

Vart —In the VArtikas above given, the affix ^Tf may optionally 
)e considered as if it had an indicatory ^. The force of ^ is to cause elision of 
he final vowel with what follows it. As f%?ir: or ^f»TH: 'a bird'. So -ilso wsnw: 
>r ^srii: 'a serpent' (what goes crookedly). 

Vart, — f%?raa^ is replaced by f^g when the affix 5 (III 2. 48) comes 
ifter the verb ji^ ; as ftspr: 'a bird'. Thus we have three forms: T^i^ff, f%?|p, 

;f\) II 

30. The alHx ^'^ come.s aiter the verb wn, 'to 
leaf, when frsn» or "n: ii the word in coinx^osition with it 
<« an object. 

The verb ri\ belongs both to Bhii and Chur classes. Both are meant 
' the sQtra. In the case of BhvAdi, the verb flffft is the causative ending 
" fill of nq ; while in C/turddi, all verbs take fe. 

Thus ft^jT ?rf7nRi=flr^WTT: (VI. 4. 94) 'one who destroys his enemies', 
■* *'^° "'RSfln?: 'one who subdues his enemies, a hero'. 


424 The affix khach. [Bk. III. Ch, II. § ^q. 

This affix however, will not apply when the above upapadas arc in t 
feminine gender. In this case the general affix wns[_ will be employed • 

tstBt v:^ ^ II «a II ^r^ II mfn, v^:, srlf, (^-s) 

^Rr:.ii ^r^5j«t sifif'^TTl ?r%vT!^; s^:i??r^ iT^Ri jr* JT«nn# ii 

40. The affix 'sra comes after the verb wf 'i 
curb' when the word ^^ 'speech' is in composition wit 
it as object, and the sense indicated is that of a vow. 

The word jth means a vow taken according to the rules of Dharn 
sftstra. Thus ^-gJii ^m 'he has taken the vow of rigid silence'. 

Why do we say 'vow' ? Otherwise the form is fR?rPr: 'restrain i 
speech' (VI. 3. 69). 

t|: ^^T ^Ik^I^ T: II «\ll tr^xf^ H ^:-'^^:,^-^ 

(W9^ 11 

M^ II 

^rf^^w II >Tn' "^ fiTfi:f?r ^tits^ u 

41. The affix ^^ comes after the verbs ?(R: ' 
split' antl «?- 'to bear' when respectively in compositit 
with the words S^^'a city' and ^^ 'all', as objects. 

As <Tr ^?:7tfa = 5r'?r: 'name of Indra (who splits asunder cities)' (VI 
69 and VI. 4. 94) ; WTOffTRfr 'the king who is ail-forbearing'. 

Yart. — So also when the word *iir is in composition with the verb ?l 
as ^^K. 'a fistula in the anus'. 

^?n^TTO5F^^i!| ^»^: II 8^^ II ^TlfH II ^-IT^-^T^-^ 

c\ ^ » «\ 

42. Tlio affix m^ comes after the verb *^ 
nib' when the words «# 'all', %5t 'bank', *ra 'cloud' ai 
^<\^ 'a dry cow-dung', are in composition with it 

As wf ^r: mw: 'a villain, a rogue' ; qrfhiriTr Tft 'a river' ; W*^ 
;a mountain' ; ^^t'i^str ifrwtr 'a strong wind'. 

gK. III. Ch. II. § 43-45] The affix kiiach. 425 

W^*r^ ^T^: II «^ II TjRfrf^ II ^-?^--H^, 1>5I:, 

irrPas;'! 11 3TT?f%vi)' vr^nf^n?"* n?^f%f!j s?qra?rr?J 11 

43. The affix '3^ comes after the verb f: 'to 
make' when the words hw 'cloiid', ^f% 'misfortune' and >nr 
•fear' are in composition as objects. 

As ^^5ir: 'producing clouds' ; ^fii"^?:: 'giving pain' ; anfgfrt: 'frightful'. 

Vart. — The taciania vidhi applies in the case of up:ipadas like vtt. &c. 
This is an exception to the vArtika under I. 1.72. by which, in the case 
)f affixes, tadanta-vidhi was prohibited. Thus we have stti^C 'who causes 


^f&<41^W!^^ II 88 II ^c[Tf^r II iN-fff^-W^, ^<!r, "W, 

\^) II 

^Rr: II «It f&^t Tsc ??33^ ^^^"it'j ^d^roi^?^^ -g^rtrn ^s^^ 11 

44. And tlie affix wit as well as s^^^ comes after 
the verb ft 'to make' when the Avords "ffi 'happiness', Fn^r 
'pleasant' and is 'joy' are in comioosition as objects. 

The word 'and' denotes that the affix w\ is aUo to be included. 

Thus hk ^ k : or wi^ft: 'propitious' ; Fs{^^rr: or Rr^r^irr: 'showing kind- 
icss' ; inc^irrr: or ^^^x^. 'causing delight'. 

The repetition of the affix srcT, when its amivritti could have been 
cad into this sutra by using the word qr 'optionally', indicates that these words 
lever take the affix ? of sfltra 20 though cause, habit, &c., may be denoted ; so 
hat the feminine of those words is formed by srr and not by # ; as sr^rrfHr: 
fT^t: 'small beginnings lead to or cause prosperity'. 

gnftr^^g: ^?t:W*^T^(^: U8"^II^T^[Tf^ll aTTfir^,3^:,«t^- 

^T^^:, ( W^, ^ ) U 

^•- II Hrfipt^sf ^w grr? H^atrfm: ^rrtsr nrt 'srra m^ mv.-^ H^fw ii 

45. The affix '3=^ comes after the verb »i. 
to be' when in composition with the case-inflected 
W'ord sTiftra 'satisfied by eating' and the sense is that of 
instrument or condition. 

The word '^fr' of sdtra 4 is understood here. 

^26 TlJE AFFIX KHACH. fBK. III. Ch. II. j ^5 

Thus inftrnH^: meaning 'food', literally that by which one is satiate 
wfir^ft >r<r«ft Ht^. Here the word denotes instrument. And Hrf^nrw als 
means 'satiety', which denotes condition. 

WRT M^ff^ft^rff^rfq^: II ^ II JJ^ a ^^^ 

46. The aflax "s^ conies after the followinc 
verhs when the words to be formed denote a ziame :— viz 
»I 'to bear', ^ 'to cross over', 5 'to choose', fsr 'to conquer" 
>nR: 'to hold', «ft 'to bear', ^^ 'to heat' and v< 'to subdue'. 

Both the words tR^fcr and Bfr of sOtra i and 4 are understooi 
here and should be applied as the occasion requires. Thus fqn;^>R:r 'earth' (tha 
which supports all) ; niftr 'the Rathantara Sama' ; <Tf?i>lT 'a girl' lit. (who i 
about to choose a husband) ; ^T'T'ni; 'an elephant' lit. (who conquers tb 
enemy) ; 'fPf t: 'a mountain' or 'the pole of a carriage to which the yoke i 
fixed' ; ww^?: 'Satrunsaha' (withstanding an enemy) ; ^TWfur: 'Satruntapa' (des 
troying an enemy) ; «Fr?«l: 'Arindama' (victorious). 

Why do we say 'when denoting a name' ? Observe ^jj^thit: 'he whi 
supports his family'. 

V^^ II «9 II ^V^ " ^'^•> ^> (5^' ^^^, '^) •< 

47. And the affix «riT conies after the verl 
1^ 'to go' when in composition with a word ending in 
a case-affix, and when the word to be formed denotes a 

As wnipr: 'Sutangama'. Though the verb nij could well have been if' 
eluded in the last aphorism, the separation serves the purpose of carrying the 
anuvritti of »r«^ into the subsequent sdtras. 

ar ^l < ? Mn TTvq ^^M K<iq1<1P^M If: II «c U tr^rf^ " ^''^' 



III. Ch. II. § 48.] The affix da. 427 

Trr'*«'iii rfcifif II 

^^^^ II ^n^riSjrstis^Rr fi^n II 

48. Tlie affix 5 comes after tlxe vcrl) ih 'to 
0' when in composition with the following Avords as its 
bjects :— «'« 'end', sTWf»<» 'excessive', w-7=t^ 'road', "^ 'far', "rrr 
icross', «^ 'air and mtrj 'endless'. 

The anuvritti of the word HlTRrriT does not extend to this. As H^rTu: 
aving gone to the end, thoroughly conversant* ; M?ii>?TiT. 'going too fast' ; 
m: 'a way-farer' ; ?c»t: 'going to a distant place' ; "rrri. 'completely familiar'; 
|ir 'going everywhere, the Supreme Being' ; H^vJfiir; 'going to infinity, moving 
}r ever'. 

Of the affix » the letter ^ is indicatory, the real affix being h. The 
inuicates that the f^ portion of the word to which this is added, must be 
ided (VI. 4. 143) ; as MSjl+n^+3r = *tf?t+»^+M (the f; portion Mff of it»T is eli- 
;d). Now though the rule VI. 4. 143 says 'when that which has an indica- 
iry ^, follows, there is elision of the [%of a>T';yet in the present case, such 
ision takes place, although the word W^ here is not one of those called H 
4. 18); because the presence of s as an indicatory letter must not be un- 
leaning, ' 

Vart. — The ? is also employed when the words in composition are 
H 'everywhere' and TvT 'creeping' ; as ^i^if. 'Supreme Spirit' ; «r?r«i: 'snake.' 

Van. —So also when the word in composition is at^ 'breast', and 
lere is elision of its final. As ^^+»T'^+^ = 7ni; 'moving on breast, a snake'. 

Vari. — So also with the words « 'well' and ?r, 'bad', when the result- 
's words denote location. As ^ff: 'that in which one goes easily, easy of 
:cess'. 51T; 'difficult of access, a fort'. 

Vart. — So also with the preposition fsrr, the word to be formed 
leaning country ; as Rrn: 'a country'. 

Van. — Others say, that this ^ is added when other words besides the 
30ve stand as upapadas. Thus ??Jnif^: (5fH-M>Trr + 1^+^) 'who goes to 
'e women's compartment' ; mm. 'going to the village' ; tjs^twtjt: 'who pollutes 
'e bed of his guru'. 

^TTfrrf^ ^: II «< II iT^Rr II arrfilrRr, ir:, (if: ) 11 

%^- II si(%fq »T*<iHr?WT jp^iiWr: aKK>'giT'rt ? q?af?fr h^ 11 
^rf^^Jl.11 7rtT4npft.ri!J'<T«? ^ r- ^?Tt«irn 11 
^r^^ II -nt^ ^ II 


428 The affix da, [Bk. Ill, Ch. II. j ^^ 

49. The aflBx ^ comes after tlie verb?^ 'to 
kill', when the object is iti coinpositiou with it, and 
when heuedictioxi is iiiteiidecl. 

The affix ^ is understood in this siitra. Thus fafij q[t.?jr?i = rtTffi?: 'may 
he kill the whale' ; JJ^?: 'may he kill the enemy'. 

Why do we say 'when benediction is intended' ? Otherwise we have 
?T^^1«: 'who kills his enemy'. 

Vafi. — The affix arc^ comes after the verb STf^'T when the word ^^ 
'wood' is in composition with it, and the final letter of the word so formed is 
changed into ?, when the won.! so formed denotes a name, i'^s ?fj s^T?ffit- 
?T^hTl?: (?rr+S7r?'T+ST«n) 'the wood-pecker'. 

VarL—So also optionally when the word "mt 'beautiful' is in compo' 
sition under the circumstances detailed in the last vArtika: as ■qtq?^R: or 

VarL—So also, when the verb f^ is preceded by the preposition ijij, 
and is in composition with a word in the objective case, the affix sicr is em. 
ployed ; and the final is replaced by 3 ; as gOi'T ?f?Fi?i = 5«D^qr?: or to^wr; 
'the alphabet' ; <i^f^ ?i?f?ri = q?«m3: or q^^m: 'connecting the words that arc 
separated, an annotator'. 

50. T]ie aflLix s ct mes after the vert) tA 'to kill' 
\\heii it is coniiDoimdecl witli the preposition »n, aij'^ 
when the object in ccmposition with it, is tlie words'' 
'X>ain' or ?nifl.^ 'darkness'. 

As, |I5?TR?: 5^: ''he pain-allayer «. ^. the son'; BiHtTf: P^: 'the dark- 
ness-destroyer i. t. the sun'. 

This aphorism has its scope when the sense is not that of benediction 

^n#^^TOlf?T: II ^\ II tJ^Tf^ II ^'ITT-^'^^^T:, ftl^"'- 

51. The affix fof^r comes after the verb ri 't« 

• -art 'i 

kill' \\ hen the word in composition with it as?*"^ 
child', or JCfl-* 'head'. 

III. CH. II. § 52, 53'] The affix tak. 429 

Thus55»rrT+f'T+rcir!T = ^HtT+^m+ri, (VII. 3.54 and VII. 3. 32) = 
^rrainomTsmg. ^»m^nft 'child-killer'. So also ^fr-Jqir?!^^ nom. sing, jfl*- 

[f 'head-k-iller'. 

The word ^jA is an irregular form of the word RjTH I 

52. The affix m^ comes after the verb ?=t; 'to 
ir when it is ia corapositiou with the word iTRr 'wife' 
L- fr?T 'husband' as object, and when the word so formed 
euotes the agent possess(Kl of that attribute (or when 
le word so formed denotes a mark). 

The word 5»'$riir of this sfltra gives rise to the doubt whether it means 
ff(? ^^fi or SJvrta^Ri gfffrr. In the former case the meaning will be 'when 
. agent is itself the mark' ; as sfRr^^T: 'a mole' (a mark on the body indica- 
coftK? death of one's wife). In the latter case the meaning will be 'when 
jai^ent is pccssed of the attribute denoted by the word' ; as ^rrmfl^'r: 'the 
irdcrcr of h^s wife' ; qRi^TTf 'the murderer of her husband'. 

Of the affix ?^^ the letters ? and c^ arc indicatory. The ^ shows that 
5 feminine is formed by i, and ^^ causing elision of the penultimate •? of ?^. 
ius5trar+f5T+?5r=iiw4-«=r+3T(VI. 4. 98) = ^ff^^^: ( VII. 3- 54). 

gnr^ia^wijt^ ^ II y^ u TT^f% II gr-i^'R-qm^, ^, (^, 

T: ) U 

53. And the allix ?^ conies after the verb m\ 
IdlL' when tlie object is m composition with it, and 
■lien the word to Ix) formed denotes an agent other than 

liuman behig. 

As 5rwq;iTRaST5trr5??fi': 'the mole' (literally that which indicates the death 
one's wife) ; qmtr^ itRnnsr 'the line of the palm of the hand' (that which 
^icates the death of one's husband). These two forms were deducible also 
'm the last aphorism. 5;^«»i^5r 1^ 'honey' (literally that which has the 
operty of destroying the phlegm). ftt(q;'f «T?f 'clarified butter' (lit. that 
^ich destroys the bile). 

Why do we say 'when the agent is not a human being' ? Observe 
'!^W V^ 'a Sadra' (literally one who kills the mice). Here the affix iswq;. 

430 The affix khvun. [Bk. III. Ch. II. § 5,^ 

Why is the affix ta^ not employed in the following ? ^«rRt?^; ',„., 
elephant' (l. e. who kills a thief.) Here the word is formed by the affix si^ „„ 
the analogy of sdtra III. 3. 113 which allows a diversity in case of /{■;//,.,, 
affixes, which diversity is extended in this case to a iril affix. 

(?n)?^:, ( jm, ?« ) II 

54. The affix ^ comes after the verb ^% 'to 
kill' when the word in composition with it as its object 
is wf^ 'elephant' or sfrrr? 'gate' and when tl^e sense iiuli- 
cated is that of power. 

This sfltra applies where the agent is a human being. As ffet^ f^ 
5j;ff;; = 5fe[t^5T: .I^WT: 'a man who is strong enough to kill an elephant' ; so 
also ^TtJ^qr: 'a burglar' ( who is capable of breaking open the doors). 

Why do we say 'where power is indicated' ? Observe f^taj jf^H ^f>9 = 
?R*nmr: 'who kills the elephant by poison'. Here the affix is wtr. 

m Rivd T gvn fiif^qfiT II i^y II iT^rf^ 11 xTrf^-Hxr?^, 

flif?^ II 

^i^: n TifcnT nri«r v^'^ tj^ f^Ti^^s fuf^Tf^i ^^'X u 
mf^^iT II nsj^ g7^»i?iR'i II 

55, The words trftr^r and fft^^ are irregularly 
foi'med when denoting an artilicer. 

These forms are thus evolved. The' affix ^ is employed after the 
verb rr in composition with vdss 'liand' and m^ 'a blow' as object ; then the 
a portion of ?f( /. e. ^\ is elid.-d, and f is c'lang.-d into ^ irregularly. Thu^ 
«irfiir+rT.^+^ = >Trfi:i+»,+3T = Trfc!l?T: 'a drummer' (workman or handicrafts.iian;; 
fn^^: 'a smith". 

Why 'when denoting an artificer' ? Observe <Tr:ni«rra- 'boxing' ; m?^" 


Vart:~Tht word X(^- should be enumerated in this connection ; Tfsi- 

tr: 'a regicide'. 

BK. ni. Cn. II. § 56] The affix khyun. 431 


56. The affix ^jt, when the sense of the word 
r,) be formed is that of an instrumental agent, comes after 
the verb f 'to make', when the following words are in 
composition with it as objects:— wsa 'rich'.ww 'fortunate', 
W5r 'big', "Tfera 'grey', tw 'naked', st»t 'blind' and ^ -pleasant', 
provided that these words have the .sense of the words 
formed by the aifix M, though not actually ending in the 
affix PPT- 

The affix f^ ( V. 4. 50. ) is added to a noun when it is in composi- 
tion with the verbs »^'to become', ^ 'to make' and m^^ 'to be' ; its force being 
that a thing attains to a condition in whic'i it previously was not. The 
■%? being an optional affix, its sense is two-fold ; namely, words ending in f%^ 
ind words not ending in ptf. Both may have the force of f%T. (In the present 
idtra, however, the words that actually end in fi^have been excluded, while 
vords which do not take the afifix f«T, but have the force of f%^ are included 
n the present sQtra. 

Thus sTrag'+^-f-»5g'r = Mrag"+^-|-3T'^ = sTr5Er^frCT 'that by the instru- 
nentality of which the poor becomes rich, viz., wealth, prosperity, means 
>f enriching' ; aH'T^rrCT'T 'making happy' ; Br=acR:(rri; 'by which one becomes 
'ig' ; "ifsn^raj^ 'rendering grey' ; ^t^-nr^t 'making naked' ; ^Ts^^rcj''^ 'mak- 
ng blind' ; fs^?fgK^■lIT'^ 'showing kindness'. 

Why do we say 'when the force is that of the affix f«?' ? Otherwise 
"^ fa'T SKtfsfi i. e si».?i3i!j^ 'they anoint with oil . Here though something 
joined with what it previously was not joined, namely with oil, yet as the 
adical word is not prominent here, the sense is not that of f%3( and hence this 

Why do we say 'when not ending in the affix f%^' ? Observe srnctfl' 
l^ifS ^^ 'they make rich by this". Here the affix ^S^ is not employed. 

It might be objected : 'well if ira^j; is not used, then the affix f^? must 
e used (III. 3. 117) as there is no difference between »5^^ and p^?^;both 
aving the efficient portion w ; what is then the use of prohibiting f%^ ? We 
•P'y, 'because there is this prohibition, when the affix «5w»r is not employed the 
fix s^ will ai3Q jjg pQj- employed. Thus by implication the affix ?s» is also 
foaibited. The prohibition of f%T in this slitra is for the sake of the ap- 
Mistns that follow'. 


432 The affix kvin. [Bk. III. Ch. II. § 57 jj 

Patanjali observes this prohibition as superfluous, because there is no 
distinction between e^^and »55!^. For the word formed by any one of these 
affixes have the same form and the same accent. Nor there is any distinction 
in the feminines of their derivatives. For the word formed by sp^r, *^, i^, ^^ 
and CJP^ take f in the feminine as well as the words jc^si and nsTT. Nor there 
is any 'distinction in their samdsas. For in both the cases it will be nitya sa- 
M/isa. Nor is the prohibition made for the sake of the augment (Cj^ For it 
being an indeclinable, 5H cannot come after it. The prohibition therefore is of 
no use to this sCitra but it is inserted here for the sake of the following sOtras. 

^r^ft ^sr- ^wn^w^ II \i3 II tr^iOi 11 ^^fr, 5^:, 

f^lir^-^5RMT, ( aTT5^Tf^3 ) II 

^f%: \i sTrasrrf?^ hw^^ttt?^ ^sjTflf'T^i'^ >TT^?glr: ^^R ^rc^ fHr^w^- 

'^^'H, l^^ V:^ HTrf: l| 

57. The affixes fesq^^ and «5^^, when the word 
to he formed denotes an agent, come after the verh «T,'to 
hecome', when it is in composition with words vtw &c., 
provided that these have the sense of the words formed 
hy the aiilx T'^ liiongh not ending in f'^- 

Thus STr7<T»lf%'5Cr: 'becoming rich (who was not rich before)' ; vm- 
fW^^: 'becoming rich' ; ^>=[ifar?r«JT: or -HTf ^: 'becoming happy' ; ?u»PTf%«ra: or 
-HTJ^ir: 'becoming big' ; "TfstrJHr^sci: or -Hff^: 'becoming grey'; Jr«I*>if^5q: or 
-^TTfaR-: 'becoming naked' ; srPTHf^oCT: or -HTf ^: 'becoming blind' ; ftr^JTf^'P: or 
-TTT^r: 'becoming an object of affection, amiable*. 

Why do we say 'when denoting the agent' ? Not' so when it denot« 
the instrument. The affi-xes w ill apply when the sense of the upapada is that 
of ft^, otherwise not ; as arrsifr Hf^tir 'he will be rich'. 

These afifixes will not apply when the upapada ends in f%T ; wssft Hf?ari 

^q^^^J^^^ ff!5T^ II H«: II ^'^rf^ " ^^'> 3^3^. ^s " 

58. TJae affix fet conxes after the verh^n't" 
tonch', when it is in composition with a case-inflected 
word other than ^^ 'water'. 

By sfitra 4 of this chapter, the anuvritii of the word «fir is to be rea 
into this satra. It might be objected 'why do we not read the anuvritti of the 
word ^4 instead of «f<r, because the verb «3^ is a transitive verb, and aftef 

<. III. Ch. II. ? 59.] The affix kvin. 433 

ch verbs, the anuvritti of ^ ought to come by stttra 4' ? To this we say 
ere is no harm in reading the anuvritti of ^I't in this case ; because the word 
jff of tha last sCltra is also, in a way understood here, and indicates the 
llection of all sorts of agents whether objects, instruments &c., and this can 
ily be when the first member of the compound is a word in general. 

Thus tjfi^jjRj=^?r5jn, nom. sing. ^H*i^ 'he who touches clarified 
itter'. PT^+fiK'T+« = *?IT +r'[+o (VI. I. 68) = ?<l*+0 (VI. I. 67, and VIII. 
62). So also ff^wfS ?j?7i% = i??r«i^ 'who touches with hymns' ; ar^fr ?OTRt = 
iffj^^ 'who toucjies with water'. But a^T ^uRl = 5?^^'^: ; here we have the 
;neral affix sroj;. 

The 51 of fIssT is to distinguish this affix from affixes like flPT &c. For, 
,d it been merely fli, then in sCltra VIII. 2. 62. we should have used fe unPTW 
:, and it would have been ambiguous, for fg; might be explained as meaning 
th Ri and fsw, as snr means ?^, ^?iq &c. To remove this ambiguity, 
is added to make a distinctive affix. The H cannot be for the sake of accent. 
1, 1. 1 17), the verb being monosyllabic would of itself have taken that accent. 

fFcT: II ^frfJir^n: T'-^JTs^: fa;s!i??iir«rr f^qr^T^a srq? ^rartrrrtft fnTix^f^ ii 
59. The words wfH^ 'a domestic priest', ?>Tap 
aipudeiit', B^ 'a garland', i?^^ 'a direction' aiid ^fscj*^ 'a 
latrairi' are irregularly fornicd by adding tlie affix fv% ; 
ihI so also after the verhs hs'^ 'to worship', ^ftr 'to join' 
id ^^ 'to approach', the affix fsJ'T is emi^loyed. 

The first five words are irregular forms. Thus ^ti,+'T3^+f8»'T = ^f?!r«^ 
who performs sacrifice in the season (M"^) or to the season (^r«H). This 
rd, however isa^fe word in which it is fruitless to search for its etymological 
■aning. vr^+f>(;if=^=(r. Here there is reduplication and the final has acute 
-'^t- gsT f f|;iT = 5i^. Here there is augment st^. fiT+f|Pi;=f?av.' So also g:?!^ 
^'f?,+flKiT = 5f«in^. All these are in fact crude nouns, their current meaning 
^"ig little traces of their root meaning. 

The affix ftp^ comes after the three roots ^sr, *is^, and w^n. Be- 
! fead along with the five above-mentioned irregularly- formed words, there 
'Ome irregularity in the application of fiRsj to these verbs. Thus the affix 
^cotnes after h*^ only when a word ending with any case-affix precedes it in 
"position. As q+Hy^+fK'3;=ilt5'^ nom, sing, xi^ (VI. 4. 24 ; VII. I. 70, 
''• 2. 23 and 62) 'east' ; so also jr??(^'west' ; 3^ir 'north'. 

434 The affix kan. [Bk. III. Ch. ii, 5 


The affix f^i comes after i5f?Tr and Jgr^ when these are uncombined 
Thus 5^T+fiK?r=3^3);. In nominative singular, 5^w^+a=^^^+«^ (VII. i.;i , 
W.+o (VI- I. 68) =. ^ (VIII. 2. 62) 'who joins'*. When the \oo^t bit is in com^ 
position with an upapada, it tai<es the affix %qf (see sutra 61).^ As ^-^^ 
'yoJ<ed with horses'. 

So also !gt^-f-fsf^= i^x.n, nom. sing, sgr, 'a curlew". The non-elision of 
the sj (VL 4. 24) of urs^ is an irregularity, as this word has been taught in 
connection with other irregular words. 

60. And the atlix ^51 comes after the verb fit, 
'to see' when it is in combination witla ni? &c. and does 
not signify perception. 

The force of 'and' is that the flfr also comes under similar circumstan- 
ces. ??r5 &c. are pronouns, for a list of which see I. I. 27. Thus ?Jrt|n nom 
sing. Wff% 'such-like' when it is formed by fs^ ; and ^^nHJ: 'such- like' when 
the affix is w^^ So also fl^-t-f^r-f fs'T-WfTT (VI. 3. 91) nom. sing. mfJ 
(VI. I. 68, VIII. 2. 36 and 62, VIII. 4. 56) ; and ?frf^: when ^si is the affix 
So ?trf tK or Bff 17: 'what-like'. 

What is the force of the letter ^T of ^>^ ? It is for the sake of acc;nt ; 
the udAttii is on the first syllable of those words which are formed by an affix 
having an indicatory ^^orsi;^ (VI. I. 117). But the indicatory ^ would have 
given the same accent, there being no difference between ^^r and m,\ in '1'" 
respect. The indicatory 5i then serves only the purpose of distinguishing the 
affix 5ir3^ from ^\ in sOtra IV. i. 15 in which cRW is taken and not rs^ Had 
we not" formed this separate affix, then for ^I^STT^ of that sOtra, we should have 
read ^tr f^r^ so that the feminine of words formed by ^sr would have also 
taken long f, so that the feminine of «frT5R: («rff -f-^% V. 4. 29) would hai-e 
been im^ instead of ^rwsKf. , 

Why do we say 'when not signifying perception' ? See n <nc?lf?l = "f ' 
•who sees that'. The words ^m^ flrT^I, &c. are crude nouns, in which the ety- 
mological sense of the root not being visible, the act of seeing can never be de- 
noted by these words. 

Fa^A— This rule applies also when the words tr»lTT and «?« are in 
composition with ^. 'As «f?if or «f?r: 'like'(^tHH-^■fJ^-^fl;'^;=«r+?'![ VI- 3' ^S*' ' 
so also «»«nf^: or sryisfrj^ 'of another kind'. 

J3K. in Ch II. § 6i] The affix kvip. 435 

p^^^. — The affix ^?T comes also after the root fir^. As "fiTfW:, frfw:, 
„-,T|,ff:and ^«T: 1 wf +?^^+^,«= m+fJi;+3RT (VI. 3. 9i,) = rrrf«^+^ (VIII. 
,. 36) = rrr?5«r+tr (VIII. 2. 41) =mTT;+«r(VIII. 3. 59) =wrfifr: i 

gim, Wf^, %t?, ( 5fq ) II 

Gl. The affix fifi; comes after the following 
verbs when m composition witli a word ending in a case- 
affix, thougli it may he an npasarga, viz :— ^. 'to sit', «^ 
'to bring forth', fss, 'to hate', v^ 'to hear malice', ^?, 'to m ilk', 
"A 'to join', 'to concentrate the mind', f%? 'to know', 'to he- 
come', 'to consider', ft',, 'to divide', ra[?,'to cut', fir 'to con- 
([uer', 'fir 'to lead' and rm, 'to sliine'. 

The phrase 'the word ending with a case-affix' is understood in this 
sdtra. The anuvritti of ^h is not to be taken in this sCitra for the same rea- 
sons as in sLitra 58 ante. The upasargas are also words ending in a case-affix 
le they arc also jaiij^/a words Their special mention in this section, indi- 
cates by implication (jMpaka) that wherever in the previous sCltras, the word 
subantn (a case-inllectcd word) is used, it does not include an upasarga 
(III I. 106). 

The root « being read in conjunction with fs^_^ shows that »ifrft clas.s 
verb is meant here, and not a^ff class. The verb ^^ includes, both wf^ 'to 
join' and ?t^'to concentrate one's mind*. The verb f%?_^ includes the three 
verbs having the sense of 'to know', 'to become' and 'to consider', but does not 
include the verb f%^ 'to gain', because that root has an indicatory gj ((^"TSj) 
while all these verbs have indicatory 3?. 

Thus, WW— jTi^fW^ 'dwelling in purity' ; »l??ffrww'' 'dwelling in the 
skies', 'epithets of Brlhma"' (Kath. 5. 2); T.^f?? 'serving'. 6-„r-«»^^ 'oviparous'; 
^ 'bri-nging forth hundred'; W^'pracnt'. Ffsr— fSnrfs:?., 'treacherous'; sifgr? 
'hostile'. «^_fjn(ij^^ 'treacherous'; sj^gr^ 'hostile' (VIU. 2. 37). 5?— Jltwcii 'cow- 
'"'"^er' ; 51^^ 'milkV (VIII. 2. 32. and i7). ^W -s^M^Ts; 'carriage' ; sj^^^ 'im- 
pulse'. f^^_^f^^^ 'knower of Veda'; STf%?r 'knowcr' ; jfwf^ 'knowcr of Brahma'. 
^-^arfHW 'wood-cutter' ; qfira 'cutter', fgjf — tS^^S[f, 'rope-cutter' ; V?^\ 
'a cutter', fsj— i^T^fsrn 'enemy-conqueror' ; sjl^tq; 'conqueror', sfr — 'ffTPfl': 'leader 
of an army' ; uoiff: 'a leader' ; JTincir: 'head-borough' ; Mimfr: 'first'. (Why is there 
cerebral isr in these words ? Because the word irrTOjt has a cerebral m in 


436 The affix nyut. [Bk. III. Cii. II. ^ 62-6- 

siltra V 2. 78 and that indicates that these words will have jjj, as also by sOtra 
VIII. 4. 3). n^— Rrrt? 'splendour'; trar? 'emperor' (the letter 11 is added by 
sutra VIII. 3. 25). 

This satra is a continuation and expansion of sCltras 75 and 76 sup. 

Mir ^: « ^^ II ^T^f^ 11 M^:, f^^t, ( ^'TOn, 3Tf^, ^)i, 

G2. The affix ft^ comes iifter the verb h^ 'to 
•share' when in composition ^vitfi a word eucliug in a 
case-affix wli ether it he an iipasar,^-a or not. 

The words 'upasarga' and 'supi' are understood in this sCitra. As vj:i 
ijTjfj " s^^>ir5^ nom. sing. 3T.-3>ir^ 'sharing a luilf. So also when in composi- 
tion with a preposition ; as u^Tf^ 'division'. 

^5^f% ^i II ^\ II T3[Tf^ 11 ^5^, ^:, (^^traif, |ft, 

^Ftt: II g:??Fg m^ ?T?vi'r^: ^sj^ TiTT? f&^Jl?«r^r w^f?r II 

G3. In the Clihaudas, the affix H^ corner after 
the verb «?; 'to bear' when it is in composition with a 
Avord ending in a case-alhx. 

The words 'iipasarga and 'supi' arc understood here. As gr+^? + N 
^itwr?, nom. sing arr^ I? 'name of Indra'. The dental w is changed into cere- 
bral sr by VIII. 3. 56, and the ? into ? by VIII. 2. 31. The final st of nx is 
lengthened by VI. 3- IJ7- See Rig Veda. I. 175. 2, III. 48 5. 

?r^ II ^« 11 ■^rf^ 11 ^:, % (^5^, %:, 5ft) >< 

^pTi: II ^?vit(in;g[5?fe m*i «^'?i 5iq| r^^Ur^^ ^^7n 11 

G4. The athxr"^ comes after the verb ?? 'to 
carry', in tiie Clihandas, when a word ending with a case- 
affix is iu composition witli it. 

Asusm? 1st sing qg^r? 'carrying a /^^.f/i/Z/rt measure"; so, ftmff I 
The division of this sutra from the last is for the sake of the subsequent 
sfitras, into which the anuvritti of ^^only is carried and not of «?., See Ya.ur, 
Veda. XIV. 10, XVIII. 26. 

CT^, ( ^^, ^f^, ^: ) II , _* ^s ,1 

G5. In the Chhaudas the affix *^1 comes after 

BK III. en, 11. § 66, 67.] The affix vit. 437 

the verb ^rf when it is in composition with the words ^«r 
•obhitiou of food to deceased ancesfcoi'o', it^^ 'faeces' and 
qytsf 'water'. 

As :K5?rarf^: f^nrPI (Vajur. Vcd. II. 29) 'fire that carries the oblation 
t, the ptris'; "T^tsR-re^. 'carrier of water' ; "TO^I-Tf^T: ( Yaj. Vcd. XI. 44). 
The feminine words is formed by adding long f 1 

i^^j?rt:^^^ II a II tr^Rr II ^'c§, ar^i^.-TiT^, 

(%^f^, ^:, v^J 11 

^^f^: II ?5?i<r€? 3Tqrf g;?fra fjq^d ^f^rf^^ijsifsijfr n^fcf, M5t«f:<nj "^f?- 

GG. Tlic athx>'fe comes in the Chhandas, after 
tlie verh 5? 'to carry' when it is in composition with tlie 
word fsK 'an oblation to gods', provided tliat the word so 
Ibimod does not occur in tiic middle of a pftda (fonrtla 
part of a stanza). 

As MKTV ?5?r^r5pr. 'fire, the carrier of oblation to the gods'. (Rig, Ved. 

When this word occurs in the middle of a p.lda, or at the beginning, 
the form is ?E^^r;, which is derived by adding the affix fojr (siHra 64). As 
J^t^rSiT^T^rirr: fittr =t: 'the never-decaying agni or fire that carries oblation to 
the gods, is our father'. (Rig. Veda. III. 2. 2.) 

^'TO^TO'nB'Tn^ fije II ^a 11 tr^if^ a ^tti.^^^.^pt- 

^PtT: II iT^rrf^k^r ^%*^: aw?^ ^vv\% ^n7m T%^^ f^?!Tf^'> n^fti 11 

67. The affix '^^\ (the whole of which is elided) 
comes in the Chhandas alter the verbs sr^r 'to be born', 
"1 'to bestow', ^\ 'to dig', %\ 'to pace' and t^ 'to go', 
\Wien a word ending in a case-affix is in composition, and 
t^e thial nasals are changed into long w. 

The words 5[¥?f%, ^<\Hii and g:? arc understood in this sCltra. The 
Wb 'jr;r includes two verbs meaning 'to be born' and 'to happen' ; so also 
^=1 means both 'to give' and 'to worship'. 

Of the affix ft? the letter a is indicatory, and is qualifying, as in 
^,,j' ''■'*'' ^y which rule the final nasal of 3»7^, «;^ &c. is replaced by long w 
'^n the affix ffs follows, and the whole affix is elided by VI. i. 67. 

43$ The affix kap. [Bk. III. Ch. II. § eg, 70 

As STqL + sr'r+f%i..= *f«^:lRig. Ved. Vil. 34. 16) 'born in water' 'V| 
4. 41); ift^t: 'born in the heaven i.e. God' (Rig. Veda IV. 40. 5). So also fr(,ni 
«;?— ift«rr: 'acquiring or bestowing cows' (VIII. 3. 108); jftir j^H^rf mRt 'Oindrj 
bestowcr of cows ! thou art lover of mankind' (Rig- Veda IX. 2. 10). From ^1 
— T%^^: 'digger of lotus stalk' ; 3r,q»3r: 'digger of well'. From ?»w— fRrjKr '\rf]„ 
gets milk' (Rig. IV. 39. I and 40. 5). From n»l— srq'JTr g^^sufi 'the leader'. 

aT^«R^ II ^c II tr^rf'T 11 ar^:, st^^, (ff^, ft? ) 11 

C8. The affix f%? comes after the verb si? 'to 
eat,' when in coinposition with a case-inflected woivl 
other than ^^ 'food'. 

The anuvritti of the word 'Chhandasi' does not extend to this .sutra. 
Thus 3TR«Tf¥t =«nTni 'eating raw food' ; ^J^'UH 'granivorous'. 
But with «vT as an upapada, wc have s??rrf: 'eating food', which is 
formed by the general affix atCT (III 2. i.) 

3S^ ^ II 5< II tr^f^ II "ssm, ^, ( ^:, f^^) II 

GO. The affix ff? comtw after the verb m:^ 'to 
eat/ ^Yhcn tlie word ^^ is in composition with it. 
As jF5?tHrTl = JFS^r?i. 'carnivorous'. 

Why has it been made a separate sfitra, when this form could have 
been obtained by the last siltra also? To this the vArtika replies: 'Th:i 
has been made a separate sutra in order to indicate that the rule of ^ra^< ('" 
I. 94) does not apply here. Therefore the affix 9TCT,will not apply in the alter- 
native. If the affix sret..does not apply, how then we get the form !f.?m? 
which is evidently formed by the affix mcJ.? The affix hcT^ comes after tli« 
root when the word formed means the eater of meat which ha.s been cut, drcs.''- 
cd and cooked'; thus sips^?: means a man who eats meat cooked and prepared. 
i. e. a meat-eater as opposed to a vegetarian, while %^\\ means an aniraa 
which eats raw flesh ; the word %sm%: in fact may be regarded as an irreguaf 
form falling under 5'?r?tfff class of sfltra VJ- 3- 109. 

^: ^m;^ U so II 5f :, 'S\-^:, '"T, ( f ft ) " 
ilf%: 11 Sf^aJ: gcwTTt ^'^f^-^ >T?f% tT^rrarfml?j: M 

70. The affix ^t, comes after the verb !1 ^"^ 
milk' when in composition with a word ending in ^ ^*^ 
affix and tlie letter w replaces its final. 

BK. in. Ch. II. §• 71, 72] The affix nvin. 439 


'' As Wll^^r ^5: 'a milch cow, giving abundance of milk' ; so also tT^JjIT, 

tF!t: II "^^iff 5^?7« ^rtssrii ?f$^*^r ^f'i wtsvt h^Ri »t*t f«r?* n 
^3f^ II "^n^r^tsTt »<<r?egfii ^tk^^t't u 

71- In the Mantra literature, the affix f»^1. 
comes after the words '^f^.^^ir'njHaud jfy^RTj 

The above words contain both the verb and the upapada ; the fact of 
their being so given indicates that there is some irregularity in the application 
of the affix. 

Thus the affix f*^ comes after the verb ^f^ preceded by the upapada 
•«^ as denoting an agent, while the force of the whole word so formed denotes 
an object. As "^m ^ ^ffta= «9«^r?^ nom. sing. >i|?tfr. 'a name of Indra' (whom 
white horses carry). 

The affix fo^s^, is applied to the verb itw 'to praise' when preceded 
by the word 7^jt as object or instrument ; and then the nasal is irregularly 
dropped. As ^^^rf^ ^^^ ^f?rf% = «r^?TW^, nom. sing 3^557: (Rig. Ved. II. 
,19. I,) 'a reciter of hymns, the name of the sacrificer'. 

The fofiT^ is applied after the verb ?rTt 'to give', preceded by ^fj, and ? 
is changed into 5, the force of the whole word denoting an object. As jrlr ^W^^ 
v^=l^(^^;^, nom. sing. fjrfSi: (Rig. Ved. III. 28. 2) 'an offering'. 

Varl: — The augment »^ is added to the words 't^fw^ &c., when the 
^flij affixes follow Thus before /(»fl'<i terminations "^^i^f^ becomes ^#?iw^ I 
Therefore its Instrumental dual is :ct?!Tt>-?tr>r, pi. ?;#?i<Jtr>T: I 

The augment 3^ is not applied before tr'T'Tfl?«T.''r and »T termina- 
tions. As 5^Trf>, ^tn^rf : 1 

gra ^^i 11 3^ II 'T^f^ H JSTSr, tr^T:, (f^»T, ^) II 

72. In the Mantra literature, the affix Tofsr 
cottie.g after tlie verb^ni^ 'to sacrifice' when in coiliiJosi- 
tiou with the word vj^. 

As sTV^Ti^, nom. sing, sf^f- (Rig Ved. I. 173. 12) 'name of a Vedic 

Pfiest' ; as ?# ?iif T^CT^^^r ST% 'Thou art the priest of Varuna in the sacrifice'. 

The division of this aphorism from the last in which it could have been 

"deluded, is for the sake of the subsequent sOtras in which the anuvritti of inr 



440 The affix vich. [Bk. III. Ch. II § ■^^^ 

only runs. This word is thus declined :— 

sing dual plural. 

1st. ar^^., »W»ft3ft, M'Pihsi: 

2nd. ST^^TPFT, »T^5r3f^, ST^ni: 

3rd, sT^T^rar, »i^i^«if, «w^f5r 

^f?i: II OT^it ^rw^afftr f%<TJI f^^ntsit »i?f?r 11 

73. The affix fjr^ comes after the verl) ^n 
when ^ precedes, in the Chhaiidas. 

As 37??5^fw?r»-S ^?f?fJ 'they carry it up with the TT^T^ formulas', t?^^ 
i s the name of eleven formulas at a sacrifice. 

The word 'Chhandas' has been repeated here though the anuvritti of 
the word 'mantra' was present in it, in order to include the Brahmana literature 


The -^ is indicatory and is useful in including the affix F?r^ in the 
larger group called [n (which includes fen, Ffi'i;, f^, f%s.), as in the sfitra grs^CT 
(VI. I. 67). 

Why has this sCltra been made, since the affix fk'^ would have been 
valid even by aphorism 75 ? The sCitra has been separately made to show 
th.Ht it is a restrictive rule here. The form 5<nr5?; is found in the Chhandas only, 
and not in the ordinary literature. 

gmfr lTf^5T3!f^J3^Rf^3 II 38 II ^M^ " ^ffTcr:, ift^; 

\rTi: II ait^rrrfa*^^ ^\n*^-- ec^Tit e[^?% f%«ra hT^ ^^\ "rrii; i'"^ 
m^tn m^'ri '^^irrfi^rfT 11 

74. The affixes if^CTT^), ^T^^(^), fri^C^'i) and fq 
come hi tlie Chhandas, after verhs which end in long'"' 
w^hen a case inflected word or an upasarga is in composi- 

The force of 'and' is to include fr^. Thus ^?T+lfHi;=f?W'';. 's'- ^'"^' 
B^m (Rig. VI. 20. 7) 'one who gives liberally'; s^5;^+sE«n+Tri^=8T:C^»'TmT,, " 
sTng. MH^^lRr 'the name of Asvatthiman' ; «>TT+8»f^1,= '5'*lf+'^ ("^^- ''' ^^' 
a>ft?;T, 1st. sing. ^^^^ 'having good understanding' ; «iTr+g>r^=l"^'^y ''' 
s^ng. oq.^ 'a good drinker'. wj^+?r+«rfH=l[^?f^,. *s*' ^'"S" 'l?^" ^^^^ 
27. 17) 'liberal' ; ^?wr?r^. ist. sing. ^mt^{ (Yaj. VI. 19) 'ghee-drinker*. 

The affix T^% is also included in this aphorism. As !|ft5n5T-f fl+l'jjr 
,^t5fW«n: (R'g- X. 91. 14) 'rcctar-drinker'i^w: (Rig. IV. 3. 6. and Pami' 

K. III. Ch. II. § 75-77 ] The affix kvip. 441 

46) 'beautifully going' ; m?^>nrr: 'an offering of RSma.' (see sOtra III. 3, 106 
nd Yajur. Ved. XXX. 9). 

3r!$>§Tf^ -p^ II s\j II Ti^Tf^r II ai»;q«T:, srftr, jvi^, 

'sq II 

Y5. affixes viz. tPtt,, 55^ ^PtI; ami f^^ are 
ecu after other verbs also besides those ending in longw- 

The word s*?Fjer is not understood here. As s 4 it 'to injure' +«tf't'l 
-g!(1<('l, 1st. 'sing. F^iR? 'wlio destroys well /. c. destroys sin or ignorance', 
ar+^'to go'+8Ptr'j'i=5mirH-^+^5i (VI. i.7i) = iirafo?'r,, 1st. sing. Jirafrs^ 
ho goes early'. f%+5i'T+^fil"l,=r5+siH-!riT (VI. 4.4i) = ri?3rt^'^. ist. sing, 
urfl 'who brings forth'. 3W"i|rar 'who goes before'. r'C^.+f%^,= r5r.(VII. 3. 86) 
t. sing f^ 'who injure;.' ; as in ?:f[% 70 h§: (Yajuj. Ved. VI. 18). 

The word 'also' in this aphorism has the force of removing all condi- 
ons under which these affixes wore employed in the previous aphorisms, that 
to say, these aH:xc3 come even when there is no upapada. As <f\^j, »tf?r. 

The words 'arc seen' in this sfltra show that all verbs do not admit of 
lese affixes indiscriminately. It is only when we see a particular form that 
c can infer the existence of these affixes. 

ffti ir II ^ II tr^rf^ ii %ir, ^ ii 

^PtI: II H^wrsji^T: ^'rf?>^*T f5r?iq§>«!V ^f^m ^rrstmr -a r3?<ixnr* ^^fn 11 

76. And the affix f?R"T_ is also seen alter all 
erbs, whether having au upapada or not in the Vedic as 
'ell as in the modern Sanskrit. 

As ^fSfrt: BH^ = «r5?ra3 (VI. 4. 24) 'falling from the pot'; in^t.^a, 'falling 
™the leaves'; 5rfr««5trfJ=^^ran, 1st. sing qr?raT, 'falling from a car'. 
ie?f islongby VI. 3 137. See Rig. Ved. I. 3. 8. 

SW: « ^ II33II tnjrfH II 'W:, ^, "T, (^fir, ^tra^I, %\)ll 

^f^: II ?m ?wftw?t^r: %'^'vti affS95^ ^tn i^n ii 

77. The affixes aff and ftw^come after the verb 
' when it is in composition with a word ending in a 
ase-affix or an upasarga. 

Why has this aphorism been made, when by rule III. i. 4, wr would 
"^ taken wand by rule III. 1.75, it would h.ive taken fara"^. also ? This 
Pi^tition is for the purpose of prohibiting the prohibition, that is to say, the 

442 The affix nini. [Bk. III. Ch. II. § 78, 


sfltra III. 2. 14 prohibited the sfitra III. 2. 4, and the present sfitra removes that 
prohibition. Thus Tf«T: and if«n: • But for this sOtra, this form could not 
have been evolved ; for, with the upapada jp^, the verb wr would have taken 
the affix H'^^by III. 2. 14. 

^r^Ssi^ II ew^rfirfe ^ II 
^^^11 wsrfcTsrfMi 

78. "When habit is to be expressed, the affix 
ferT comes after a verb, provided the word with a case- 
affix ill composition with it, does not mean a genus. 

Thus 5«!i+^+R(Tf»r = 3S!T4Tf3Ii;. Jst. sing, ^sJUHtsft 'who eats his meai 
hot'. So also :cft?wrsTr &c. 

Why do we say 'when it does not mean a genus' ? Witness >jr?nnr?f- 
n^rn^n 'the inviter of Brahmarias'. We cannot form !irwcJRin**l<ft 

Why do we say 'when habit is to be expressed'? Witness 3^iJT Hf # 
qj^lf^ 'he sometimes eats hot'. 

~ Though the anuvritti of the word 'supi' was understood in this ap- 
horism, its repetition here declares that upasargas are not included. This ii 
contested by the author of the Siddhinta Kaumudi. According to him this affix 
comes even with upasargas. As *ryTrfir?f,, srjtirf^r'O ^^sfl-Rr^., &c.'. 

F^;'/,— The verb SITS in composition with the prepositions W, or sirs 
should be enumerated as taking this affix. As gr^rarfrT, fern. 3?mrft^. 's' 
plural ?f raTfro«r:. So also jjwiRrrfrisft, pi- si??irarfr"^: 1 

Fart.— So also when the sense is 'having skill in such and such action'. 
As at^^ff^fr 'excellent worker' ; ?f(Wfnft 'giving liberally', 

" Vart— So also after the verb ^ preceded by wm- As jrP^rfti. '" 
HWrrf^ift V(^ 'the knowers of Brahma say', 

<h^JM^l ? l II 3<; II ^T^ It ^R ^«*CT^, (W'fO " 
nfW; II ^ifw ^P?rT sq-HTT 3TT* ^mlft^risfnraT >iqfiT n 

•79. The affix fiufT comes after a verb when it is 111 
composition with a word denoting an object of compari- 
son, expressing the agent, the sense of the affix being 
•doing something like that', that is to say, when tii 

BK. in- Ch. II. § 80, 81.] The affix nini. 443 

apapfida agont is the standard of comparLson of the agent 
denoted by the word to which the sense of the affix re- 

Thus 5"sjrTT^fTrf% = T5j5Rffi[r'r 'who makes a noise like a camel'; tirfw- 
of^sf 'who makes a noise like a crow'. 

This sOtra applies where 'habit' is not indicated : or where 'genus' is 
denoted in opposition to the last aphorism. 

Why do we say 'when expressing the agent'? Witness as HTTrf*!^ 
ijfl'nRt •inrtT^'he eats niA'iha lilco apfipd . Here srjj is object and not agent, and 
hence no composition takes place. 

Why do we say 'denoting a standard of comparison'? Otherwise there 
will be no composition. As ;?-?: ?kV?Ji?t 'the camel makes noise'. For the 
accents of these words, see VI. 3. So. 

s?r II CO II TT?[rRr II 51^, (■^t^t:, ^fqr, f^f^r:) ii 

80. Tiiu affix fer^ uoincs after a verb, iu com- 
position witl) a Word ending in a case-affix. 

The word 5rw means a 'vow' as regulated and ordained by the Scrip- 
tures. This condition 'when vow is exprcise.l' applies to the completed 
word, tiiat is to say, when the complete word m.ido up of the root, the upapada, 
and the affix, dcr )t?s a vow. As JjiffesrsTrFiT^^'thc vow of sleeping on bare 
ground (and no-.. lii;!'.; else) or a person wlio hi; t.ik-n this vow', 3T<(r.5'fri3i^^ 
'wlio has vowed not to cat during the pcrformince of a Sraddha ceremony. 

Why do we s.iy 'when vow is to be expressed' ? Otherwise there is 
no composition. As ^q-fts^r^ 5fS ^^%'^: 'Dcvadatta sleeps on bare ground'. 

This sutra is also an exception to III. 2 78 applica't^le when habit is 
not meant, or when genus is to be expressed. 

arf^RT^'^^^ll C9 liq-^rf^ IS 3If^W,3T7'^f>^?5(^,(f^f5r:)H 
1f^: II Hr»fl^t JT'^sRr'f wm"r^?5i fefffiir^r viff^ 11 

81. The affix rcxR conies after a vei'b diversely 
Wlien continued repetition of an action is to be expressed. 

The word stNI"^"^ means continued repetition, that is to say, zealous 
Practice or assiduous performance of anything, but does not mean habit. As 
^fWrrf^nift »Tr»>TfTf: 'the people of Gandhara arc kasha ya-drinkers'. ^qnr-F 
'"+%f5r -^^isTra-f-Tf +^^ + fi!jf=j (VII. 3. 33). So also ^rrTrRtCJ ^^rtTRf: 'the 
^Ple of Usinara are milk-drinkers'. ^^fr-TrRrofr ms^sft^f: 'the people of 
«4hlika are sauvira-drinkers". 

By using the word 'diversely' in the siitra, this affix is not applied ia 
^f places, as in the following ;— w^tT<3r^: 'a grain eater'. 


444 The affix khas. [Bk. III. Ch. II. § 82, 81 

TT: U c:? 11 tT^T<% II ^mt, (^ft, f¥^t) II 

82. The aflSx fo^ comes after the verb n^'to 
think' when there is a word with a case-affix in compo- 
sition with it. 

The word 'supi' is understood in this sfltra- As ^^JfNfHfft 'who 
thinks himself handsome'; 3JY>i^»Tt'fl' 'who thinks himself beautiful'. 

The verb hji^ belonging to the 4th conjugation is taken here and not 
that belonging to the 8th conjugation ; because the anuvritti of the word 
'diversely' is understood here. In the present aphorism, whether we take the 
Divftdi or Tanadi n't. the resulting form would be the same, namely iufspt 
But not so in the next aphorism, where before the affix ijriT there would be 
difference of form owing to the vikarana. i. e , in the 4th conjugation ^j|^ 
would be added, but not so if the verb belonged to the 8th class. 

am'nn^ ^^ ii q ii ^^rf^ n snr'nTT^, ?!rar,^,(f%fH:)ii 

^Hfi: II ^mmn ^'^Hm^H^n-. ?r«iqq? ^jthj?^ h^Rt, 'g^nrrr<"ifjrv 11 

83. And the affix 'stl comes after the verb n^f 
'to think' when the word in composition with it is a 
word with a case-affix, and when it is employed to sig- 
nify thought, whereof the object is self (the sense oltlie 
affix being 'thinking himself as such'). 

The word 3Tr?i'nT means thinking of one's own self. By the word 
'and' it is meant that the affix RufsT may be employed in the same sense. 
This rule applies where the agent, indicated by the sense of the affix, thinks him- 
self possessed of the qualities of 'handsomeness' &c., denoted by the upapada, 
As 9^^7?iii»!i: or ^T^^r'Tipff 'who thinks himself handsome'; <rfe3f'^: <" 
TRjtS^llpfl' 'who thinks himself learned'. 

Why do we say 'when employed to signify thought whereof the 
object is self ? Witness ?ji5tr?prr'ft tff=5H?r vm'ff- 'Yajfiadatta is thought 
handsome by Devadatta. 

Of the affix mT[_the letter f!(^ causes 5^ augment by VI. 3- ^^ ; andli 
makes it a sArvadhatuka affix, which brings in the proper vikaranas. The 
affixes so far treated of are applicable in all tenses. The others that folto* 
denote some particular time. 

M^ II q{ II xrerf^r ii ^ ii 

ffti: II >|Br ^njf^r^ ^^in^ ^Mn Hf^ «tft« ^v^it^wPiwuh; >5? ^ 


Ill, Ch, II. § 84-87-] The affix kvip. 445 

84. All the affixes to be treated of hereafter 
should be understood to come in the sense of past time. 

The phrase 'with the sense of past time' is an adhikSra or governing 
,phorism and exerts its influence up to aphorism 123 of this chapter ; that 
5 to say, these affixes give a signification of the past tense to the verb whose 
nuvritti is also understood throughout the subsequent sutras; sec III, i. 91. 

Thus it will be taught in the next aphorism: 'after the verb n^^, when 
he word in composition is in the instrumental case, the affix fjjjfJr is employ- 
ed'. Here to complete the sense we must read into the siitra, the words 'with 
he sense of past time'. As STf^T Ji%^jgr'^=3T!»T?r'T?Trf»i'T 'who has sacrificed 
vith an Agnishfoma or a five-day series of offerings'. 

\v'hy do vi'c say 'with the sense of past time' ? Otherwise these affix- 
is will f t be employ ed. As STfrsfifr^ST ^itr?r 'he sacrifices with Agnishtoma'. 

^?:t ^^: II <^ II V^fk II ^?:^, xrw:, (f%f^:, ^?t)« 

^Irf; II «nravT?*ft: 5FTtU3-T<r5 fcTpTSITO^ »I?Rt >^ II 

8.5. The alii X Rof^ comes after the verb ^r^ 'to 
iacriflce' with the sen .so of past time, when tlie word in 
;ompo3ition is in the instrumental case. 

The anuvritti of fcT'^r and not of ^jrt i-- to be read into this sOtra. As 
ffjr?f»r?rrf»lf^'who has sacrificed with Agnishti^ma.' Here Agnishtoma is the 
istrument for the attainncnt of the desired fruit. 

^'^fw ■^■Hi II c^ II tr^rin II ^r^, •^:, (f^f^:) u 

^frf: II cCHiirt 3-qT? ??t^f rftfiCT. qfsint'ifJ ■^fir >^ ^>r^ II 

8G. Tlie allix rojrT comes after the verb f^ 'to 
nir, with the sense of past time, when the word iu 
:omposition is in the accusative case. 

As (<i55fltirfii5T 'who has killed his paternal uncle'; masrarfji^ 'who 
1? killed his maternal uncle'; n;+fajf?r = ^'T + ri!Trfr (VII. 3. S4) = 5Ta + fcjfij 
^II.3.32) = ^rFrK^ (VII. 2. 116;. 

This affix is employed only when censure is implied. Therefore it is 
ot employed in "^ ??r^PT^ 'he has killed the thief. 

The anuvritti of the word eUHfcj of this aphorism extends up to sdtra 
II. 2. 96. 

^- II srsrrf?^ suH^ryrf"? ??^:5???T: r^<i;!i?^ wrn »t 11 

87. The afQx f^ri comes after the verb V{ *to 

446 The affix kvip. [Bk. III. Ch. II. § 88, Sg 

kill' ■with tlic sense time, -when the following 
words in the accusative case are in comijositiou : m^^■^ 
Brahmana', 'stsr 'a foetus' and '.^ 'Vritra'. 

As »jfT?'r, 1st. sing. fraj?r 'who has killed a Brahmana'; vijBj?r 'wlm 
has killed a foetus'; q'^rfl 'who has killed Vritra, a name of Indra'. 

Since by s{itra 76 ««/'^, the affix Br->t was ordained to come' after all 
verbs, and therefore would have come after the verb ?;? also, where is the ne- 
cessity of the present aphorism ? This aphorism makes a niyama. i e. the wrb 
fj takes the affix f^f^ only when it is in composition with the words ^ 
&c. Four-fold restriction is here intended. 

(i) When ?^ has, as upapada, the words Jisr &c., and not any other 
word ; as 5^ fW^'T 'he has killed the man'. 

(2) When the words jr?f &c. arc upapadas of any other verb than %^, 
then this affix is not employed ; so that the verb must be %\ ; thus jtarvfiti^ii 
'he has read the Veda'. 

(3) The fli^qr is the only affix to denote past time in the case o{^ 
preceded by srsf &c., and no other affix can be employed in this sense. 

(4) This is employed only in the past tense and not in any other 
tense ; as s?ii'T ^fJfr or g-firisqrrr 'he kills or will kill the Brahmana'. This siitra 
anticipates the diversity taught in the next sutra, and is an example of 
^»j use of the affix. 

^f^: II a^ffe f%«r?f 5<n?rfrrfqr ??r#|5t mi^?^ n^"^ 11 

88. In the Chhandas, the affix r^in fliversely 
comes after the verb ?t^ 'to kill' with the senses of past 
time, eveu when the word in coraposition with it i^ 
other than those mentioned in the last aphorism. 

This aphorism ordains f^T in cases which are not governed by I'le 
restrictive rule contained in the last aphorism. As itRr?r tnr<i '{^^ ^^\ '"''^J' 
the matricide enter the seventh hell'; so also (q^r 'patricide'. 

Diversely we find also HTi^ra: and ftijqrH.' I 

^: II ^nf^ sB4^"m? ^rf>#ci!?ft: f^nnr^ >TTPf n 

89. The affix r^T comes after the verb? ^ 
make' with the sense of past time, when the followmS 
words in the accusative case are in compositlou :— " 
•weir, «* 'action', m 'sin', >?> 'hymn' aijd 3"^ 'virtue', 

1?K. HI- Ch. II. § 90-92.] The affix kvip. 447 

The phrase 'in the accusative case' is understood in this aphorism, and 
applies to all the above-mentioned words, except g, which being an attributive 
word, of course, cannot take any case-terminations. As ^|trr (VI. i. 7i) 'who 
has done well'; cjr4f>?r 'who has done all works'; >Tr<r^?i_'who has committed 
iins'; I'ffi'!. 'who has made a mantra'; j'STfrff 'who has done virtuous actions'. 

This sutra also ordains a restrictive rule or niyama. Three-fold 
restriction is intended here : namely, restriction.s with regard to time, upapada, 
jn^ affix ; but not with regard to verbs. See III. 2. 87. Tlicre being no res- 
triction with regard to the root, thi.s affix is employed when words other than 
these are upapadas. As, 5[rretf«ri_ 'who has made Scriptures ; Hrs^tfr"^ 'who has 
nade a commentary'. The ?t_ is added to the root by VI. i. 71. 

%T% 55T: II W II tr^f^ II %T^, WS{:, {^n^, %tT) u 

^r: 11 ^^ ^K"^1<Tt ^H^t^VT?^ f?fT'T!?r!nft- >T^(?I II 

90. The affix f^"T comes after the verb 5 'to 
pi'oss oiit juice', with tiie sense of past time, when tlie 
word tfiw, in the accusative case, is in composition. 

As, «T1H?I 'who has pressed the soma juice, or soma-distiller'; ist. dual 
j>«fay ; 1st. plural ^l^fj: I 

This sCltra is also for the sake of making a niyama or restrictive rule. 
The four-fold restriction is here intended, i.e as regards the verb, the tense, 
he upapada and the affix. 

sp'ft %: II «!^ II TT^f^ II ari'f^, ^:, (^'R^, fifR) II 

w:%: II ^ Sg^o^ffq^ «^Svrf?fr: f^fTlI?^?!^ Hffil II 

91. The affix fk^% comes after tlie verb f=^ 'to 
•oUect' with the sense of past time, wlien tlie word ^^^t, in 
;lie accusative case, is in composition. 

As, Hfirr*^?!; 'one who has kept the sacred fire' ; 1st. dual Hftrf^^ ; 
St. plural sffirf^ff: 1 

Here also, as in the last aphorism, four-fold restriction is intended. 

»4^(mM | <gM rqT^^ II ^'R H M«^l P< 11 ^1^1%, a?R?T-aTT^T- 

92. In expressing an object tlie affix fsifi 
■OQie.s after the verb f% 'to collect' with the sense oi past 
i^e, when in comi)ositiou with a word in the accusative 
■'ise, provided the word so formed is the name of fire. 

The words ^: and «ir4fcj are understood in this sCltra. The Name is 


448 The affix kvanip. [Bk. III. Cii. II. § 


expressed by taking the complete, word consisting of the verbal root, the uw 
pada and the affix. As spr^f^^T 'a fire which has boen arranged in tiic sh.iw 
of a hawk' ; ^yf=i?^^ 'fire arranged like a heron'. 

The word srra^rr indicates that these words are rucjhi words, thei, 
sense depending upon usage rather than etymology. The arrangement o; 
bricks for sacrificial purpose with regard to fire, gets these various names ; thai 
is, when the bricks are arranged like a falcon, it is called ^^sfp^jr, and so on. 

qs^wH^ ftfiir^: II «j^ II tr^rf^ ii «»5^, jf^, fk^m h 

93. I'he alIi.K xff comes after the compoutid 
A-erl) Rrfi 'to sell', in the sense of past time, when iu eom- 
l)Osition with a won! in the accusative case. 

The repetition of the word ^nfirj in the sutra, though its anuvritti 
might have been drawn from the last aphorism, indicates that when the object 
carries with it a sense of censure on the agent, then only this affix is employed 
and not with every and any object. As ffmfirwRrT., 'the seller of soma plant'; 
^trf^wfii'r^ 'the seller of liquors'; employing disapproval of the action of thoic 
persons who carry on these mean professions. But not so in vrF^rfqwrf . 'tfe 
seller of paddy'. 

fijt i«f^^ II <Ja II ^T^rf^ II ■pst, nif^, (^»^) II 

^f?f: )i frivifnf- ^H^^Tit ^sTTsjfirair h^Ri ii 

94. The jitllx m^^^i comes after the verb pr 'to 
see' in the sense of past time, wlicn in comijosition Avitli 
a word iii the accnsative case. 

As S^fs^T.^, 1st. sing. %^!j?:Tr 'who has seen the Mcru'. <T^flRi7(ll 
'who has ■ seen the hereafter.' 

Though the affix a^fir^ was valid by siitra HI. 2. 75 its repetition here 
shows that no other affix comes in this sense after this verb. 

95. Tiie altlx «i#rT, comes after the verbs ff '^'^ 
light' and ^ 'to. make' with a past signification when tlie 
word rfiPT__'kLng' is in composition, in the accusative castf^ 

How can the verb nw, which is an intransitive verb, govern an obj^ ■ 
It is a transitive verb, inasmucli as it is taken to be a causative verb, witn 
fd-^ affix latent. As rra^>.'R,, 1st. sing, rnrm^ (VIII. 2. 7) 'who has causi 
the kirg to fight' ; uwf!?TT^, 1st. sing. Kf^W (VI. I. /I.) 'who has made a k'^^ 


HI. Cii. II. § 96-100.] The affix da. 449 

'^ ^ H <^ II 1«^ » f^ II ^, ^, (jfvi, ITST:, IffsR) II 

90. The affix m^^\ comes after the verhs ^^^ancl 
1;, with a past .signification, when tlie word ^9 'with', is in 

The word ^, being a particle, and not denoting a substance, is incap- 
able of taking any case. As «?^'.^^'who has made to fight with'; ?rf^??T.^ 
'who has done any thing along with another'. 

^^rpTtrt ^f^: II O II TT^rf^ 11 ^^^^, ^:, ^: II 

^f%: ir ^ff»sjs?T ^7<Tt 5r#i Jifi^ H^Fa 11 

97. Tlie aflix ^ conies after the verh st^., 'to he 
produced', witii a signiilcation, wlion tlio word, in 
t'ompo.sition with it, is in tlie h^cativ^e case. 

AsgTO? irr?f:=OT^oi: I xi5(;-l-3=»^+3T (VI. 4. 143) =5T 'born of the 
first conception'; >i?jrsT: 'born in the stable'. 

M^+yt+I^Tcftll «Sc II TT^f^ lltrgtTTTf, WJrrm, (^:,^:)ll 

98. TJie affix ^ comes art<n- the vei-h spt^, with a 
pa-;t signification, wlien the word in coniijosition witli it, 
is in the ahlative case, which does not denote a genus. 

As 5%it: 'born through understanding' ; ^^ERir*!: 'born of habit'; ? ^Sf: 
'born through pain'. 

Why do wc say 'when not denoting a genus' ? Observe ?fot^ uni: 
'born of elephant'; sr^rHtra: 'born of horse'. 

'grwf ^ ^'grnrni ii «: ii ^t^ ii ^^f^^, '^, ^vuwi, 

%'^v. II OT«Tf -^qqt 5ini: m^"^ n^^n «?rrar m^ 11 

99. The allix « conies after the verh ^tt, with 
ii past signification, when an upasai-ga is in composition 
and when the sense is simply ai:)pellative. 

The term here being simply appellative, and not descriptive, cannot be 
^"plained by giving the signification of its component elements. As srm: 
people', or 'a son'; as in the sentence ^nm mH^ Jinr: I 

artr jf^ ii \c9 ii rj^rf^ ii ar^r, wkf^, (<9th, w:) » 

450 The nisiitha affixes. [Bk. III. Ch. II. § loi 

a past signification, wheii^tlie root takes the preposition 
«5 and is compounded with, a word in the accusative case, 

As <T<iTJir 'a girl born after the male child i, e. a girl having ^r 
elder brother' ; ^sti^^t: 'a boy born after the female child ;. e. a boy having 
an elder sister'. , 

9%: II sT^^s^tgTqt^ girrtR^ sr^i. ^^^ w*^ " 

101. The affix ^ is seen to come after the verb 
5t^^ witli a past sio-niflcation, though it be in composition 
Avith otlicr nouns, liaving cases otlier than those mention- 
ed in the xn-evioiis sutras. 

Thus the locative case has been dealt with in sutra III. 2. 97 ;but the 
affix comes when the upapada has any other case than the seventh. As ^ itrJR 
= siw: 'unborn'; fs^ra: =^31: 'twice-born'. 

Thus, it is said in sCitra III. 2. 98 that the upapada may be in the ablative 
case, when genus is not denoted. We see, however, the affix employed when 
genus is denoted. As sfWCJifl "^^^ \ '^Tf^l'i ^^11 

It is declared in sQtra III. 2. 98 that when appellative is meant, the affix 
:5 comes after the compound verb ^\ We find, however . the affix employed 
when the sense is not simply appellative ; as «f>nrr: or ^Txnv. 'born or produced 

all round i. e hair'. 

It is declared in sutra III. 2. 100. .'When an object is in composition 
with the verb H^JT'r this affix is employed'. But it may also be employed 
when no object fs in composition. As ^^^: 'born after ; e. younger brother 

The force of the word arftr 'though' is to free this rule from all restric- 
tions and conditions. So this affix comes after other verbs and other case.' 
in composition with such verbs. As ^fr-i: ^r = "jft^f 'a moat (htcrally 
which has been dug all round); *trar 'a pond'. 

f?ns3T II ^0^ II 'r^rf^ « f^^^^rr, {^) ii 

^rP^^i 11 Hrf??»rRfcj TTsr^'irs^rr II , 

102. Tlie affixes called r^^ come after a veiM 
al root, employed with the sense of past time. 

The affixes =i»t and =fif^H are f^r^ (I. I- 26). As ^-h^ = ^.|"^- 

, + ^,n=^.^«,ist sing.^W^Jdone'; ^« ^'^° ^^^^ "7*"'' ^Tl^nt For^ 
K«r/.-The Nishtha affixes come when ddi-karma '^""^^"^^^ ^, 
fuller description of what constitutes ddi-karma see sCtra III. 4- 7'. 
illustrations under it. Thus ir^n: «t^^;, ''^'WIT,^^ *«■«: ' 

BK IH. Ch. II. § ro3-io6.] The affix kanacii, 45' 

103. The affix «?rTr comes after the verbs « 'to 
vvess out or extract juice' and ^tst 'to sacrifice', with a past 

As « +^TfJn, = ^«+^'T, (VI. I 70=1^^. 'St. sing, gt^r 'who has 
pressed out or extracted juice' ; ^5^^, 1st. sing, arwr 'who has sacrificed'. The 
!i is added by VI. i. 71. See Rig. Ved. I. 3. i. 

^•§?tj:r!^^U ^«8 II TT^fvi II 1^1$^:, 3T^^, (*l^) H 

»piT: II 3ft^«l^ ilW^'Y WfW »T^ II 

104. The affix Kir'T comes after the verb w 'to 
grow old' with the sense of past time. 

As ir+»T?PT = »I^ + W», (VII. 3 84) = iK«, 1st. sing. vt% 1st. dl. '^(t^ff^, 
ist pi. iirsn: 'grown old' (VII i. 70). 

By the rule of ^ra«7 (III i 94)i the Nishtha affixes also come after this 
verb. Asiftcf.-and^ftofTr^i 5T+?ir = fJH;+w (VII. 1. 100 and 1. 1. 5i) = F5tr+^ 
(VIII, 2. 42) = iftid (VIII 2. ^j and VIII. 4. i) 'grown old'. 

Wf^ %J^ n xo'i H ^tr^rf^ 11 *»^f*j, f^, (m^) 11 

105. In the Ohhandas, the affix fsr? comes 
after a verb with a past signification. 

As »T» «stTH^^ ^^ 'I saw the sun from both sides' ; Mf vtm^fij^ 
vmmn 'I stretched the heaven and the earth'. Here the words ^ and srrerarsr 
have the force of nishtha. See Yaj. Vcd. VIII. 9. 

Why this separate s{»tra, when by aphorism III. 4. 6r, in the Chhandas 
he lun, laA and lit come in ail tenses ? That rule is made with regards to two 
irmore verbs when in syntactical relation (>jr50'?f'?) with each other (III. 4. i). 
riie present rule is general, and without any such limitations. 

Lit is the affix of the Present Perfect and will be fully treated of in the 
«njugation of verbs. 

f^: WRTOT U \9% II ^\\^ 11 f^S:, ^T^n, ^, (^?^)u 
wr^: II 8[s?ftl fsR: ?KPnnt?Tt H^r?T ^f 1 1 

106. In the Ohhandas the affix f^i? is optional- 
ly replaced by the affix «KHrn 1 

As Hf«t Rpwrr: 'he consecrated the fire'; wTh <^V3- 'he pressed the soma 
"'ce'. This being an optional affix, is sometimes not employed ; as in the 
examples in the last aphorism. 


452 Tiir: affix kvasu [Bk. III. Ch. II. { ,0,.,^ 

Why has the word lit been repeated in this sfltra, when its anuvritf 
could have been drawn from the last sCitra ? The sub.stitute gfrT''^ replaces nr r 
only the special f5T» of siitra III. 2. 105, but the general fsr? which comes after 
the roots in forming the perfect tehse ; so that the affix mx^m forms verbal ad 
jcctives as well as the perfect tense. 

This affix comes after those verbs only which take Atmanepada termi. 
nations. Seel. 4. 100. fRTSftT (Rig- Ved. I. 3. 6). 

W^ II ^53 II ^^rf^ II ^^:, ^, ('S'^, %?:) II 

107. In the Clihandas tlic affix m^ is option 
ally the substitute ol'fsf?,. 

As WfT^t)^ 1st. sing. srf^^iT 'eaten' (Yaj. VIII. 19) ; "rf^^W 1st. sint;, 
qR^tsT 'drunk'. 

Sometimes it docs not, as in the example under sOtra III. 2. 105 , 

The division of this sutra from the last, in which it could well have 
been included, is for the sake of the subsequent sutras, into which the ami 
vritti i>f Jwa only runs, 

(f^:, W^) II " 

108. In the modern Sanskrit, tlic affix ^t? 
optionally rei^laces ^, after the verbs «», t^; and ^ with ;i 
X:)a3t signiflcation. 

This being a substitute only, the original affix f?5r^ also comes ato 
these verbs. As, 5«T^fi?rrT ^m: "Trrajf^iT 'Kautsa served Panini'. In the alter- 
native, the proper affixes of the past tense will be employed. As OTta?n 'w 
b<^rvcd' ; 3<mft?« and TT^^fS- 

So also aTSTftr^rT^ jffW: Tr%R»i. In the alternative we have Wf^TWl'". 
»T?^^«H and sT'Tjrrtr. 

So also 3(?3TV?rrT^ gifhtr: qrrfefjrH. In the alternative we have ^irraWfl,' 
5<iriTcft«,and ^q^vrT. 

The affix g(?^ is employed with the force of ws^ and 5?s;aIso. 

^Tr n<j«HH r u.<<HH^Ria 11 ^o<: 11 y^il^ 11 ^f'rsT'T- 

109. The forms »^f«i<Tri wrMr»; wg^ are irregii" 
larly formed. 

BK. III. CH. II. § no.] The affix lun. 453 


These forms are thus evolved :— To the verb f 'to go' with the pre- 
position ^, the affix ^^ is- added; as 31^+5 + cr?|. The root is reduplica- 
ted: as 77-i-f+?+«^^- The reduplicate is here long | by VII. 4. 69. This 
l.^npf does not coalesce with the short f by the rules of sandhi ; for then the 
rule by which this f was introduced would have no scope. Now we add the 
augment p^ contrary and in opposition to the rule VII. 2. 67. and this is the 
irregularity. As OT+f +f -t-fT^+^^m. Then the root f is replaced by »i by 
siitraVI. 4 81. As5T-l-f+^+??^+3i?g = OTWW 1st. sing, jqftig-fsr. The aug- 
ment fJ^ is however dropped in those cases (tj) where ^?i^ is changed into 3C ; 
bscausc the insertion off?; was itself an exceptional case of limited scope :— for 
while the general rules VII. 2, 75 &c. ordained it, the special rule of VII. 2. 67 
prohibited it ; and it was by prohibition of this prohibition that 5? was em- 
ployed before q'H. Therefore in accusative plural we have 3^^<ir: ; instrumental 
^imr OTfrr 'Sec. 

This irregular participle is not limited to the upasarga ^ ; we find 
such irregular forms with other upasargns and without them also; thus tCftrif^R, 
jnd ffirfr'T as well. 

By the anuvritti of the word ^r read in this aphorism, we have srf &c. 
the alternative. As in Aorist ^qrirs , Imperfect 5^3, Perfect jq^rra I 

The word a^^ryrH is thus formed : — To the verb M3T 'to enjoy' we add 
the negative particle sr^ ; apply the affix g;g and donot insert the augment %7^; 
so, we have 3T^-h5TST-l-^fg = 3T'm3^, ist. sing. HTfrnsi. In the alternative we 
have Aorist Trsffl?!., Imperfect ^rrwrn and Perfect ntji. 

The word ST'T^rqr: is thus derived : — The affix eUrT^ is added in exjjrcs- 
Mig the agent to the verb q^ preceded by 8T^. In the alternative we have 
Aorist sqf|-^^fli^_ Imperfect sr^^aflH^, Perfect »T%^r'T. 

5^^ II ^^9 II tr^xf^ II 5^^, (m^) II 

110. Tlie affix sr comes after a verb in the 
sense of past time. 

The ^^ forms what is known as aorist. It is in fact the n ame of the 
*onst, as the whole of this affix is replaced by other personal terminations. 
■^^c III. I. 43 and subsequent siitras. 

'The aorist has reference to a past time indefinitely or generally, with- 
reference to any particular time. An action done before today is express- 
by the perfect or imperfect ; whatever remains for the aorist is, therefore, to 
press a past action, done very recently, say, in the course of the cuirent day 
*ving reference to a present act. Aorist, therefore, merely implies the 
P «tion of an action at a past time generally, and also an action done at a 


The affix lun. [Bk. hi. ch. n. 5 , 

very recent time, as during the course of this day. The imperfect and perf 
are used in narrating events of past occurrence, generally in remote past tim 
the aorist is used in dialogues and conversations which refer to recent pa 
actions, but it is not used to denote past specified time or to narrate events' 
Apte's Composition. As ST?iff«r??!: 'he did' ; sr^pffs 'he took'. 

Vart.— The affix gi; comes after the verb ^ir^'to dwell', when 'er 
of the present night' is indicated. Supposing a person^ising from his bed : 
the proper time of rising (not in the middle of the night, but in the early tnori 
ing) and finding another near him were to ask that one, 'where did you dwe 
i. e. pass the night' ? That person so asked should answer in the stgr and nc 
in 51^. As sTmnifrWT 'I dwelt there'; and not sr^Tr^^l^. 

Vart.~-Th.s. above rule applies only in connection with waking afte 
regular sleep. He who has not slept the whole night, but only for half an hou 
or so, should reply 8T5«rrT^H. 

ifri: II M^?iTpn«m% >ffff if ^WTT'Tr^rarsBjsiPsr'St h^ 11 
^rfff^ II <rd^ ^ 5Tt^f^trr^ Jwr^r^^^fTft^ srai^ T^frr^^r: 11 

111. The affix mw^ comes after a verbal root 

employed in the seuse of past before the commencement 

of the current day. 

The word sRsmT is a Bahuvrihi compound, meaning that which has 
not occurred during the course of the current day {adyatana). The whole ol 
this affix is replaced by conjugational terminations, and the affix stsr by itself 
denotes the Imperfect tense. As sr^lfttw 'ho did'; »t?t^ 'he took'. 

Why have we explained anadyatana as a Bahuvrihi compound ? Be- 
cause when there is a doubt as to the time, whether it was to-day or yester- 
day, there the Imperfect should not be used. As Htj ^ ^ •Tw^.^f ff 'we ate 
to-day or yesterday". In such a case the affix is 5315,. 

Vart :— The affix 5T3^ is also employed in signifying what is not wit- 
nessed by the narrator, when it relates to a well-known public event which can 
form the object of perception by the narrator. Thus in speaking of a recent 
public occurrence we may say:— »W!j^ t(^: ^RJrt'l.'t'^* Yavanas have besieged 
Saketa'; sremv «r^: im^rf^sKTW 'the Yavanas have besieged Midhyamika". 

Why d9 we say 'not witnessed by the speaker'? Observe s^im^wf^'^' 
'the sun arose'. Why do we say 'a popular public event' ? Observe "qsKfT *^. 
}»^r: 'Devadatta has made the mat". Why do we say 'which is the object of 
perception by the speaker' ? Observe f^fPT ^^ Rsgr «n^T: 'Vdsudeva killed 

K III. Ch. II. § 112, 114] The affix lrit. 455 

^: II MPwrr ?f fn????:'^^ 77T? wjrwh^ ^?^ stw^ vj^m n ■ 

112. When a word implying 'recollection' is in 
-ounection with it, n verb takes the affix ^i (2nd future) 
111 the sense of tlic past before the commencement of the 
present day. 

Th^ word MRrirr means 'recolleetion'. Thi« rule sets aside the affix ' 
j(?. As 3Tf>liTrTff% 5^tI ^^CJftr^ ^?«?rrT: 'remembercst thou, Devadatta, we 
were dwelling (lit. we will dwell) in Kashmir', 

The word q'^T meaning 'signification' in the sutra, denotes that the 
:on5triiction is the same when the synonyms of srfHirr are used ; as wr^ 'dost 
thou remember' ; f».ar# 'dost thou know' ; ^^jra^ 'dost thou reflect'; and the like. 

^ Trf^ II ^^^ 11 T=r^f^ II 5T, ^% (3T?HHra^, ^) II 

^Rr: II ^'B^sf ?if?^jf»i3T^mfr 3<rT? 5j?;!Jr!!t^r t «^f% ii 

113. The affix ^, (tlie 2nd fnture) is not appli- 
ed in the sense of the past, when the ujDapada donoting 
recollection has in connectiim witli it the particle ^. 

This prohibits 53? which the verb g-H obtained from the last sutra. As 
flTH'tPrrfll t^frT ^?r cutcftr'sf ftfR 'thou remembercst Devadatta how we did 
Iwell in Kashmir'. Here the mere fact of dwelling is recollected, there being no 
other idea implied ; therefore the subsequent aphorism has no scope here. That 
aphorism has its scope, when with recollection, is added another dependent idea 
3r action, without which the sentence is not complete. 

i^HT^T ^^t% II \^\i II TT^!% II f^HT^, ^nwt'lf, (wi:, 
^^vm^) II 

114. The affix ^, is oiDtionally applied iia the 
souse of the past, wlien a word imi")lyiiig 'recollection' is 
ill connection with it, and whether snch word has the par- 
ticle «t?T^ or is employed simply; provided that the two 
^ei'bs, occurring in the same complex sentence, are so 
connected together, that eacJi is necessary to the other, 
to complete the sense of the speaker. 

The word fTRtr^Birr means the relation between the sign and the thing 
' g ined, wished for or wanted by the speaker, or in other words, when the first 
IS related to another verb used in the same sentence, as a sign is to that 
' 's indicated by the sign. As STtHSTPfrRl ?Tf?T ^'ftrr% nf^'s^i:, inr ^W* 


4s6 The affix lan. [Bk. III. Ch. li. 5 ,, 

irretTT: or ajf^nrpnRr t^f?r ?»n[»ff':r'^ T^ajni, wt €?fgr^ ft^nr, 'do you remember 
Uevadatta we went to Kashmir and there did drink Saktu'. 

This option is allowed whether the particle vf^ is or is not used. A? 

3Tr>raTTtf% t^T^ siH ^sitfrm, iPrs^w: (or n\ afnpttn^ T^arm,) «r« rPtt%^ ^mni 

(or ara ?firy?^<l5^<lf?) 'Do you recollect, Devadatta how we went to Kashmir 
and how we ate rice there'. 

In the abov >• examples, the verb 'to go' is the sign, and the 'eatinr;' or 
'drinking', in the second sentence, is the thing really signified ; the first verb is 
necessary as an introduction to the thought of the speaker which dwells more 
upon the second verb. Here the second sentence or proposition is used as com- 
pletion or complement of the first proposition. 

qxtlf f%7 II \xi II tr^fvr II trfti,%cr, (m^, ^^^^) ii 

115. The affix fsr? comes after a verb in the 
sense of the past before the commeucemeut of the cui- 
reut dny aiid uiipei'ceivecl by the iiai'rator. 

The word "rfiW 'unperceived' qualifies the words >T?r 'past' and mv^ 
'non-current day' understood in this aphorism. 

'Well, are not the senses of verbs a// unperceived, since they are mere 
words, and words cannot be perceived? Exactly so; but in popular phraseology, 
the perception is imagined to attach to the agent with regard to certain verbs, 
this rule relates to cases where such perception does not take place. As, 
"sr^rrr 'he did' ; smrr 'he took'. 

'It IS evident that the ftf?^ (perfect) should not be used in the first per- 
.son, /. e. when the agent of the action is the speaker or writer himself ; for it i' 
impossible that the action should not have been witnessed by him. But if by 
rea.son of some distracted, unconscious or absent state of mind, it is possibk 
for the agent to speak of the action as one, of which he was not a conscioU' 
witness, the perfect may be used even in the first person. As ^(fti? f^si ftstSfni 
'indeed I prated while asleep'. 

Vart :— The perfect should be employed (in denoting past time simply 
whether of the current day or otherwise,- and whether the action has been wit 
nessed personally or not) if the sense is total denial of the action. As ^W^'? 
ft«Wtff^ f 11? 5jrf5i^ii^ TTfl 'did you live in the Kalinga country ? I did nol 
even go to the Kalinga country'; ^Rrojmr sjRr^.f% i" ^ ^»VSrpi «jW3T- 

fllWlf^^^^ll \\% II V[^fn II f-T!IWt:, ^» % ("^ 

BK. in. Ch II. § 116.118.] The affix lat. 45; 

116. And the affix sis; comes alter a verb when 
the particles ? and ST'^i, are in connection with it, and 
when the verb denotes past action uiiperceived by the 
siieaker, and before the coinmencement oi the cnrrent day. 

The force of ■g 'and' is that the affix fep^Cpcrfect) may also be employ- 
ed in similar construction. As ;f?t ?r^>tr??. (imperfect), or ff% ? '^^{k: (perfect) 
'Alas ! he did if. srr>g?5»ftK or ^M^=q^»: 'again and again he did it'. 

117. The affixes srs^ (imperfect) and Tm^^ (perfect) 
come after a verb (in ex])n!ssing a past time not belong- 
ing to the current day and unperceivcdby tlio speaker) 
wJien the past time referred to is recent, and the sentence 
is interrogative. 

This sutra also qualifies the words ^^, ^!f^r{^ and T^flfw understood in 
his sutra The word sui means 'what should be asked'; and arraTraRTST 'time 
loii^ at hand' ; As, some one may ask another, 9TT'=3[f^ t^^i: or ir*TrT t7f»r: 
lid Dcvadatta go or has Devadatta gone (just now)'? sTOtT?; I^^rf: or %nm 
^^tF: 'Did Uevadatta sacrifice or has Devadatta sacrificed'? 

Why do we say 'in asking question'? Otherwise there would be Per- 
•ct tense only. As, spiri t«r^: 'Devadatta has gone'. 

Why do we say 'when the past time referred to is imminently recent'? 
bserve )rT??>' "i^ilif, ^^Pf ^^ RffSl ^r^f^r: 'I a.k you, did Krishna indeed kill 
-ansa in days of yore'. 

^T ^^ H \\Z II tl^f^ II ^?, ^^, (^, ^H^^% ^^%)H 

118. The affix ^\ (present) comes after a verb, 
dicn the pn-rticle ^-1 is in connection with it, (and de- 
otcs a past time not belonging to the current day and 
upereeived by tlae speaker). 

All the words within brackets are understood in this aphorism This 
bars %j^ or the perfect tense. Thus ^fn^n ?"? ^f^^: 'Yudhishfhira sacrificed'; 
also ;t#t ^^ Ttrvrltia' 1 ^m^t m qrr*fl^^ 11 

K ^)ii 

458 The affix lat. [Bk. III. Ch. II. § hq.,,, 

jRr: II *pi^ ■'t >ffm€in^si( ^T? tjr^rg-nfr: «H^q^ sr^ Rrarat H^Rt ii 

119. The afBx st?^ (present) comes after a verl 
when the particle ?»r is in connection with it, and denotef 
a past action not belonging to the cxirreut day, and whei 
tlie action is perceived by the agent. 

As 5^ 5JT fror 5T«ftf% 'thus said the father' ; ffn ?ifrqTi,?ir!T: ^fsniRj 'thu; 
said the preceptor'. 

^ iHsrfcnr^ II \^o 11 trgprf^ ii h^t, ire-irf?r^^ 
i^, ^} <• 

120. The affix sr? is employed after a vorb in 
denoting past action^ when the word t^ is in connection 
with it, and an answer is given to a question. 

The anuvritti of the words ^anadyatana' and 'parohsha' docs not ex 
tend to this sutra. This declares a rule with regard to past time in general 
This debars ^^(the Aorist tense). As h^rt: ^i |f^ ? — ;t^ gRrtPr 4t: 'Deva 
datta, did you make the mat ? O, yes, I did make it'. M#^?tnr Rff^ t^Tri,-^ 
fIffffT >fr: 'Devadatta, did you speak there anything i' O, yes, I did speak'. 

Why do we say 'in reply to an interrogation' ? Observe Tf^^W' 
frcj^sK: 'certainly, MAnavaka did it'. 

^Ts^f^^TTiT II '^\ II ^T^ri^ II T-f^>:, firMm, (m^, 're- 

JTf%-^^%, WZ) II 

nJ'Tt: II T?T«$ 5?r^ ■€r'm 5?»f?rw=^ fipiRr 5(?!ir«r^ i^fir w,^ ii 

121. The affix ^\ comes optionally after 
verb, in denoting past time, in reply to an interrogation, 
when the words t 'not' and 5 'what of that' are in connec- 
tion with it. 

As, sTcuritf: 5?=* tiTT^r— T ^Pf Ht: or ^raCT>*«,;— 9T? 5 ^fflft or st? ?^^nTi 
'Devadatta, did you make the mat ?— No I did not ;— what of that, I did'. 

m?i^. f^r^^) 11 

122. Optionally the affixes ssj and ^^ come 
after a verb, in denoting past time not belonging to the 
current day, when the word ^n is used iu the sentetice, 
provided that the word ?t is not used, 


ij5K. III. Ch. II- § 123, 124] The AFFIX SANACH. 459 

The anuvrittJ of the word anadyatana which had come to a stop with 
III. 2. 120 manifests itself again in this s^tra by a process of jumping over the 
two intermediate aphorisms. This sort of anuvritti is technically called man- 
duka-pluit 'the leap of a frog' i: e. skipping of several sfttras and supplying 
a word from a previous sCitra. 

This is an optional rule, so that when lat and lun are not used, the 
proper tenses, as the case may be, must be employed. As 5ws?ft^ ^rt W^' 
'the pupils lived here formerly'. So also, Aorist, «^r^: qn S[lVr: ; ImpoTect, 
«^%? in sftTr: ; Perfect, i^^Rrf qrr sr»rr: t 

Why do wc say 'when the word w is not used' ? Observe qsrfn ^^ irrr 
^Rrffft: 'Yudhishthira did perform a sacrifice formerly'. Here rule 1 18 ante 
exerts its influence. *~»w,, 

■s(k^ ^11 ^^^ II TT^fsr >i ^^, wj II 

123. The affix sre, comes after a verb wlieu de- 
noting a present action. 

The word i^m^ means that which is begun and which has not yet 
come to an end. The action denoted by a verb in the present tense is yet con- 
tinuing and has not stopped. As t^ *he is cooking'; <T?f?r 'he is reading'. 
So also whatever is constant, regular, uniform, is represented by the Present In- 
ilcfinite. As f^sffft qtrtr: 'the mountains stand'; HfffJj T^f: 'the rivers flow'. 

^rf^^jj II iir^^sKtjt II 

124. The aiflxos ?w and ^rrsr^ are substitutes 
of WT. when agreeiiag with what does not end with -the 
first case-affix. 

As T^^R t^^ mijn 'behold Devadatta who is cooking'; <i'%^ ^ji 'or 
'^tPTt ^n 'done by one who is cooking'. <T"5r-|-?jR-^^= <i'?-)-^-f^j!T^ (III. 4. 
"3, III. r. 68) = <T5!^+sT-f5^4-»Tr7(VII. 2. 82>=<T=5^nT 1 So dso «i=5+m+!ira-= 

• Why do we say 'when agreeing with what does not end with the first 
«se-affix ? Observe i^^: <i-qf|| 'Devadatta cooks* . 

it H ^'""^^ ^^^ ^^^^ *^'' '"'S'^^ '^^^^ '^^^" supplied from the last aphorism, 
ouble citation is for the sake of larger application of this rule ; that is to 
, """'s applies sometimes even when the word is in concord with a 

nominative case. As trsr^ nrwoj: 'who is a Brahraana' ~ srf??! vm^; ; so also 


46o Satri and sanach. [Bk. III. Ch. II. § 125^ ,j( 

firwt JTWOj: and r^wrr^ moor: ; wpr and ^?tfit ; and «vf|ttH: and srtfr^i 

Vart. — These affixes are employed after a verb, when the particl 
ijrs; is in composition, and censure or curse is implied. As kt t^ and m t^htr 
'may he not cook' ; iir sff^r^ n: <Trrf?rr|:?rff >ftjf^ sftff^ 'cursed be he (lit. mai 
he not live) who though smitten by the pain of the contempt of others, stil 
lives'. Some commentators read the anuvritti of the word 'option' from sfitn 
121 into this. That option, however, is a limited option {vyavasthita-vibhA 
slid) and not of universal application. Whenever a particular form is found 
as differing from the general form, there it should be understood that the 
option has been allowed, and not everywhere. 

f^) It 

125. The affixes 3t^ and 5rr^^^ arc the substitutes 
of 5TJevcu wliou agreeing with what ends with a first 
case-affix, iDrovided tliat it is in the vocative case. 

This aphorism declares when tliese participles may be employed even 
in the first case ; as f T^^^or ? t=^itr 'O thou who art cooking". 

(^T?:, TUg-^CfT^tx) II 

»rf^; n a^d f <?y "^ ^p'rHiTHsrat: tr«i st?: tra7JtT^^^tJJ^ >n3: u 

120. Tlie affixes ?jar and scriT-^ are the substi- 
tutes of 5TT and come after a verb, in expresshigauat- 
tendent circumstance or characteristic, and the cause 
of an action. 

The word 5(WCr means that by which a thing is recognised or knoivn 
i. e. an attribute ; gH means producer or cause Both these words are attributes 
of the word Vim- Of lakshana:-A.%, lO^Tf: ^^^ 'I'TTf: 'the Yavanas take theit 
meals lying down', faff^ftj^^jwrri nCT-^rr: I Of hetu :— as ?fT "TTT'l 5"^ 'J 
(reason of) seeing Hari, he gets absolution' ; »i>fHfnfr ?wfif 'fo>" *c sake o 
study he dwells here'. 

Why do we say 'when denoting a characteristic or a cause' ? Obsen 
<mr?T 'he cooks' ;<T3f?i 'he reads'. . . 

Why do we say 'of the action' ? Not so when the participle is t ^ 
characteristic or cause of a substance or a quality. As a: ^K*^ ^•f'^^'f- j 
which is shaking is the Aswattha' ; it^igT* flW^ 'whatever floats is I'g ^ 
^fvT'f;^ ^^^% 'thatrfirhich sinks down is heavy'. 

BK. lU- CH. II. § 127, 128.] The affix sanan. 461 

Yart. — This participle afeo defines the agent of an action as, iftjvft^FT 
Mrtft fr J'TJ^r: 'he is Devadatta who sits studying'. 

Vart. — This participle is also used to state a general truth : as ^niTTf 
^a Jiff 'the Dilrv4 grass grows in a recumbent position' ; srr^tft^ sfvf^ f%?r 
'a lotus stalk grows in an upright position'. The compound 5Wnj??fT: of the 
sQtra contradicts the rule by which a word of fewer syllables stands first 
(11, 2, 14). This shows that the rule II, 2. 14. is not universal. 

?(^ ^H ^^3 II tn^rf^ II ^, ^, (w^-^r^t)h 

127. Those two -m and wt^ are called ?i?t. 
These participial affixes get collectively this name ; and as such they 
are not limited by the conditions enumerated above ; so that they replace not 
■only the affixes of the Present tense but sometimes of Future also (III, 3, 14.), 
ds well as other tenses. Thus erfgiCTe^ ^1=^, ^fr'n^, 'Kffoj:, ^Rrs^ircj: I 
The word ^?i_ occurs in sutra II. 2, 11. &c, 

ti^T^itT: SOTRT II 9^c II tf^if^ || tjir-ifl^:, ^JTT^ II 

qpfr: II ^f\ jj^v vn^: sjH'T sr?^^ H^Rr n 

^rf^sfr«I, n Tct: s^rj^! ^^t"^ 11 

1-28. The affix ?jrT'T comes after the verbs \ 'to 
purify' and ^'to sacriiice'. 

As TT>nT: 'purifier (fire or air)' ; syimm 'sacrificer. 

It might be asked 'is the ifiT'T'r with others that follow, an afl!ix suo 
■«K«w, or is it merely a substitute of 5T, as jjfyand Hlpr^? Why we ask this 
uestion is this. If they are affixes and not substitutes of 5T, then they should 
;ovcrn genitive case by rule II. 3. 65. instead of nominativ(^ or the accusative. 
'. on the other hand, they are substitutes of st, then by rule II. 3. 69. they 
hould not govern the genitive case. But evidently they are not the substitutes 
''S, as they are not so taught, Ilowisitthen that we have such forms as 
M I'TTR: 'drinking Soma' ; and TSTl'^fT: i" These forms can be explained on 
ithcr grounds than supposing that ^JPT^ &c. must be the substitutes of 5t. The 
«m 5T in satra II 3, 69. is not the affix %\ taught in this Chapter sfltra 
35 ; but it is a pratyAliAni including several affixes. It is a pratydMni formed 
'y taking the it of ^jg; in satra 124; and s^ of ^\ in 135 ; and thus it means 
the affixes from w^ in 1 34 down to c^^ in 135. Thus though ^JIT^^, •^ttit &c. 
f«notsubstitutcsof5T, still the rule II. 3.69. applies to them, as they are^n- 
='"ded in the term ^. 

Vart. — The rule II. 3. 69. applies only optionally when the verb ^Vi, 
akes the affix ^tif. As -Sr^?^ or ^ f«<pr, 'hating the thief. 

462 The affix satri. [Bk. III. Ch. II. § rjg.,. 

ff<T.- II «r«afrpnrf?^ vn^vpnriR«ralr >wl% ii 

129. The affix ^pto comes after a verb in ej 
pressing 'liabit', 'standard of age' and 'ability'. 

The word w^tF^r means 'habit' or 'disposition'; T^r: means the co 
dition of body such as 'infancy', 'youth' &c; jj% means 'capacity to do a thinf 
As ^ fSW: 'habituated to enjoy'; ^f^ frarcr. 'wearing an armour (of tli 
age at which armour may be worn)' ; ^i^ Ftsipt: 'able to destroy his fof 
So also, ^t?5"^ninTr:, *(jiJiiPrr:, ^f=^ "T^^tiRT;, Rremr ^unrr: and 'j^mnr.i 

f^;«n^: 7r-si*r«*f^ ii ^^« ii ^r^rf^ ii f^^-vrr^:, ng 

«T*%f^ II 

130. The affix ^f? comes after the verbs K't( 
go' and ^nfr 'to hold' in denoting that the agent does th( 
action without trouble. 

The word HfiTE^ means that which is accomplished by the agent will 
ease and facility. As mvtWT qrrmCT'l 'the facile reading of the PurAna'; m^Tnii 
fff^f;! 'easily mastering the Upanishad'. The root >Trfi: is causative of vi anc 
means here 'to master'. 

Why do we say 'when facility is indicated'? Otherwiscqf^#^iijnjf# 'fe 
'reads with difficulty'; «^^t3 ^rmfh 'he remembers with difficulty'. 

fsftif^ II \\\ II tr^ II %:, arf^^, (wf) » 

131. The affix jm comes after the verb ft«, 
when the agent indicated means an enemy. 

The word MfJW means 'enemy'. As fisa^ 'enemy', TsH^ 'two enemies', 
fpqsn: 'enemies'. 

Why do we say 'when denoting an enemy' ? Observe tfr >?raf fr"', 

'the wife hates her husband'. 

5^ tm^i^ II ^^5? II ^T^ II ^st:, tni-^^, (^ra)" 

132. The affix ^ comes after the verb 9 'toi 
press ont juice' when the sense is that of association! 
Avith sacrifice. 

BK. HI- Cii. 11- § 133. 134] Tun affix satri. ' 463 

The word ^5re«ft»T is an instrumental compound, meaning association 
-,r connection (a^*T) with sacrifice. Asb+^+w<C iHI. 1-76, III.4. ii3)=0sr + 
j,3 (1. 2.4.)=?'^ (VI. 1.77), 1st. sing. «?f!i^, gssf'fl- 'the sacrificeTs' ; 
IS in 0¥ a??!^: 'all are interested in, or partake of, or share in the sacrifice'. 

The word *wtT indicates that the principal sacrificer. i. e. the ?istJTrT is 
ticant and not every person who is associated in the performance of a sacrifice 
In a subordinate capacity ; such as m^^: 'the sacrificing priests'. 

When connection with sacrifice is not meant we have ^;fr!% ^rr«^ 'he 
jistils liquor'. 

qf%: II srf^^f^: JRt^iraf ?pJJ??«nfr Hffrl II 

133. The affix v^ comes after the verb si| in 
expressing praise. 

As artf^r? H^fWR/thou art worthy of this knowledge here'; w|:5r? 
i^(Pi3inT 'thou art worthy of honor in this place'. 

Why do we say 'when meaning to praise' ? Witness s?f [% ^^itr ^''J\ 
the thief deserves death'. 

an i^f^^^TcTf^fm^T^sRTfT^ 11 ^^8 11 ^r^f^ IIW.lp':, 

134. From this sutra as far as fipr in sutra 17T 
inchisive, tlie affixes that we shall treat of, are to be un- 
derstood iuthe sense of agents having such a habit, orna- 
tm-e, or having skill in such and such action. 

The force of art in this sutra is limit inclusive, and includes \hv{^ 
also. The term ?faft5r means 'the natural inclination towards an action 
not prompted by a contemplation of its fruit or result'. The term ^^4 
means 'who enters upon an action not from habit but thinking that it is his 
duty'. The term ^rwnjairrfc means 'who does the action expressed by the verb 
>n an excellent way'. Illustrations of these will be given under the subsequent 

^^« ^^811 tj^Br II «|5T, (cI^'^-cTf'^-^Prrl'aTO^ft^) H 

^Pst: II «lvrr«>^«5'rRr7i* >Tf fa fT^tsTrf?^ ^5 11 

^f^?^»^ II afs^r^ft^ ^«i^*!j If 


«frf%'T II ft=rt??rarat»rafrc^r7vrRr arf^rs^t^sg 11 
^^\^\ i\ ifffTsr Fh^?k II 


464 The affix ishnuch. [Bk, III. Ch. II. § 135^ , 

135. The affix «^ comes after all verbs in t] 
sense of 'agents having such a habit &c'. 

Thcrofq^is indicatory, and regulates the accent (VI. i, 197). 
5^-f ij;i;=:gKjf, 1st sing. ^s^. This affix d'jnotes /ladii in the following ; as, g 
aFTTT'T 'who is accustomed to make mats. N(jt!(re:~~a.s,H<:'^r{(T: "flrfV^R^t h? 
^^«tjn^ 'the family of SrSvishtiiyana shave the heads of their widows' ; ^^, 
?^rk STTft^r >wr'?t wt f«r^ 'the Ahvarakas steal away food as soon 
Sr^ddha is accomplished' ; 5W?irr?^PSRTrn=Tr H^ffrj ^ sira 'the Taulvalayan 
become elated on the birth of a son'. SAiU : — as, sFrrf ^^ff 'skilful maker 
mats'. JiMffW'S^'J 'skilful hunter'. 

Vari : — The simple verbs, without upasargas, take the affix ^tj, wh 
the words so formed are names of sacrificial priests. As |+tf3^ = ?tij', 1st. sir 
ifrar 'the I/oi/i priest' ; so also ii^ 'the Pot/i priest'. 

Why do wc say 'when not taking the upasargas' ? Observe g^i] 
'the Udgatri priest' ; !ii%?<t 'the Pratihartri priest'. Here the affix is i| 
Though the form is the same, there is difference however in the accent ; i 
5^ places udatta accent on the first syllable (VI. i. 197), while ^c\ places it 
the last (VI. I. 163). 

Vart : — The augment ^^^ is added when ^ff takes the afBx 5\; as 
4-5r^+(f5r = %, 1st. sing. ^€T 'the Neshtri priest'. 

Vart : —When signifying diety, the verb R^'T takes <i^ ; the letter ^ 
fhe substitute for the \ of the root ; and the affi.x docs not take the inb 
mediate \\ augment; as, f^+ij'T-=?^?, 1st. sing. fg?r 'Tvashtri'. 

Vart :— The root 'rl? takes ri\, when the word to be formed means 
officer; as ^ra^'an attendant, a door-keeper'. 

Vart -.—Ivi the Ved.i, the root ?t? takes ir^, as 'tT'T. The form is t 
same as the last, but there is diifcrence of accent. 

130. TJie affix v^^ comes after the followiii 
verbs in the sense of the 'agents having such a habit &<: 
viz.— sTgif! 'to adorn', fTOfc 'to expel', ji^ 'to be born', ^ 
'to be ripe', ottci 'to fly', s^'w 'to be mad', ^, 'to shine', ^"^ 
'to be ashamed', f^ 'to be', ^, 'to grow', 'ets 'to bear' an 
"^ 'to walk'. 

BK. in- CH. n. § 137-139-] The affix ksnu. 465 

As sTSJf^BRsig: 'decorating', ^f^(t«i^: 'repudiating', Jisi^sig: 'procrea- 
tive', 3?Tf=^^: '^P^ ^^ ripen", ^fTRfsq; 'flying', ^^Rf^iij. 'mad', ^tf^^cj: 'bright', 
„^T«!I. 'bashful', ^f^sq: 'revolving', ^figsci: 'growing', «r?^; 'patient', 
^^TsOj: 'moveable". 

Vart:— The affix f«i^ debares by anticipation the affix ^ of III. 2. 
151, after the root ^vTfT, though it has the sense of decorating'. 

137. Tlic affix ?5iCT=gr iji the sense of 'the agent 
liaving siich a liabit &c', comes iu the Ohliaiidas after a 
verb t]iat ends in the causative fer. 

The Causativcs take this affix in the Vedic literature. As f«r5 ^trf'i'scj^: 
'who hold the stones' ; #f^vT: "TrrHsT'itn^: I 

2«ra II ^^c II TT^f^ II M?r:, % {w^, ws^rf^-^, 

TiW^) II 

138. Tlie allix ?«w'^ in tlie of 'the agent 
hiiviiig sncli a hahit &c', comes in the Cliluindas, after the 
verb >T 'to be' also. 

Thus Hf^^Oj: 'becoming'. 

The ynga-vibkdga or the division of this sutra from the last, with 
which it could well have been read, is for the sake of the subsequent siitras. 

The word 'also' indicates the existence of other verbs not included in 
the above two sCitras ; as, »?rftt^^ ^f?S=5??#T I 

'^f^'w^r ^^5: 11 ^^<J II tr^f^ II jwr-f^-w:, ^> ^^5:, 

(^I^^Tf^2) II 

fffi: II T5if Ttt mi fr5a^^ qTH»?iv^fm?^ ^^TV ri«aft»irff^ ^f^isiwnt ^^Tn 11 
^rf'^^'T II ?Tn[3[f?t^TO«5?irT»i 11 

139. The affix art^ comes after the Ibllowiiig 
verbs in the sense of 'the agent having snch a hahit &c.' 
Viz.— »5rr 'to be weary', Vn 'to conqner' aud ^r 'to stand', as 
fellas after H 'to be'. 

As, TqTRi^: 'languid'; fsisi^: 'victorious'; «inT: 'disposed to stand firm, 
'■^moveable' ; ,^15: 'being'. 

TV. ■ "^ anuvritti of the word Chhandasi does not extend to this sutra . 
'ndicatory letter of this affix is really »r and not sir, and therefore, there is 

466 The affix ghinun. [Bk. III. Ch. II. § 140, 

no substitution of long f for the mt of 5«ir, which would otherwise have t; 
place, had the affix been fiFfj; (VI. 4. 66). 

In the sfltra I. i. 5. (5»fyf« ^) the letter it is also included ; for ir c 
ing before ^, is changed by the rules of sandhi into s(v and is not there 
visible. This affix therefore does not cause guna. 

So also in sfltra VII. 2. 11 (mw«k: %fit), the augment j? does not c 
ifter the verb 15, or a monosyllabic verb ending in the pratyfthara 35?, \\, 
an affix having an indicatory sjr follows. Here also cu includes tt ; and tli 
Fore in v^tg we have no intermediate augment ff . 

Vart. — In the Chhandas this affix comes after the verb 337 ' to b 
as i^SS^: <T^^: 'the beasts that bite'. 

140. The affix :r comes alter the verbs is 
tremble', *rvj 'to be greedy', ^«r 'to be bold' and fwr 'tothix 
in the sense of 'the agent having such a habit &c'. 

As, ?r?H: 'trembling'; n*T^: 'greedy'; w«g: 'bold' ; and fwff: 'throw 

^5^^ (^^^rri^^) II 

^f%: II jjHrf?^^ vTrrt»?fl'-rs'^'re?i^wrft^ fq^trrji??i^ >i^Ri 11 

141. The affix f^^ur comes ai'ter the eight vci 
beginning with v\ 'to bo calm', in the sense of 'the age 
laving such a habit &c'. 

The word ^fir in the aphorism. indicates beginning. These eight v 
legin with t^ and end with »i? in the list of verbs. Of the affix Rt'JOJ the 
ffix is f^, the other letters are servile ; the ^ is for the sake of substitu 
uttural for the final palatals ; 3 is for the sake of euphony, or for the sal 
ule VI. 3. 45 ; and the letter cr causes vriddhi (VII. 2. n6): which in the cas 
oots ending in h is prohibited by the rule VII. 3. 34, the only verb tat 
riddhi being t^^ 1 

As ?jftJT rst. sing. :[r»ft 'calm'; likewise sfift 'desiring'; ?'ft 'ta"^ 
r>ft 'laborious'; ^t 'whirling', 'moving round'; jftft 'fatiguing'; wft 'forbear 
HT^ 'mad' and Srlit 'mad'. Though by rule 136, the verb ^H? takes the : 
sq-^i;, it also takes the affix f^r^C^ by the rule of stt^^WT (HI i 9